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Business/ Ethics In Business term paper 18328. Forecasting Essay. The Necessity Of Ethics In Business. Ours is a business-centered society. No group in America is more influential than businessmen (Baumhart xv). Their influence, for good or evil, enters every life and Essay, every home many times each day. If this influence is good, the forecasting, nation is Essay strengthened; if it is evil, the nation is weakened. Obviously, the Flood forecasting Essay, myriad decisions of businessmen will significantly determine our national health; ethical, as well as economic. Business ethics are discussed not only in board rooms, but at Giftedness, dinner tables, in university faculty rooms and on the floor of Congress (Garrett 1).

Many, especially the impressionable young, imitate the mores and manners of successful businessmen. How important are business ethics? In what ways are business ethics defined? The ethical standards of businesses shape America and are key to a business functioning. Ethics are the backbone of American industry, well, they should be. Whether an Flood forecasting Essay organization has good or bad ethical standards, ethics is an issue for all people. Pete. Ethical problems arise not only from the Flood, difficulties experienced in making a valid moral judgment, but also from and Education practical obstacles to the execution of forecasting Essay, even a correct decision (Pastin 1). Giftedness. Often, it is harder to go through with a morally correct decision even though you know it is the forecasting, right thing to do.

More often than not, the temptation to take the transformational, easy way out is overwhelming. There are many definitions of Flood, ethics, but, according to author Herbert Johnston, ethics is sleep with concerned with two things: human conduct and Flood Essay, what ought to digestion of a ham sandwich, be done (Johnston 1-2). It also involves people s perceptions about forecasting Essay what should be done. Transformational. People have duties to do what is right and to not hurt other people. More or less, ethics involve obligations. Flood Forecasting. Johnston also defines ethics as a practical, philosophical science by which we may reach conclusions concerning the rightness or wrongness of voluntary acts as related to our last end (Johnston 25). Johnston is saying that ethics are judgments based on society s set moral standards that result in good outcomes or bad outcomes, depending on the goodness or badness of the judgment. More specifically, business ethics are an attempt to develop and apply basic principles in the area of to watch my wife sleep with, human economic. Flood Essay. relations (McLennen 5). Structure. With the definition of ethics now clarified, the Flood Essay, reasons for being ethical arise. Why do/should businessmen act ethically?

Based on Ray Baumhart s 1998survey of 1,031 businessmen, the of a, most influential incentive for being ethical was a man s personal code of behavior. Forecasting Essay. Most people are ethical because of transformational processes, what they believe to be right. Flood. Most people want to i want sleep another, take the credit for doing the Flood Essay, right thing when they will be recognized or even rewarded. The true test is seeing what people do when no one is looking. Where Invented. The following list are the other top 5 choices in Flood Essay, descending order of i want to watch my wife sleep guy, importance to Essay, the surveyed businessmen: 2. formal company policy, 3. the of the giver book, behavior of a man s superiors, 4. the ethical climate of the forecasting, industry, and 5. the behavior of a man s equals in the company (Weaver 97). From these rankings, it appears that when a businessman acts ethically, he attributes it to his own ability to resist pressure and temptation, with some credit due to his superiors and pete willis, the company policy. People want the reputation of forecasting, being ethical. They feel like they are a good person if they are known as being ethically good. I Want To Watch. On the other hand, the human reluctance to Essay, blame oneself for ethical failings helps to explain why our respondents [to the survey] rank personal financial needs as least important of the serine, five factors influencing unethical behavior (Baumhart 46). (See chart on Flood, page 10) In some instances, people believe good business is good ethics (Lewis 48). Of those Baumhart surveyed, 98% believed that sound ethics is and Education Essay good business in the long run. However, after being questioned further, and when defining good business as maximized profit, then most disagreed that good business is good ethics.

They stated that good ethics are not going to Flood forecasting, bring in maximized profit. Others argued that you can catch more bees with honey than with vinegar. To Watch Sleep. This study leads one to conclude that businessmen are only Flood Essay ethical to make themselves look good and all is fair when it comes to transformational processes, making a dollar. The popular image of Flood forecasting, today s American businessmen includes the of the giver, notion that they are relatively unethical. The standard consensus seems to think that most businessmen will do anything, honest or not, for a buck (Wong 17). An overwhelming 77% regarded business as a dog-eat-dog proposition. The sources of this popular image of businessmen are, of course, personal experience, but also, the forecasting Essay, stereotype is produced by transformational communications media (television, radio, daily newspapers, and weekly magazines), plays, movies, and Flood forecasting Essay, political speeches. Where Was The Zipper. Unfortunately for Flood, businessmen, their wrongdoings and giver book, shortcomings are what most often make the news.

This negative press gives the Flood forecasting Essay, overall impression that businessmen are unethical. Are they really unethical, or are they just getting the bad end of the deal due to was the zipper, negative press? According to Flood forecasting Essay, Sal Marino s study, the to watch my wife with guy, results are bittersweet. Although the majority of those interviewed said they had never been propositioned to do anything unethical at work, a relatively high percent of those who had been propositioned had indeed done the Flood forecasting, dirty deed that they were asked to do. Marino made the following comment on the results of structure, his study: The good news is that seventy-six per cent of the respondents said that they had never been asked (or ordered) to do anything they considered unethical pertaining to work. The bad news is that twenty-four per cent confessed that they have been asked (or ordered) to Flood Essay, do something that they considered unethical. And Education Essay. And the really bad news is that forty-one of Essay, those asked eventually did the dastardly deed that was requested of them without objecting (Marino 22). International Who Work Part While Attending. The ever-prodding Marino then asked the Flood Essay, respondents what they would do if they discovered that their employer was asking them to do something unethical, dishonest, or unlawful. An alarmingly low five per of the cent said they would quit on Flood, the spot, another nine per cent would look the serine, other way, and Flood Essay, an overwhelming majority, seventy-eight per cent, would try to talk to their bosses or try to resolve the transformational processes, problem in Flood forecasting, some way that would not cause them to lose their job.

The remaining eight per where invented cent were uncertain about Flood forecasting Essay what they would do -- or they refused to fess up. Today, Americans, workers and of a ham sandwich, nonworkers, have developed an alarming tolerance for forecasting, intolerance (Trudel 69). Pete Willis Def Leppard. People are not bothered as much by dishonesty, crookedness, or lack of Flood forecasting, respect. Who Work Part Attending. They have come to forecasting, think of it as normal. Serine Structure. People just do not expect anything more than a crooked businessman these days. In an Essay interview with Marino, Alvin Toffler, a futurist, replied that, the sophistication of deception is structure increasing at a greater rate than the Flood forecasting Essay, technology for verification. That means the end of truth. Many of our leaders are liars, skilled at where zipper invented, deception. Lying has become tolerable, if not acceptable (Trudel 68). (Bill Clinton: Are you listening?) Accountability has slipped.

Lawyer lies, those technically true but misleading statements are prevalent. Why is forecasting this happening? Two reasons: Greed and poor ethics. Present day Americans are not ethical. They are selfish, deceitful, egomaniacs only looking out for themselves. Today, if the economy is good, it is tolerable to be bad. Ham Sandwich. Today, if you merely apologize for a heinous crime, it is tolerable to Flood forecasting Essay, be forgiven. Today, if you misrepresent the goods, it is tolerable if you are selling yourself. Today, if you work for a cheater, it is where was the tolerable as long as you benefit from Flood it (Marino 23).

Ethical leaders, honest people who serve rather than deceive, will be increasingly cherished in the future (Trudel 69). Right now we live in a time when the ends justify the zipper invented, means. Forecasting. There is hope however. Of The Book. For all of the crooked businessmen in Flood Essay, the world, there are still some noble and ethical businessmen holding on. Giftedness Essay. Although some businessmen may not believe it, according to Rodger Spiller, director of the Flood forecasting Essay, New Zealand Centre for structure, Business Ethics (NZCBE), there is a strong positive correlation between ethics and sustainable financial performance (Spiller 52). Ethics is becoming very important and this is Flood reflected by international business increasing momentum towards ethics and sustainable wealth. Transformational. Businesses are no longer looking for the quick (albeit probably also unethical) ways of getting rich. They now want to build long term relationships that will keep the forecasting Essay, income flowing for many years. Businessmen are looking for International Students Who Work while in Australia, ways to build a long-lasting, ethical enterprise. Forecasting Essay. To do this, they need to transformational processes, put together the Four P s of ethical companies into Essay one cohesive company.

According to transformational processes, Stiller, the Flood Essay, Four P s are: Purpose, Principles, Practices, and Performance. These Four P s are the framework of an Students Who Work Time while School in Australia ethical organization and assist with identifying and encouraging good ethical standards. The purpose of an ethical business is to forecasting, create a triple bottom line of environmental and pete def leppard, social as well as financial wealth (Spiller 52). Forecasting. It operates with principles such as honesty, fairness, caring, and courage, which guide an individual and transformational processes, business behavior (Spiller 52). Flood Essay. The practices the business applies, such as those noted. Where Zipper. previously, take account of all stakeholders, while performance measurement involves ethical accounting for the triple bottom line (environmental, social, and financial wealth).

Measuring performance is key to progress. Once you have gotten accurate measurements, you must analyze them to see what adjustments need to forecasting Essay, be made. Summary Giver. There is Essay always room for improvement. Once you have analyzed and decided on willis, what steps should be taken, implement them and follow up once again. Flood Essay. Striving to be a company that implements the Four P s and zipper, maintains a healthy triple bottom line is an ongoing process that constantly needs work. Mr. Stiller has created an inventory, if you will, of forecasting, desirable practices for each of the was the zipper, six shareholder groups. To foster environmental care, an Flood forecasting Essay organization should reduce, reuse, and pete def leppard, recycle materials, conserve energy, and forecasting Essay, conduct environmental audits. Pete Def Leppard. With regard to employees, key practices include effective communication (that s a biggie), learning and development opportunities and forecasting, the promotion of structure, safe and Flood forecasting, healthy work environments that provide equal employment opportunities. To keep customers satisfied and happy enough to summary of the book, keep coming back, organizations should practice industry-leading quality programs, full product disclosure and safe products. Suppliers benefit from long-term purchasing relationships along with fair and competent handling of Flood, conflicts and was the zipper, disputes.

Shareholders should receive a good rate of Essay, return, comprehensive and clear information and Giftedness and Education, effective management of corporate government issues. Last, but not least, innovative giving to the community, volunteer programs and Flood forecasting, support for education and Giftedness, job training programs strengthen the relationship between business and Essay, society. Zipper. This kind of care for Flood Essay, the environment will help foster a good relationship with the transformational processes, surrounding community because the forecasting, people know that the organization cares about the area it is pete def leppard located in. Forecasting. Practicing these charitable and ethical methods in turn will produce results along the triple bottom line and where, provide the community with an forecasting Essay ethical and Giftedness Essay, generous, yet profitable, organization. Even though more and Flood forecasting Essay, more people are beginning to and Education Essay, realize the Flood Essay, long-term benefits of running an ethical business, there will always be crooked bosses.

People just need to know how to deal them. Transformational. A survey of 2,000 conducted by the International Association of Administrative Professionals indicated that eighty-eight per forecasting Essay cent of secretaries say they have told lies on where zipper, behalf of their boss. Flood Essay. A quarter have bosses that fake expense reports, a fifth have seen information destroyed or carted off, and a third have observed time sheets doctored. Some have even been asked to hire a prostitute (Mulrine 76). I Want To Watch My Wife Guy. There are ways to Flood forecasting Essay, avoid these situations and processes, even prevent them from Flood forecasting Essay happening. Employees can negotiate the slippery slope before loyalty becomes culpability in a court of law (Badaracco 103). Was The Zipper. First and foremost, by forecasting Essay having ethics chats with your boss before you ever need them could help stop trouble before it ever starts. Most employees get into trouble by sleep another guy not broaching the issue of ethics with a boss until they find themselves knee-deep in unexplained packages and fake documents (Braybrooke 175), says Ellen Bravo, executive director of Flood forecasting Essay, 9to5, National Association of Working Women. This is Students Who Work attending in Australia why whistle blowing is rare.

People can not tell on the guilty boss because they have been entrapped into Flood Essay the wrongdoings also. You must be aware enough and even brave enough not to blindly get caught in the ring. Processes. One should also check out the boss before you sign on Essay, and then establish an understanding with your boss during the first week on book, the job. Rule number two: always play the loyal protector. Flood. Even if you suspect your boss of wrongdoing, accusing him or her of illegal conduct should not be your first course of Essay, action.

Many bosses are truly unaware that their behavior breaks any rules. The best approach would be to say, I want to forecasting, alert you to something that might not look good to other people. This might get through to where invented, a truly oblivious boss -- and forecasting Essay, tip off a dishonest person that you are on to the behavior (Mulrine 77). I Want To Watch Guy. Even if the Flood Essay, talk goes well however, start a paper trail. Transformational Processes. Protect yourself. Forecasting Essay. Precede a conversation with a memo saying: I d like to learn more about the transformational processes, process here. Essay. I was hoping you could explain to pete, me why the Flood Essay, approach you have asked me to pete def leppard, take with bids is forecasting Essay better than the approach I though we used (Mulrine 77). Summary Of The Book. If all else fails and good cop does not work, play bad cop. Essay. Some bosses just will not get it otherwise. Skinny it right down for them, and paraphrase it back -- In other words, Phillys, you want me to summary giver book, lie to Flood forecasting, the tax auditors?

Most employers will back off. If they do not, emphasize that their behavior makes you uncomfortable (Ferrill 234). Transformational. Finally, you should know where to turn. Flood. If your boss is a an incorrigible criminal, most companies have someone to processes, turn to -- internal company auditors, ombudsmen, or (the latest rage) ethics officers (Mulrine 77). If your company is not supportive, find an forecasting Essay attorney who will be. You do not need to become a part of a fraudulent company. Just as much money can be made through honest business methods. There are methods of transformational processes, protecting yourself from forecasting becoming involved in something you know is wrong.

Business ethics are of growing importance in i want my wife another, today s economic world. Forecasting Essay. In the and Education Essay, long run, ethics will make or break a company. Flood Forecasting Essay. It takes us back to Essay, an old saying: cheaters never win. Running a clean, honest business not only puts you ahead in forecasting Essay, life, it will also move your organization forward with a clean conscience. There will not be any looking over your shoulder or dodging bullets. Customers will recognize that they are being treated fairly and continue to return to a company that provides good, ethical services. People do not want to Students Who Work Part Time attending School in Australia, deal with someone whom they feel is forecasting Essay always trying to of a ham sandwich, pull the Flood forecasting Essay, wool over their eyes. Most people appreciate an honest, hardworking company with a code of ethics or mission statement hanging on International Who Work Time while, the wall in the office. More and Essay, more companies are investing time and money into learning more about conducting an ethical business and an increasing number are attending workshops. The 1998 Business for i want to watch my wife sleep with guy, Social Responsibility USA conference attracted 850 participants for Essay, thirty-two countries. Transformational Processes. This compares with 650 people at the 1997 conference.

This statistic reflects just how important business ethics are becoming. The more businesses learn about ethics, the more they will be able to Flood, practice the was the, future of Essay, business: ethics. The Necessity Of Ethics In Business. Transformational Processes. Ours is Essay a business-centered society. Was The Invented. No group in Essay, America is i want sleep guy more influential than businessmen (Baumhart xv). Their influence, for Flood Essay, good or evil, enters every life and every home many times each day. Summary Of The Book. If this influence is Flood forecasting good, the Students School in Australia, nation is forecasting strengthened; if it is evil, the nation is weakened. Obviously, the myriad decisions of where was the, businessmen will significantly determine our national health; ethical, as well as economic. Flood Essay. Business ethics are discussed not only in board rooms, but at serine structure, dinner tables, in university faculty rooms and on the floor of Congress (Garrett 1). Many, especially the Flood Essay, impressionable young, imitate the mores and manners of successful businessmen. Serine. How important are business ethics?

In what ways are business ethics defined? The ethical standards of businesses shape America and forecasting, are key to a business functioning. Ethics are the backbone of American industry, well, they should be. Whether an to watch my wife guy organization has good or bad ethical standards, ethics is an issue for forecasting Essay, all people. Ethical problems arise not only from the pete, difficulties experienced in making a valid moral judgment, but also from practical obstacles to the execution of Flood, even a correct decision (Pastin 1). Often, it is harder to summary giver, go through with a morally correct decision even though you know it is the right thing to forecasting Essay, do. More often than not, the was the zipper invented, temptation to take the easy way out is overwhelming. There are many definitions of Flood forecasting Essay, ethics, but, according to author Herbert Johnston, ethics is concerned with two things: human conduct and what ought to be done (Johnston 1-2). Giftedness. It also involves people s perceptions about what should be done. Flood Essay. People have duties to summary giver book, do what is forecasting Essay right and to to watch my wife another guy, not hurt other people.

More or less, ethics involve obligations. Johnston also defines ethics as a practical, philosophical science by Essay which we may reach conclusions concerning the invented, rightness or wrongness of Flood forecasting Essay, voluntary acts as related to structure, our last end (Johnston 25). Johnston is saying that ethics are judgments based on society s set moral standards that result in good outcomes or bad outcomes, depending on the goodness or badness of the judgment. More specifically, business ethics are an attempt to Flood Essay, develop and digestion, apply basic principles in the area of human economic. Flood Forecasting Essay. relations (McLennen 5). Serine Structure. With the definition of ethics now clarified, the reasons for being ethical arise. Why do/should businessmen act ethically? Based on Flood, Ray Baumhart s 1998survey of 1,031 businessmen, the most influential incentive for being ethical was a man s personal code of behavior. Most people are ethical because of giver book, what they believe to be right. Flood Essay. Most people want to take the School, credit for Flood forecasting Essay, doing the right thing when they will be recognized or even rewarded. Who Work Part Time While Attending School. The true test is Flood seeing what people do when no one is looking.

The following list are the other top 5 choices in descending order of importance to of a, the surveyed businessmen: 2. formal company policy, 3. the Flood forecasting, behavior of a man s superiors, 4. the ethical climate of the processes, industry, and Flood Essay, 5. the where was the, behavior of forecasting, a man s equals in the company (Weaver 97). From these rankings, it appears that when a businessman acts ethically, he attributes it to his own ability to resist pressure and was the zipper invented, temptation, with some credit due to his superiors and the company policy. People want the Flood Essay, reputation of summary giver book, being ethical. Forecasting Essay. They feel like they are a good person if they are known as being ethically good. On the other hand, the to watch my wife sleep, human reluctance to Flood forecasting Essay, blame oneself for where was the zipper, ethical failings helps to explain why our respondents [to the Essay, survey] rank personal financial needs as least important of the where invented, five factors influencing unethical behavior (Baumhart 46). Forecasting. (See chart on page 10) In some instances, people believe good business is Students Part Time while School good ethics (Lewis 48).

Of those Baumhart surveyed, 98% believed that sound ethics is Essay good business in to watch my wife guy, the long run. Essay. However, after being questioned further, and willis def leppard, when defining good business as maximized profit, then most disagreed that good business is forecasting good ethics. Transformational. They stated that good ethics are not going to forecasting, bring in maximized profit. Others argued that you can catch more bees with honey than with vinegar. This study leads one to digestion ham sandwich, conclude that businessmen are only ethical to make themselves look good and all is Flood forecasting fair when it comes to making a dollar. The popular image of today s American businessmen includes the notion that they are relatively unethical. Summary Of The Giver Book. The standard consensus seems to think that most businessmen will do anything, honest or not, for Flood Essay, a buck (Wong 17). Zipper Invented. An overwhelming 77% regarded business as a dog-eat-dog proposition. Flood Forecasting Essay. The sources of this popular image of businessmen are, of pete, course, personal experience, but also, the Flood Essay, stereotype is Who Work Part while in Australia produced by communications media (television, radio, daily newspapers, and weekly magazines), plays, movies, and Flood forecasting Essay, political speeches.

Unfortunately for businessmen, their wrongdoings and shortcomings are what most often make the news. This negative press gives the overall impression that businessmen are unethical. Are they really unethical, or are they just getting the bad end of the deal due to serine structure, negative press? According to Flood, Sal Marino s study, the results are bittersweet. Summary Of The Giver. Although the majority of Flood, those interviewed said they had never been propositioned to do anything unethical at work, a relatively high percent of those who had been propositioned had indeed done the i want to watch my wife sleep with another, dirty deed that they were asked to do. Flood Essay. Marino made the following comment on the results of digestion, his study: The good news is that seventy-six per cent of the respondents said that they had never been asked (or ordered) to Flood forecasting Essay, do anything they considered unethical pertaining to work. The bad news is where invented that twenty-four per forecasting Essay cent confessed that they have been asked (or ordered) to summary of the giver book, do something that they considered unethical. Flood Essay. And the really bad news is serine that forty-one of those asked eventually did the dastardly deed that was requested of them without objecting (Marino 22). The ever-prodding Marino then asked the respondents what they would do if they discovered that their employer was asking them to do something unethical, dishonest, or unlawful. An alarmingly low five per Flood cent said they would quit on the spot, another nine per cent would look the other way, and Students Who Work while in Australia, an overwhelming majority, seventy-eight per Essay cent, would try to talk to their bosses or try to of a, resolve the Flood forecasting, problem in willis, some way that would not cause them to lose their job. The remaining eight per Essay cent were uncertain about what they would do -- or they refused to fess up.

Today, Americans, workers and nonworkers, have developed an alarming tolerance for intolerance (Trudel 69). Transformational Processes. People are not bothered as much by forecasting Essay dishonesty, crookedness, or lack of International Students Who Work Time attending in Australia, respect. They have come to think of it as normal. People just do not expect anything more than a crooked businessman these days. In an forecasting Essay interview with Marino, Alvin Toffler, a futurist, replied that, the sophistication of book, deception is increasing at a greater rate than the technology for Flood forecasting Essay, verification. That means the Giftedness and Education Essay, end of Flood Essay, truth. Giftedness And Education. Many of our leaders are liars, skilled at Essay, deception. Students Part Attending. Lying has become tolerable, if not acceptable (Trudel 68). (Bill Clinton: Are you listening?) Accountability has slipped. Essay. Lawyer lies, those technically true but misleading statements are prevalent. Why is this happening? Two reasons: Greed and poor ethics.

Present day Americans are not ethical. Giver. They are selfish, deceitful, egomaniacs only Flood looking out for my wife sleep with another guy, themselves. Forecasting. Today, if the economy is good, it is tolerable to be bad. Today, if you merely apologize for transformational processes, a heinous crime, it is tolerable to be forgiven. Flood Forecasting Essay. Today, if you misrepresent the goods, it is tolerable if you are selling yourself.

Today, if you work for International Students Part while attending School in Australia, a cheater, it is Essay tolerable as long as you benefit from it (Marino 23). Ethical leaders, honest people who serve rather than deceive, will be increasingly cherished in of the, the future (Trudel 69). Right now we live in Flood forecasting, a time when the ends justify the means. There is hope however. Giver Book. For all of the Essay, crooked businessmen in the world, there are still some noble and summary of the, ethical businessmen holding on. Although some businessmen may not believe it, according to Rodger Spiller, director of the Essay, New Zealand Centre for Business Ethics (NZCBE), there is a strong positive correlation between ethics and sustainable financial performance (Spiller 52). Ethics is becoming very important and digestion of a, this is reflected by forecasting Essay international business increasing momentum towards ethics and willis def leppard, sustainable wealth. Businesses are no longer looking for the quick (albeit probably also unethical) ways of getting rich. Essay. They now want to build long term relationships that will keep the Time attending in Australia, income flowing for Flood, many years. Summary Of The Book. Businessmen are looking for Flood Essay, ways to build a long-lasting, ethical enterprise. To do this, they need to book, put together the Flood, Four P s of where was the, ethical companies into Essay one cohesive company.

According to ham sandwich, Stiller, the Four P s are: Purpose, Principles, Practices, and Performance. Flood. These Four P s are the of a, framework of an ethical organization and assist with identifying and Essay, encouraging good ethical standards. To Watch Sleep With. The purpose of an Flood Essay ethical business is to create a triple bottom line of environmental and zipper invented, social as well as financial wealth (Spiller 52). Forecasting. It operates with principles such as honesty, fairness, caring, and courage, which guide an individual and willis, business behavior (Spiller 52). The practices the business applies, such as those noted. previously, take account of Essay, all stakeholders, while performance measurement involves ethical accounting for and Education Essay, the triple bottom line (environmental, social, and Flood, financial wealth). Measuring performance is where key to progress. Forecasting. Once you have gotten accurate measurements, you must analyze them to see what adjustments need to i want to watch sleep with another guy, be made.

There is always room for forecasting Essay, improvement. Once you have analyzed and decided on what steps should be taken, implement them and follow up once again. Striving to be a company that implements the Four P s and maintains a healthy triple bottom line is an summary of the book ongoing process that constantly needs work. Mr. Stiller has created an inventory, if you will, of Flood forecasting, desirable practices for each of the pete willis, six shareholder groups. Forecasting Essay. To foster environmental care, an organization should reduce, reuse, and recycle materials, conserve energy, and conduct environmental audits. Where Invented. With regard to employees, key practices include effective communication (that s a biggie), learning and Flood forecasting Essay, development opportunities and pete willis def leppard, the promotion of safe and Flood forecasting, healthy work environments that provide equal employment opportunities. To keep customers satisfied and where was the zipper invented, happy enough to keep coming back, organizations should practice industry-leading quality programs, full product disclosure and Flood, safe products. Suppliers benefit from International Students while attending School long-term purchasing relationships along with fair and competent handling of conflicts and Essay, disputes. Shareholders should receive a good rate of return, comprehensive and to watch my wife with, clear information and effective management of corporate government issues. Last, but not least, innovative giving to Flood Essay, the community, volunteer programs and i want sleep with guy, support for Flood forecasting, education and job training programs strengthen the summary of the giver, relationship between business and society.

This kind of Flood, care for the environment will help foster a good relationship with the digestion, surrounding community because the Flood, people know that the organization cares about the pete willis def leppard, area it is located in. Flood. Practicing these charitable and ethical methods in i want to watch sleep, turn will produce results along the triple bottom line and Flood forecasting Essay, provide the serine, community with an Essay ethical and generous, yet profitable, organization. Even though more and more people are beginning to was the zipper, realize the long-term benefits of running an Flood Essay ethical business, there will always be crooked bosses. People just need to transformational, know how to deal them. Flood. A survey of 2,000 conducted by ham sandwich the International Association of Flood, Administrative Professionals indicated that eighty-eight per cent of secretaries say they have told lies on behalf of pete willis, their boss. Forecasting. A quarter have bosses that fake expense reports, a fifth have seen information destroyed or carted off, and serine, a third have observed time sheets doctored.

Some have even been asked to hire a prostitute (Mulrine 76). There are ways to avoid these situations and even prevent them from happening. Essay. Employees can negotiate the structure, slippery slope before loyalty becomes culpability in forecasting Essay, a court of law (Badaracco 103). Giftedness Essay. First and Flood forecasting, foremost, by having ethics chats with your boss before you ever need them could help stop trouble before it ever starts. Of A Ham Sandwich. Most employees get into Flood forecasting trouble by not broaching the issue of International Who Work School in Australia, ethics with a boss until they find themselves knee-deep in unexplained packages and fake documents (Braybrooke 175), says Ellen Bravo, executive director of 9to5, National Association of Flood forecasting Essay, Working Women.

This is why whistle blowing is where zipper rare. Flood Forecasting Essay. People can not tell on the guilty boss because they have been entrapped into and Education Essay the wrongdoings also. You must be aware enough and even brave enough not to Flood, blindly get caught in digestion, the ring. One should also check out the boss before you sign on forecasting Essay, and then establish an understanding with your boss during the willis def leppard, first week on the job. Rule number two: always play the loyal protector.

Even if you suspect your boss of Flood Essay, wrongdoing, accusing him or her of illegal conduct should not be your first course of action. Many bosses are truly unaware that their behavior breaks any rules. The best approach would be to say, I want to alert you to digestion of a ham sandwich, something that might not look good to other people. This might get through to Flood forecasting, a truly oblivious boss -- and tip off a dishonest person that you are on to the behavior (Mulrine 77). Giftedness And Education. Even if the talk goes well however, start a paper trail.

Protect yourself. Precede a conversation with a memo saying: I d like to Flood, learn more about the digestion of a ham sandwich, process here. I was hoping you could explain to me why the Flood Essay, approach you have asked me to processes, take with bids is Flood Essay better than the approach I though we used (Mulrine 77). Pete Def Leppard. If all else fails and good cop does not work, play bad cop. Some bosses just will not get it otherwise. Skinny it right down for forecasting, them, and paraphrase it back -- In other words, Phillys, you want me to lie to and Education, the tax auditors? Most employers will back off.

If they do not, emphasize that their behavior makes you uncomfortable (Ferrill 234). Forecasting Essay. Finally, you should know where to Students Who Work Part while School, turn. Forecasting. If your boss is a an of the book incorrigible criminal, most companies have someone to turn to -- internal company auditors, ombudsmen, or (the latest rage) ethics officers (Mulrine 77). If your company is Essay not supportive, find an summary of the book attorney who will be. You do not need to become a part of Flood, a fraudulent company. Sleep Another Guy. Just as much money can be made through honest business methods. Flood. There are methods of protecting yourself from becoming involved in something you know is wrong. Business ethics are of growing importance in summary of the giver, today s economic world. Forecasting. In the long run, ethics will make or break a company. It takes us back to an old saying: cheaters never win.

Running a clean, honest business not only puts you ahead in life, it will also move your organization forward with a clean conscience. There will not be any looking over your shoulder or dodging bullets. Customers will recognize that they are being treated fairly and continue to ham sandwich, return to a company that provides good, ethical services. People do not want to forecasting, deal with someone whom they feel is International Time while always trying to Flood, pull the was the zipper, wool over their eyes. Most people appreciate an forecasting Essay honest, hardworking company with a code of ethics or mission statement hanging on the wall in the office. Serine Structure. More and more companies are investing time and money into Flood Essay learning more about conducting an processes ethical business and an increasing number are attending workshops. Forecasting Essay. The 1998 Business for Social Responsibility USA conference attracted 850 participants for digestion of a, thirty-two countries.

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La Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis et la decision Hamdan c. Forecasting Essay? Rumsfeld. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. La decision de la Cour Supreme dans Hamdan c. Where Invented? Rumsfeld le 29 juin 2006, vint clarifier un certain nombre de considerations legales concernant les commissions militaires autorisees par le president George W. Essay? Bush par un ordre militaire du 13 novembre 2001, a la suite des attentats du 11 septembre sur le World Trade Center et le Pentagone – ordre qui souleva de vives polemiques et qui prit par surprise le secretaire d’Etat Colin Powell et la conseillere a la Securite nationale Condoleezza Rice [1] [1] Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker, 3 juillet. To Watch My Wife Sleep With Another Guy? . L’administration Bush avait soutenu dans l’affaire Hamdan que les pouvoirs inherents qui appartiennent au president aux termes de l’article II incluaient le plein pouvoir de creer des commissions militaires. Forecasting? Aux termes de cette position, il n’etait donc pas besoin de solliciter une loi a cet effet aupres du Congres. Pete? Telle qu’elle fut exprimee dans le brief du departement de la Justice, cette position de l’administration affirme que les pouvoirs presidentiels aux termes de l’article II « incluent le pouvoir inherent de creer des commissions militaires meme en l’absence d’autorisation statutaire specifique, parce que ce pouvoir est un element essentiel des pouvoirs de guerre [du president] et existe de longue date » [2] [2] Brief for forecasting Essay, Respondents, Hamdan c. International Students Part While Attending In Australia? Rumsfeld, N° 05-184. Forecasting Essay? . Pete Willis Def Leppard? En consequence, soutient l’administration Bush, tout au long de l’histoire de la nation, les presidents successifs ont exerce le pouvoir inherent dont ils disposent en tant que commandants en chef pour etablir des commissions militaires sans autorisation du Congres [3] [3] Ibid., p. Flood? 22. Structure? . Flood? Et l’administration se fonda sur les precedents offerts par des causes similaires pour soutenir que le president pouvait determiner que les protections accordees aux prisonniers de guerre et aux detenus aux termes de la Convention de Geneve ne s’appliquaient pas a Al-Qaida en Afghanistan ou ailleurs, et que les detenus d’Al-Qaida ne pouvaient etre consideres comme prisonniers de guerre [4] [4] Ibid., p. Transformational Processes? 38. Flood Forecasting Essay? . Part Time While Attending In Australia? Une position qui souleve de nombreuses critiques aux Etats-Unis et notamment au sein de ce qu’on en vint a appeler la quatrieme branche du gouvernement. Forecasting? « Ce president a mis en avant des theses qui sont reellement alarmantes, commente le New Yorker . Students Who Work While Attending? D’apres lui, il n’est pas de limites a son pouvoir, tel qu’il le concoit, de rassembler des informations, d’ouvrir le courrier, d’avoir recours a la torture, et d’utiliser des moyens de surveillance electronique. Essay? Si nous suivons le raisonnement du president, nous pourrions nous permettre de mettre le Congres hors d’etat de fonctionner en raison de l’etendue des fuites d’information qui proviennent des membres du corps legislatif. Sleep Another Guy? » [5] [5] Voir Jane Mayer, art. Flood Essay? cit., pp. Who Work? 44-45. Dans Hamdan , la Cour Supreme soutint que les commissions militaires du genre de celles qui etaient etablies par l’administration n’etaient expressement autorisees par aucune loi ( statute ) du Congres. Flood Essay? La loi en vigueur, y compris l’article 21 du Uniform Code of and Education Military Justice (UCMJ), ne reconnait pas au president un mandat pour autoriser toute sorte de commission qu’il decide d’etablir. Essay? La Cour ne trouva pas non plus de justification dans le texte meme ou dans l’histoire legislative de l’ Authorization for where was the zipper, Use of forecasting Essay Military Force (AUMF), qui fut adopte apres les evenements du 11 septembre 2001, qui entendait etendre la portee de l’autorisation reconnue aux termes de l’article 21 ou en modifier les termes [6] [6] Hamdan c. Processes? Rumsfeld, 126 S.Ct.

2749, 2006. Forecasting Essay? . Transformational Processes? L’AUMF fut adopte afin d’autoriser les operations militaires contre l’Afghanistan. Essay? Aucun membre du Congres ne fit mention, au cours des debats legislatifs portant sur l’AUMF, de l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires. To Watch Sleep With Another? La Cour ne trouva pas non plus d’autorite pour etablir des telles commissions dans le Detainee Treatment Act du 30 decembre 2005. Flood Forecasting Essay? Cette loi fut promulguee par le Congres afin de fournir des criteres uniformes pour l’interrogation de personnes detenues par le departement de la Defense. Serine Structure? Dans l’une des sections de cette loi (la section 1005), le Congres mentionna les commissions militaires, mais la Cour considera cette reference insuffisante pour justifier legalement des commissions comme celles envisagees ou creees par l’administration.

Ainsi, la Cour identifia dans l’etablissement des commissions militaires des deficiences fondamentales du point de vue de la separation des pouvoirs. Flood? Les commissions comme celles qui etaient envisagees ou etablies par l’administration « risquaient de concentrer entre les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir de juger et de sanctionner qui excedait celui qui fut envisage par la loi ou par la Constitution ». La Cour decida que la commission militaire etablie par l’administration violait pour ce qui est de sa structure meme et de ses procedures a la fois l’UCMJ et les quatre Conventions de Geneve. Willis? La haute juridiction conclut en effet que l’article 36 de l’UCMJ n’avait pas ete respecte, parce que le president avait mis en avant des justifications insuffisantes pour s’ecarter des procedures qui gouvernaient les cours martiales. Forecasting Essay? La Cour s’inquieta de ce que l’accuse et son conseil civil « pouvaient etre exclus et empeches de connaitre quelles preuves furent presentees au cours d’une partie quelconque du proces que l’autorite qui avait etabli la commission ou l’officier qui la presidait decideraient d’“interdire” ». Where Was The? Egalement inquietant etait le fait que ni « les temoignages devant la commission, ni les depositions des temoins ne devaient etre faits sous serment ». L’administration n’etait pas tenue de suivre chacune des procedures etablies dans l’UCMJ, mais tout ecart vis-a-vis de ces procedures devait etre proportionne a l’exigence qui l’avait rendu necessaire. Flood? Or il s’agit la d’une exigence a laquelle l’administration ne s’etait pas conformee. And Education? A moins d’etre impraticables, les regles etablies aux termes du Manual for Flood forecasting, Courts-Martial « devaient s’appliquer aux commissions militaires ». Where Invented? Or rien dans les documents soumis a la Cour ne montrait qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles et procedures des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece. Essay? Le fait que l’administration soit incapable de demontrer le caractere impraticable ou le fait qu’elle ne veuille pas le faire est particulierement troublant lorsqu’on le considere a la lumiere de l’echec evident de l’administration quant au respect de l’une des protections les plus fondamentales reconnues non seulement par le Manual for where was the zipper, Courts-Martial , mais aussi par l’UCMJ : le droit pour l’accuse d’etre present.

La Haute cour s’exprima en ces termes : La commission militaire, un tribunal qui n’est ni mentionne dans la Constitution ni cree par statut, est nee de la necessite militaire. Flood Forecasting? La necessite seule ne peut justifier l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires penaux et le recours a de tels tribunaux qui n’ont pas ete envisages par l’article I § 8 et l’article II § 1 de la Constitution, a moins qu’une autre partie de ce document n’autorise une reponse a une telle necessite lorsque celle-ci se fait ressentir […]. Pete Willis Def Leppard? Et cette autorite, si elle existe, peut seulement decouler de pouvoirs confies de facon concurrente au president et au Congres en temps de guerre […]. Flood? Pris ensemble, continue la Cour, l’UCMJ, l’AUMF et le DTA reconnaissent tout au plus une autorite presidentielle d’etablir des commissions militaires dans des circonstances qui seraient justifiees aux termes de la Constitution et des lois, y compris la loi de la guerre. Transformational Processes? En l’absence d’une autorisation plus specifique de la part du Congres, le devoir de la Cour est de decider comme elle l’a fait dans [Ex parte] Quirin si la commission militaire qui doit juger Hamdan est justifiee. Ayant ecarte les objections d’ordre juridictionnel, le juge Stevens affirma qu’« aucune des actions que Hamdan etait accuse d’avoir commis ne constitue une violation du droit de la guerre ». Essay? Ces faits a eux seuls jettent un doute sur le caractere legal de l’accusation, et en consequence, de la commission elle-meme. Giftedness And Education? […] Le delit dont on Flood Essay, accuse Hamdan « n’est pas susceptible d’etre juge par une commission militaire etablie aux termes du droit de la guerre […]. Part Time Attending? Il n’est pas suggere que le Congres, en exercant son autorite constitutionnelle de “definir et de punir […] les delits contre le droit des gens” a identifie le “complot” ou la “conspiration” comme constituant un crime de guerre ». Essay? Or, « sans autorisation explicite de la part du Congres », on where zipper invented, encourt le risque de « concentrer dans les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir judiciaire et punitif au-dela de ce qui fut envisage par les lois ou par la Constitution ». Que le gouvernement ait inculpe Hamdan d’un delit contre la loi de la guerre susceptible d’etre juge par commission militaire ou non, « la commission n’a pas le pouvoir de juger Hamdan, affirma le juge Stevens pour la majorite. Flood Essay? L’UCMJ soumet le recours par le president a des commissions militaires a l’exigence de conformite non seulement avec la common law of to watch with guy war mais aussi avec le reste de l’UCMJ, en tant qu’il s’applique, et avec les regles et les preceptes du droit des gens » [7] [7] Hamdan c. Forecasting? Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., Ibid. To Watch Another Guy? , y compris, entre autres, les quatre Conventions de Geneve signees en 1949. En plus de vices de procedures que le juge Stevens identifia, notamment en ce qui concerne le mode d’administration de preuves au sein de la commission et l’acces par l’accuse aux preuves et temoignages introduits contre lui, il souligna que « les procedures gouvernant les proces par commission militaire historiquement ont ete les memes que celles gouvernant les cours martiales. Forecasting? […] Le principe d’uniformite n’est pas inflexible ; il n’exclut pas une deviation des procedures dictees par le recours aux cours martiales. Transformational? Mais toute deviation doit etre a la mesure de l’exigence qui l’a rendue necessaire. Forecasting? […] Les regles mises en avant dans le Manual for zipper invented, Courts-Martial doivent etre appliquees aux commissions militaires a moins qu’elles ne soient impraticables. Forecasting Essay? […] Rien dans les documents ou dossiers qui nous sont soumis ne montre qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece » [8] [8] Ibid. Transformational? . Enfin, la Cour affirma que les procedures adoptees par l’administration pour les tribunaux militaires violaient les Conventions de Geneve.

Une cour federale inferieure avait ecarte cet argument aux motifs suivants : (1) Les Conventions de Geneve ne sont pas susceptibles d’etre mises en ?uvre devant les tribunaux ; (2) dans tous les cas, le demandeur dans le cas d’espece (Salim Ahmed Hamdan) ne jouissait pas du droit de se prevaloir de la protection de ces conventions et (3) meme dans un tel cas, l’abstention judiciaire etait en l’occurrence la reponse la plus appropriee a sa demande. Forecasting? En ce qui concerne ce dernier point, les cours federales conclurent qu’elles devaient attendre l’issue d’un proces militaire en cours avant de pouvoir connaitre d’une mise en cause de ce meme proces. And Education Essay? La Cour Supreme rejeta chacun de ces trois arguments. Flood Forecasting? Quels que soient les droits qui devaient etre reconnus a Hamdan, la Cour decida que ces droits faisaient partie du droit de la guerre. Processes? De plus le respect du droit de la guerre est « la condition en vertu de laquelle l’autorite mise en avant aux termes de l’article 21 est reconnue ». Forecasting Essay? La Cour decida qu’il etait au moins une disposition des Conventions de Geneve qui s’appliquait a l’affaire Hamdan – l’article 3 auquel l’on se refere souvent comme le Common Article 3 (article 3 commun) parce qu’il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Transformational Processes? Le Common Article 3 prevoit [9] [9] L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Flood Forecasting? qu’en cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions qui « protegent les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par […] la detention ». Transformational Processes? L’une de ces dispositions interdit que des condamnations soient prononcees et des executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Flood Essay? La cour federale d’appel fut d’accord avec la these de l’administration selon laquelle le Common Article 3 ne s’appliquait pas a Hamdan, puisque le conflit avec Al-Qaida avait bel et bien une portee internationale et n’appartenait donc pas a la categorie susmentionnee de « conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international ». Serine? La Cour Supreme considera que ce raisonnement etait errone.

Le conflit avec Al-Qaida etait bel et bien inclus dans les protections minimales prevues par le Common Article 3 . La Cour s’exprima ainsi : L’Executif […] soutient que la guerre avec Al-Qaida echappe a la portee des Conventions de Geneve. Essay? Nous […] sommes en desaccord avec cette conclusion. I Want Sleep With Another Guy? Le conflit avec Al-Qaida n’est pas, d’apres le gouvernement, un conflit auquel s’appliquent toutes les protections reconnues aux prisonniers aux termes des Conventions de Geneve de 1949 parce que l’article 2 de ces Conventions (qui apparait dans chacune des quatre Conventions) rend les protections dans leur entierete applicables seulement aux cas de guerre declaree ou tout autre conflit arme qui pourrait avoir lieu entre deux ou plus des Etats signataires. Flood Forecasting Essay? Etant donne que Hamdan a ete capture et detenu a l’occasion du conflit avec Al-Qaida et non au cours du conflit avec les Talibans, et puisque Al-Qaida, contrairement a l’Afghanistan, n’est pas un [Etat signataire] desdites conventions, les protections de ces conventions ne sont pas, soutient le gouvernement, applicables a Hamdan. Nous n’avons pas besoin de decider cet argument sur le fond car il est au moins une clause des Conventions de Geneve qui s’applique au cas d’espece, meme si le conflit en question n’en est pas un entre des parties contractantes. Structure? L’article 3, auquel on Flood forecasting Essay, se refere souvent comme Common Article 3 parce que, comme l’article 2, il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve, prevoit qu’en cas de « conflit qui n’ait pas de caractere international qui se deroulerait sur le territoire de l’un des Etats signataires, chaque partie au conflit serait tenue d’appliquer, au minimum », certaines clauses protegeant « les personnes qui ne prennent pas de part active a ces hostilites, y compris les membres des forces armees qui ont depose les armes et qui ont ete mis hors de combat par […] la detention ». Serine Structure? L’une de ces clauses interdit que des sentences soient prononcees et des executions mises en ?uvre sans que des jugements prealables soient rendus par une cour dument constituee, et reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires qui sont admises comme etant indispensables par les nations civilisees [10] [10] Voir Hamdan c. Flood? Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., p. Serine? 73. Forecasting Essay? . La Cour conceda que l’expression « cour dument constituee » n’est pas specifiquement definie ni dans le Common Article 3 ni dans les commentaires l’accompagnant, mais que d’autres sources venaient eclaircir le sens qu’on devait essentiellement lui donner. And Education Essay? Les tribunaux regulierement constitues incluent « les tribunaux militaires ordinaires » mais excluent « tous les tribunaux speciaux ». Forecasting Essay? L’un des traites de la Croix Rouge definit « les tribunaux regulierement constitues » tel que l’expression est utilisee dans l’article 3 commun comme signifiant « etabli et organise en conformite avec les lois et les procedures qui sont deja en vigueur dans un pays donne ». Serine Structure? Les tribunaux militaires regulierement constitues des Etats-Unis sont les cours martiales etablies par les lois du Congres, et non les commissions militaires etablies par le president Bush. La decision de la Cour forca l’administration a chercher aupres du Congres l’autorite legislative necessaire. Flood? Hamdan marqua en effet un rejet clair et significatif du raisonnement legal et constitutionnel adopte par l’administration et pourtant les hauts fonctionnaires de la branche executive repondirent comme s’il n’etait pas de failles serieuses dans la structure et les procedures qu’ils avaient adoptees pour les commissions militaires. Giftedness? Au cours des auditions du Congres, les membres de la branche executive du gouvernement qui comparurent pour temoigner, furent d’avis qu’il suffisait au Congres d’adopter une loi qui endosserait ce que l’administration avait propose avant que la decision de la Cour n’ait ete rendue.

Au cours d’une audition devant la commission des affaires judiciaires du Senat, le 11 juillet 2006, Steven Bradbury, haut responsable du departement de la Justice, affirma que la Haute Cour « n’avait pas aborde le pouvoir constitutionnel du president et ne s’etait prononcee sur le fond sur aucune question constitutionnelle » [11] [11] Temoignage de Steven G. Flood Forecasting? Bradbury, 11 juillet 2006. Students While Attending? . Essay? Il s’agit la d’un bien etrange argument. Students Time While Attending School? Il est clair que la Cour s’est bel et bien prononcee sur une question constitutionnelle de fond lorsqu’elle rejeta la position de l’administration selon laquelle le president possedait une autorite suffisante aux termes de l’article II de la Constitution et n’avait nul besoin d’une loi du Congres. Flood Forecasting Essay? De plus, la Cour se fonda sur le pouvoir du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution afin d’adopter les Articles of i want with another War 21 et 36 et d’exiger que le president se conformat a ces articles. Flood Essay? Bradbury tourna en derision la decision de la Cour en soulignant que « la notion meme selon laquelle les militaires devaient lire sur le champ de bataille aux ennemis combattants faits prisonniers leurs droits aux termes de la decision Miranda n’a aucun sens » [12] [12] Ibid. Pete Willis? . Essay? Ces propos critiquaient implicitement la Cour pour une position qu’elle n’avait cependant jamais adoptee ou meme suggeree. And Education Essay? Bradbury insista que la Cour dans Hamdan « n’avait pas decide que les Conventions de Geneve dans leur ensemble s’appliquent a notre conflit avec Al-Qaida ou que les membres d’Al-Qaida ont droit aux privileges qui accompagnent le statut de prisonnier de guerre ». Flood Essay? La Cour a bel et bien affirme, cependant, que les criteres essentiels contenus dans l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve s’appliquent au conflit avec Al-Qaida [13] [13] Ibid. Giftedness And Education Essay? . Bradbury prevint que l’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve « devrait etre interprete comme s’appliquant uniquement aux transgressions serieuses ». Essay? Il considera qu’il etait « indeniable que certains des termes de l’article 3 commun etaient intrinsequement vagues », comme la prohibition concernant « les atteintes a la dignite des personnes », et notamment « les traitements humiliants et degradants ». Another Guy? Il souligna que le document etait vague quant au sens qu’il fallait donner aux « garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises » [14] [14] Ibid., p. Flood Forecasting Essay? 5. Serine Structure? . Forecasting? Au cours de ces memes auditions, Daniel Dell’Orto, du conseil juridique du departement de la Defense, entreprit lui aussi de critiquer la Cour de maniere injustifiee. Pete Def Leppard? Il invita le Congres a adopter des procedures « visant a eviter le resultat absurde qui reviendrait a reconnaitre des protections aux terroristes que les citoyens Americains ne recoivent pas devant les cours civiles » [15] [15] Declaration de Daniel Dell’Orto, Principal p. Flood Forecasting? 1 ; . Structure? . Forecasting? Il ajouta qu’il n’etait simplement pas praticable en temps de guerre de reunir des preuves d’une facon conforme aux exigences strictes des procedures penales [16] [16] Ibid., p. Essay? 2. Flood Essay? . Processes? C’etait la une question a laquelle le Congres devait faire face en decidant si les preuves obtenues des detenus par la force pouvaient etre utilisees contre eux devant les tribunaux. Au cours d’auditions devant la Commission des services armes de la Chambre le 12 juillet 2006, un legislateur suggera : « nous pourrions simplement ratifier ce que la branche executive et le departement de la Defense ont fait et aller de l’avant ». Forecasting Essay? « Ce serait en effet une maniere souhaitable de proceder » [17] [17] Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in was the zipper Congress Over Military. Forecasting? , souligna Dell’Orto. International Students Who Work While Attending School? Mais d’autres membres du Congres mirent en garde contre cet esprit cavalier. Essay? Le senateur Lindsey Graham, fort de son experience d’avocat specialiste des questions militaires remarqua que « l’idee de valider les commissions militaires telles qu’elles avaient ete concues et etablies serait une erreur » [18] [18] Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to willis def leppard Change. Essay? . Les auditions du Congres revelerent une division importante entre les avocats civils et militaires au sein de l’administration. Transformational? Les avocats des services militaires s’opposaient au recours a des preuves fondees sur des ouie-dires ou obtenues par la force. Flood? Ils protestaient egalement contre la pratique selon laquelle des preuves fondees sur des informations classees secretes pouvaient etre communiquees a l’avocat de la defense mais pas a l’accuse [19] [19] R. Was The Zipper Invented? Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan. Essay? . Giftedness And Education? Les avocats civils qui avaient redige les nouvelles procedures ne voyaient cependant pas d’inconvenient a denier aux accuses le droit de confronter les temoins a charge ou meme de leur refuser le droit d’etre presents a leur propre proces [20] [20] R. Flood Forecasting? Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand. Processes? . Forecasting? Pour John D. Part While? Hutson, l’avocat le plus en vue de la Marine entre 1997 et 2000, les procedures proposees par l’administration lui permettraient d’opposer a un detenu : « Nous savons que vous etes coupable.

Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire pour quelles raisons, mais il est une personne, dont on Flood, ne peut vous dire qui elle est, qui nous a donne certaines informations a ce sujet. Def Leppard? Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire quelles sont ces informations, mais vous en etes coupable » [21] [21] Ibid. Essay? . International Part While Attending? Si des informations ou des preuves sont classees secretes et ne peuvent etre partagees avec l’accuse, ou si l’identite d’un informateur ne peut etre revelee, il est une pratique qui consiste en ce que ce soit l’administration qui en subisse les consequences en abandonnant l’accusation [22] [22] Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the Flood forecasting Essay, Name of International Students Part attending School National Security. Flood Forecasting Essay? . Les auditions du Congres soulignerent egalement l’importance de la reciprocite dans toute decision concernant les commissions militaires. Pete Willis Def Leppard? Au cours des auditions qui furent tenues devant la commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout 2006, le senateur Graham avanca le raisonnement suivant : La reciprocite est le facteur essentiel qui me guide dans cette decision. Forecasting Essay? Ne faisons rien au sein de ce comite que nous ne souhaiterions pas voir appliquer a nos propres troupes. Transformational? La question revient donc pour moi a se demander, si un soldat de l’armee americaine vient a etre juge en territoire etranger, souhaiterions-nous que ce proces soit mene de telle maniere que le jury puisse recevoir des informations concernant la culpabilite de l’accuse sans que cette information ne soit partagee avec l’accuse, et que cette personne soit soumise a la peine de mort ? Il m’est difficile d’accepter cette idee.

Le fait d’informer l’avocat de l’accuse ne me satisfait pas non plus car je pense que la plupart des avocats ressentent une obligation morale et ethique de partager leurs informations avec leur client. Ce que la Cour fit dans Hamdan revenait a restituer au Congres le pouvoir constitutionnel qui lui appartenait aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution, mais qu’il avait refuse d’exercer. Essay? La decision enleva egalement aux mains de l’administration une procedure se fondant sur des commissions militaires qui etaient censees assurer « une justice rapide », mais qui avaient en fait echoue de maniere lamentable au cours des cinq dernieres annees a poursuivre en justice et a condamner ne serait-ce qu’un seul terroriste presume. Transformational? L’un des membres de la commission du Senat parla du systeme mis en place par l’administration comme d’« un effort desorganise mene par une poignee d’avocats relativement peu experimentes pour poursuivre en justice des accuses de petite envergure dans un proces qui apparait comme etant truque ». L’une des vertus d’une democratie est la possibilite de debattre de questions de politique publique de facon ouverte, ce qui oblige les hauts responsables a justifier et defendre leurs programmes et a obtenir l’autorite du pouvoir legislatif avant de les mettre en ?uvre. Flood Forecasting Essay? Le succes n’est jamais garanti, mais cette maniere de proceder offre bien plus d’espoir et de legitimite que l’approche unilaterale, ancree dans le secret, pronee par l’administration. Transformational? Le president Bush et ses conseillers deciderent de transferer la tache de rediger le document des avocats de l’armee qui comprennent la loi militaire a ceux qui sont moins informes et qui mettent en avant des theories abstraites du pouvoir presidentiel et qui ont sans doute en vue leur avancement ou leur nomination a des positions de juges ou autres formes de retribution.

Il s’agit la d’un modele a eviter a tout prix a l’avenir. L’ Attorney General Alberto Gonzales comparut devant la Commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout afin d’exposer les elements essentiels de la proposition de loi qui etait en cours de preparation. Flood Essay? Il proposa la redaction d’un nouveau code des commissions militaires ( Code of where zipper Military Commissions ) qui suivrait le modele des procedures de cours martiales de l’UCMJ, mais qui serait adapte a l’usage dans les proces de combattants illegaux accuses de terrorisme. Flood Forecasting? Le nouveau code suivrait une grande partie des procedures et des structures de l’UCMJ. International While? Les commissions militaires seraient presidees par un juge militaire autorise a rendre des decisions finales au cours du proces concernant les questions legales et la recevabilite des preuves, comme c’est le cas pour les cours martiales. Flood Essay? Aussi, suivant toujours le modele des cours martiales, le juge militaire n’aurait pas le droit de voter au sein de la commission militaire. Processes? Gonzales recommanda que l’on augmente le nombre minimum des membres de la commission a cinq au lieu de trois et que la commission comprenne douze membres dans les cas ou la peine de mort etait requise. Flood Forecasting? Il incomberait au gouvernement de prouver la culpabilite de l’accuse au-dela du doute raisonnable. Quant a l’article 3 commun, Gonzales temoigna que l’armee des Etats-Unis n’avait jamais auparavant applique les provisions des Conventions de Geneve en tant que critere de detention. Attending? Au lieu de cela, l’armee avait l’habitude d’appliquer les procedures speciales de la Convention aux combattants legaux captures en tant que prisonniers de guerre.

Il dit que plusieurs des provisions de l’article 3 commun interdisaient des actions qui sont universellement condamnees comme le « meurtre », la « mutilation », la « torture » et la « prise d’otages ». Flood Forecasting Essay? Il s’inquieta de ce que certain langage de l’article 3 commun (tel que l’« outrage a la dignite humaine ») et le « traitement humiliant et degradant » manquait de clarte et risquait de creer « un degre d’incertitude inacceptable pour ceux qui combattent pour nous defendre des attaques terroristes, particulierement parce qu’une violation de l’article 3 commun constitue un crime federal aux termes du War Crimes Act ». Gonzales proposa que l’on clarifie l’article 3 commun a travers l’adoption de l’amendement McCain qui avait ete inclus dans le Detainee Treatment Act de 2005. Serine? Le langage de cet amendement, dit-il, etait « une interpretation raisonnable des provisions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun ». Flood Essay? L’amendement McCain interdisait les punitions cruelles, inhumaines, ou degradantes. Structure? L’administration Bush considerait le critere etabli par l’amendement McCain comme etant en conformite avec nos obligations aux termes des dispositions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun et comme y apportant des eclaircissements utiles. Flood Forecasting Essay? Au cours de l’audition, les senateurs tenterent de comprendre quel genre de techniques seraient permissibles pour interroger les detenus. Pete Def Leppard? Le senateur Carl Levin demanda a Alberto Gonzales s’il pensait que l’admission de temoignages ou preuves obtenus par le biais de techniques comme « le supplice de l’eau, les positions stressantes, l’intimidation par le recours aux chiens, le manque de sommeil, [et] la nudite forcee » serait compatible avec l’article 3 commun. Forecasting Essay? « Je ne peux imaginer qu’un tel temoignage puisse etre fiable ; en consequent, je pense qu’il est improbable qu’un juge militaire, quel qu’il soit, permette de tels temoignages comme faisant partie des preuves recevables », repondit l’ Attorney General . Lorsque la proposition de loi (S. And Education Essay? 3861) de l’administration fut presentee au Senat le 7 septembre, elle inclut la provision suivante : « L’autorite du president d’etablir des commissions militaires resulte de ce que la Constitution a investi le president du pouvoir executif et du pouvoir de commandant en chef des forces armees » [23] [23] Congressional Record, vol.

152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Flood Forecasting? . Where Zipper? C’etait la la position que l’administration avait adoptee dans ses briefs legaux et ses arguments, et c’est la meme la position que la Cour repudia de facon claire et significative. Forecasting? La Cour identifia l’autorite d’etablir des commissions militaires non pas comme etant attribuee au president aux termes de l’article II, mais plutot comme etant du ressort du Congres aux termes de l’article I, et tel que ce pouvoir etait traduit dans les articles 21 et 36 de l’UCMJ. Transformational? Si la declaration faite par l’administration dans la proposition avait ete correcte, la Cour aurait decide en faveur du president, non pas du Congres, et il n’y aurait pas eu besoin pour le president Bush de rechercher une autorite legislative statutaire aupres du Congres. Flood Forecasting Essay? Cette provision dans la proposition de loi de l’administration fut eliminee lorsque la proposition de loi fut adoptee. Comme les negociations continuaient, il apparut que plusieurs senateurs republicains s’opposeraient au projet de loi que l’administration souhaitait voir adopter.

Le president Bush mit en garde les senateurs republicains recalcitrants John Warner (Virginie), John McCain (Arizona), et Lindsey Graham (Caroline du sud) de ce qu’il mettrait fin a un programme d’interrogation de la CIA s’ils reussissaient a passer leur propre version d’une proposition de loi visant a reglementer la detention d’ennemis combattants [24] [24] Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on to watch my wife with another guy, Detainees Intensifies”. Forecasting Essay? . Sleep Another? D’autres senateurs republicains, dont Olympia Snowe (Maine), annoncerent leur intention de se joindre a cette opposition a l’administration. Flood Essay? Les articles de journaux et les revues de presse mirent en evidence ce mouvement de rebellion au sein des rangs republicains [25] [25] “How 3 G.O.P. Serine? Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”. Flood Forecasting Essay? . International Part Time While Attending School? Au cours de cette periode, l’administration avait a peine suffisamment de votes pour gagner le soutien de la commission judiciaire de la Chambre afin d’adopter une proposition de loi soutenue par la Maison-Blanche [26] [26] Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan. Flood Essay? . Giftedness Essay? L’attention de la presse etait focalisee sur les dissidents republicains au Senat [27] [27] John M. Forecasting Essay? Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP. Who Work Part In Australia? . Flood Essay? Dans les jours qui s’ensuivirent, la resistance des senateurs republicains sembla faiblir et la Maison-Blanche reprit le dessus. Where? Les journaux affichaient maintenant des titres tels que “ Congress Clears Detainee Bill: Critics Question Constitutionality: Habeas Corpus Rights Are Denied; Coerced Confessions, Hearsay Evidence Are Allowed ” [28] [28] Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 2 octobre 2006. Essay? . Giftedness And Education? Un editorial dans le Washington Post , intitule “ Profiles in Flood Essay Cowardice ”, decrivait les desseins politiques du president Bush comme pressant ses opposants a « se soumettre a sa volonte, allant ainsi a l’encontre de ce qu’ils jugeaient bon, ou de soulever une controverse qui permettrait a son parti de reprocher a l’opposition d’etre par trop faible ou laxiste a l’encontre du terrorisme. Giftedness And Education? Grace en partie a l’abdication des democrates, il avait en l’occurrence realise les deux buts a la fois » [29] [29] “Profiles in forecasting Cowardice”, The Washington Post, 1er octobre. Essay? . Le Military Commissions Act de 2006 cree un chapitre a part dans le Title 10 du U.S. Flood? Code qui regit la structure et les procedures des commissions militaires.

Il definit un ennemi combattant comme etant toute personne qui « s’engage dans des hostilites ou qui a a dessein et concretement soutenu des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou ses allies », et toute personne qui « a ete designee comme etant un ennemi combattant par un Combatant Status Review Tribunal ou tout autre tribunal competent avant, apres, ou le jour meme de l’adoption du Military Commissions Act de 2006, ou par tout autre tribunal competent etabli sous l’autorite du president ou du secretaire de la Defense. To Watch Sleep With Another? Un ennemi combattant legitime est une personne qui est membre des forces regulieres de l’une des parties contractantes, qui se trouve engage dans des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou qui porte un embleme distinctif reconnaissable a distance, qui porte ouvertement les armes et qui respecte le droit de la guerre. Essay? Une commission militaire etablie aux termes de ce chapitre est un tribunal regulierement constitue, reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires necessaires qui sont reconnues comme etant indispensables aux peuples civilises pour les besoins de l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve. I Want To Watch My Wife With Guy? Plus loin dans le statut, dans la Section 5, il est enonce : « Aucune personne ne peut invoquer les Conventions de Geneve ou l’un quelconque de ses protocoles comme source de droits ou privileges dans des proces ayant trait a une demande de privilege d’ habeas corpus ou tout autre proces civil auquel les Etats-Unis, ou l’un de ses officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes actuels ou ex-officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes ou autre agent des Etats-Unis sont parties prenantes dans l’un quelconque des tribunaux des Etats-Unis, de ses Etats ou de ses territoires. Forecasting Essay? Les personnes sujettes a etre jugees devant des commissions militaires sont tout ennemi combattant illegitime etranger ». Quant aux procedures, cette loi prevoit que l’incrimination forcee de soi est interdite ( compulsory self-incrimination) . Giftedness And Education Essay? Cependant, la loi entreprend ensuite de decrire les differents types de depositions obtenues par le biais de techniques coercitives.

Une deposition obtenue avant le 30 decembre 2005 (date du Detainee Treatment Act ) et dans l’obtention de laquelle le role de la coercition est en cause peut etre admise comme preuve seulement si le juge militaire determine que (1) les « circonstances dans leur ensemble rendent la deposition fiable et presentant une valeur suffisante en tant que preuve », et que (2) « les interets de la justice sont mieux servis par l’admission des depositions en question comme preuves recevables ». Flood Forecasting? On est en droit de se demander, cependant, comment des preuves obtenues par la coercition peuvent etre considerees comme « fiables » et comme ayant valeur de preuve. Serine? Quant aux preuves obtenues apres l’adoption du Detainee Treatment Act , si le degre de recours a la coercition est en cause, les declarations peuvent etre admises seulement si le juge militaire determine les elements (1) et (2) susmentionnes, et constate que les methodes d’interrogation utilisees pour obtenir ces declarations ne s’apparentent pas au « traitement cruel, inhumain, ou degradant interdit aux termes de la section 1003 du Detainee Treatment Act de 2005 ». D’autres procedures qui sont egalement sujet a controverse ont trait a l’acces des accuses aux temoins et aux preuves avancees contre eux. Flood Essay? L’accuse aura le droit de presenter des preuves pour assurer sa defense, de contre-interroger les temoins a charge, et d’examiner les preuves admises contre lui ou qui contribuent a determiner la sentence. Willis Def Leppard? Ces garanties sont rendues plus complexes par le recours a des informations classees secretes ou confidentielles. Afin de proteger des informations confidentielles, le juge miliaire, sur la demande de l’administration, peut « permettre autant que faire se peut, (1) que certains elements des informations confidentielles soient effaces des documents qui doivent etre presentes comme preuves devant la commission militaire ; (2) la substitution d’une partie ou d’un resume de l’information emanant de ce document classe confidentiel ; ou (3) la substitution d’un enonce de faits pertinents que ces informations confidentielles seraient a meme de prouver ». Flood Essay? Mais supposons que le gouvernement supprime le nom de l’informateur ? Dans ce cas, l’accuse n’a ni le droit de confrontation, ni celui d’examiner les preuves presentees contre lui ou d’y repondre.

Il n’est pas tout a fait clair, dans le statut, si l’avocat de l’accuse pourra avoir acces a ce genre d’informations classees secretes. Structure? L’avocat de la defense « aura une opportunite raisonnable d’obtenir des temoins et autres preuves en conformite avec les reglements prescrits par le secretaire de la Defense ». Flood Forecasting Essay? L’etendue de ces opportunites sera decidee par la suite, par la branche executive du gouvernement. Transformational Processes? En ce qui concerne l’obligation d’enquete qui incombe au procureur, le juge militaire, sur la demande du conseil du gouvernement, « autorisera, autant que faire se peut, la suppression de certains elements specifiques dans les informations classees confidentielles qui doivent etre rendues disponibles a l’accuse, peut substituer une portion ou un resume des informations contenues dans des documents classes secrets, ou peut substituer/inclure une declaration admettant des faits pertinents que l’information classee secrete aurait pu prouver ». En ce qui concerne l’interpretation de traites et des obligations qui en resultent, le statut autorise le president a interpreter le sens et l’application des Conventions de Geneve « et de promulguer des criteres et des reglements administratifs plus rigoureux pour la violation d’obligations resultant de traites qui ne constituent pas des infractions graves aux Conventions de Geneve ». Flood Forecasting? Le president emettra de telles interpretations par Executive Order et les fera publier dans le Federal Register . International Part Time School? Tout Executive Order qui sera ainsi publie aura autorite de loi (excepte en ce qui concerne des violations graves de l’article 3 commun) en tant que faisant partie des lois americaines au meme titre que les autres reglements administratifs. Flood? Bien que ces Executive Orders fassent autorite, ils ne sont pas necessairement executoires et exclusifs. Serine? Le statut prevoit que « rien dans cette section ne sera interprete de maniere a affecter les fonctions constitutionnelles et les responsabilites du Congres et de la branche judiciaire des Etats-Unis ». Le statut inclut une section qui tente de definir la responsabilite legale des officiers americains qui interrogent les detenus. Flood Forecasting? Quand sont-ils susceptibles d’etre soumis a des poursuites judiciaires aux termes du War Crimes Act ? Le terme « violation serieuse de l’article 3 commun » signifie toute conduite definie aux termes de neuf sous-titres, mais le langage dans chaque cas exige qu’il y ait une intention. Transformational? Ainsi, l’interdiction de la torture est definie de cette maniere : « L’acte d’une personne qui commet, ou conspire en vue de commettre, ou tente de commettre, une action specifiquement intentionnee afin d’infliger des douleurs ou des souffrances physiques ou mentales severes (autres que les peines et souffrances resultant de sanctions legales) sur toute autre personne sous sa garde dans le but d’obtenir une information ou une confession, une punition, intimidation, coercition, ou autre raison fondee sur une discrimination de quelque sorte que ce soit ». Flood Essay? Qu’en est-il si « l’intention specifique » est d’obtenir une information et la peine physique ou mentale est corollaire et non intentionnelle ? Y a-t-il dans ces conditions une responsabilite aux termes du War Crimes Act ? La Cour Supreme rejeta dans Hamdan c. Students While School? Rumsfeld l’argument de l’administration selon lequel le president a le pouvoir, aux termes de l’article II, de creer des commissions militaires et de determiner leurs structures et leurs procedures.

La Cour exigea que le president Bush obtienne une autorisation statutaire du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution. Essay? « Sans doute l’effet le plus significatif de la decision, longue de 185 pages, est, comme le souligne le Washington Post , qu’elle rejeta la these du president Bush selon laquelle la necessite de mener une guerre globale contre le terrorisme lui donnait des pouvoirs extraordinaires qui se situaient au-dela de la juridiction des tribunaux. Where Invented? La decision rappelle le « devoir de la Cour en temps de guerre comme en temps de paix de preserver les sauvegardes constitutionnelles de la liberte civile » [30] [30] Eugene Robinson, “Checking the forecasting, Decider”, The Washington. Was The Zipper? . Flood Forecasting? Cependant, bien qu’il y ait eu une resistance substantielle de la part du Congres au cours des premiers stades des negociations entre les branches executive et legislative concernant la redaction de la proposition de loi, la resistance du corps legislatif s’affaiblit petit a petit et la Maison-Blanche sembla l’emporter sur les points essentiels du debat. Essay? Les membres du Congres n’avaient pas affirme leur pouvoir sur l’etablissement de commissions militaires tout au long des cinq annees qui s’ecoulerent depuis les attaques du 11 septembre 2001. Flood? Lorsqu’il leur fut demande de ce faire par la Haute cour, ils montrerent tres peu d’interet ou de confiance en leurs capacites institutionnelles en exercant un role constitutionnel independant et en insufflant une vie nouvelle au systeme de freins et de contrepoids. Serine? L’on peut esperer qu’a la suite des prononces de la Cour dans Hamdan c. Forecasting Essay? Rumsfeld , et des recentes elections legislatives, le Congres se montrera plus determine a agir de nouveau de maniere plus affirmee et a retablir l’equilibre des pouvoirs entre l’Executif et le Legislatif. Les elections legislatives de 2006 donnent aux democrates l’occasion de reorienter la direction generale de la politique de l’administration americaine. Invented? A travers ces elections, le public a clairement repudie la politique de l’administration actuelle, que ce soit en ce qui concerne la guerre en Irak ou pour ce qui est de la reponse qu’elle a apportee a des desastres naturels tels que l’ouragan Katrina . Flood Forecasting Essay? Du temps d’un Congres controle par une majorite de republicains, les enquetes du Congres etaient relativement limitees et contraintes.

Desormais, avec une majorite de Democrates au sein du Senat et de la Chambre des representants, les commissions du Congres sont en mesure de mener des enquetes approfondies. Pete Def Leppard? Et la question de savoir a quel point ces commissions d’enquete seront efficaces dependra en grande mesure du choix de leurs objectifs et de l’objet ou du sujet de ces enquetes. Flood Essay? L’opinion publique se montrera certainement favorable a des enquetes qu’elle jugera legitimes, telles que celles qui porteraient par exemple sur la corruption potentielle de certaines entreprises de construction avec lesquelles l’administration a traite en Irak. Serine Structure? Afin d’eviter l’embarras potentiel et de serieux dommages politiques, l’administration pourrait bien sur decider d’opposer une resistance a de telles enquetes – mais elle ne pourrait le faire qu’au risque de paraitre s’engager deliberement dans une obstruction a la justice et de se livrer a un camouflage de verites auquel le public a droit. Forecasting? Le Congres a a sa disposition des moyens considerables pour obtenir l’acces aux dossiers et aux temoignages de hauts fonctionnaires de l’Executif. Essay? En effet, les commissions d’enquetes du Congres peuvent emettre des subpoenas (citations a comparaitre), declarer des fonctionnaires en outrage, et invoquer d’autres mesures. Essay? Au cours des six dernieres annees, les democrates ont mene leurs propres enquetes au sujet d’eventuelles mauvaises conduites au sein de la branche executive. Structure? Cependant, etant desormais le parti majoritaire au sein des deux chambres du Congres, il peuvent demander de facon officielle que les departements concernes soumettent tout document requis par le biais de subpoenas , et que les fonctionnaires de l’Executif comparaissent pour temoigner sous serment. Flood Forecasting Essay? Le Congres a non seulement le pouvoir constitutionnel mais egalement le devoir de calibrer la politique nationale lorsque cela s’avere necessaire. I Want My Wife With? En consequence, le public americain devrait bientot etre en mesure de mieux comprendre ce qui a ete accompli au nom de pouvoirs inherents tels que ceux invoques dans les briefs presentes au nom de l’administration dans Hamdan c. Essay? Rumsfeld . Louis Fisher est specialiste pres la Bibliotheque du Congres charge de la bibliotheque juridique. Who Work Time While Attending School In Australia? Il a ete specialiste senior dans le chapitre Separation des Pouvoirs au sein du Service de recherche du Congres.

Auteur de plus de 15 ouvrages, dont American Constitutional Law , et plus de 300 articles, Louis Fisher fut a deux reprises recipiendaire du prix Louis Brownlow de l’Academie nationale d’administration publique, pour Presidential Spending Power (1975) et Constitutional Dialogues (1988). Essay? En 2000, les presses de la State University of transformational processes New York ont edite Politics and forecasting Essay Constitutionalism: The Louis Fisher Connection , collection de huit essais qui analysent l’ensemble de son ?uvre. Nada Mourtada-Sabbah est professeur invitee de droit public a l’universite Paris II et directrice du departement de relations internationales de l’universite americaine de Sharjah (AUS). Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker , 3 juillet 2006, vol. Who Work Part In Australia? 82, N° 20, pp.

44-45 ; Peter Baker et Michael Abramowitz, “A Governing Philosophy Rebuffed”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, p. Essay? A 01. Structure? Les conseillers juridiques de la C.I.A., et les conseillers juridiques des differents services militaires furent eux aussi surpris a l’annonce du decret militaire. Flood Forecasting Essay? Aucun d’entre eux n’avait ete consulte. Processes? John Bellinger III, le conseiller juridique du Conseil de securite nationale et conseiller juridique adjoint de la Maison-Blanche, a qui l’on avait formellement confie la tache de creer une procedure legale pour le jugement de personnes etrangeres soupconnees d’actions terroristes, n’etait pas non plus informe de ce decret qui aurait ete redige dans le secret par David Addington et certains de ses collaborateurs. Forecasting? Sur John Bellinger, voir « Le droit international, nouvel ecueil aux relations transatlantiques ? », Politique americaine , N° 4, Printemps 2006, pp. Transformational Processes? 41-51. Brief for Flood Essay, Respondents, Hamdan c. Pete Def Leppard? Rumsfeld , N° 05-184, Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis, fevrier 2006, p. Essay? 21. Voir Jane Mayer, art. International Who Work Part Time Attending In Australia? cit. Forecasting? , pp. Transformational? 44-45. Hamdan c. Flood Forecasting? Rumsfeld , 126 S.Ct.

2749, 2006. L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve est applicable aux conflits armes non internationaux et enonce en quoi consiste un minimum de traitement humain. En cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des Parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions suivantes : 1. Willis Def Leppard? Les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par maladie, blessure, detention, ou pour toute autre cause, seront, en toutes circonstances, traitees avec humanite, sans aucune distinction de caractere defavorable basee sur la race, la couleur, la religion ou la croyance, le sexe, la naissance ou la fortune, ou tout autre critere analogue. A cet effet, sont et demeurent prohibes, en tout temps et en tout lieu, a l’egard des personnes mentionnees ci-dessus : les atteintes portees a la vie et a l’integrite corporelle, notamment le meurtre sous toutes ses formes, les mutilations, les traitements cruels, tortures et supplices ; les prises d’otages ; les atteintes a la dignite des personnes, notamment les traitements humiliants et degradants ; les condamnations prononcees et les executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Voir Hamdan c. Flood Essay? Rumsfeld , 548 U.S., p. Def Leppard? 73. Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in Flood Congress Over Military Tribunals”, The Washington Post , 13 juillet 2006, p. Pete? A6. Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to Essay Change Military Tribunal System”, The Washington Post , 15 juillet 2006, p. International Who Work Time Attending School In Australia? A6. R. Flood? Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan for processes, Special Courts”, The Washington Post , 3 aout 2006, p. Flood Forecasting Essay? A11. R. Was The Invented? Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand Authority of forecasting Military Courts”, The Washington Post , 2 aout 2006, p. Transformational? A4. Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the forecasting, Name of Essay National Security: Unchecked Presidential Power and forecasting Essay the Reynolds Case , 2006, pp. Serine Structure? 230-240.

Congressional Record , vol. Forecasting Essay? 152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Transformational? S9113. Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on Flood forecasting, Detainees Intensifies”, The Washington Post , 16 septembre 2006, p. Processes? A1. “How 3 G.O.P. Flood Essay? Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”, The New York Times , 17 septembre 2006, p. Transformational Processes? 1. Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan, 20 to forecasting Essay 19”, The Washington Post , 21 septembre 2006, p. International Students Part Attending In Australia? A6. John M. Forecasting Essay? Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP: Influential senators’ challenge to pete willis Bush proposal on forecasting Essay, terrorist suspects keeps issue at serine, cutting edge of Flood security debate”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 18 septembre 2006, p. Where Zipper? 2458. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 2 octobre 2006, p. Flood? 2624. “Profiles in to watch my wife sleep with another guy Cowardice”, The Washington Post , 1 er octobre 2006, p. Forecasting? B6. Eugene Robinson, “Checking the Students Who Work while attending in Australia, Decider”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, Editorial, p. Flood? A27.

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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of Flood Essay formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the transformational, medium of Flood forecasting publication for every cited source.

It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to was the easily adjust your paper to format requirements.

Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of Flood forecasting your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the where was the invented, headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to forecasting Essay be indented a half inch from the left side.

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Short citations If a citation used in the text of Flood forecasting Essay a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to processes quote from Flood forecasting, a book Greenmantle of Giftedness and Education Essay John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in Flood the sentence , just indicate the zipper, page number in forecasting reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line. I Want To Watch My Wife Sleep Another Guy. Quotation marks are not used in this case.

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In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at Flood, the end of Giftedness Essay essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at Flood Essay, P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the and Education Essay, MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from Flood forecasting Essay, P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements.

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If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in forecasting a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to transformational processes Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is Flood Essay usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and processes a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to Flood Essay say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of pete willis MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in Flood forecasting Essay your paper, you need to International Students Who Work Part while in Australia have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc.

MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Flood Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by serine, the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. Flood. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title.

When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in International Students Who Work in Australia front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of Flood Essay publication, the publishing house and the year of and Education publication. Flood Forecasting Essay. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916.

Print. Note: According to pete willis def leppard the update in 2009 for the rules of Flood forecasting formatting MLA style essays, the medium of to watch another guy publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. Forecasting Essay. So be attentive to how you place the first name and International Students Who Work Part while School then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994.

Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. Forecasting. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to structure the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles.

The formatting of newspaper articles in Flood a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and pete def leppard year of publication, followed by forecasting Essay, the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. Structure. The Times. Flood Forecasting. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and where zipper invented not the title of the article. The month of Essay publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.).

Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. And Education Essay. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in forecasting MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. Who Work School In Australia. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. Flood Forecasting. The URL has to processes be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and Essay year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources.

Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. Serine. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is Flood Essay indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in pete def leppard accordance with the Flood forecasting Essay, standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript.

The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and Giftedness and Education Essay the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of Flood Essay its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms:

The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in structure same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the Flood forecasting Essay, MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the i want my wife with guy, sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Flood Conclusion .

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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about what caused the Essay, situation. Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of a situation to a discussion of its results. Was The Invented! Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the question to fit your assignment.

Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence. The answer to the question is your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce?

What is the effect of divorce on children? Does the age of the Essay, child make a difference? How does the divorce of parents affect the dating and def leppard marriage relationships of their children? What is the effect of long distance on relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship?

What causes men to Essay, be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and women's views of Part Time while dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships? What effect does having an abortion have on a dating relationship? What causes children to rebel against their parents? What effect has social media had on Flood forecasting, family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on Who Work Part Time, personality (or career)?

What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to become sexually active? How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the effect of growing up in a single-parent household? What is the effect of being a twin? What the Essay, effect has China's one child had on family relationships? How will the transformational, new two child policy change family dynamics?

What are the effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on Flood forecasting, the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships? What is the effect of family vacations on serine structure, family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in the U.S.? What are the Flood forecasting Essay, effects of growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on Giftedness and Education Essay, children?

What has caused the increase in international adoption in Western countries? What is the effect on children (or adults) of watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the Flood forecasting Essay, effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the cause of men still out-earning women in wages? What is the effect? What is the effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of poor water quality for many people around the world?

What is the where was the zipper invented, effect of people not having shoes to wear? What are the effects of inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and Flood forecasting racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to get jobs? What is the effect on children of growing up in poverty? What has caused the dramatic rise in overweight and obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the serine, effects of forecasting this rise in obesity on to watch my wife with another, the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health?

What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated? What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa? What is the effect of Flood climate change on infectious medical diseases?

What is the transformational processes, effect of globalization on Flood, the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to another, eradicate? What effect does stress have on health? What effect has cancer research had on Flood forecasting Essay, stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer?

What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to invented, be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the Flood, effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health? What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies? What effect does an increased use of technology have on health?

What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of having braces on teeth? What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in the brains of elderly people?

Does online shopping cause people to spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the serine, causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity? What are the effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on Flood forecasting Essay, teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from computers and towards tablets and smartphones have on how we browse the Internet?

What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of serine everyone on the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child? What causes students to think school is Flood forecasting Essay boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in and Education Essay classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the Essay, effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and International Students Who Work in Australia books?

What are the Flood, effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on International Who Work Part attending in Australia, the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the forecasting Essay, actual bullying and fears of transformational processes students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the effect of having an forecasting Essay open high school campus? What is the effect on the education of students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to burn out? What causes some schools to pete willis def leppard, fail to educate students?

What causes American students to lag behind students from other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on forecasting, students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on serine structure, a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education? What caused the Civil War? What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the cause of the increasing interest in forecasting feminism in the 1960s and 1970s?

How were WWII veterans affected by i want with, their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the effects of the Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.?

What was the effect of colonialism on Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and effects of colonialism? In the viewpoint of the British, what were the causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of Flood forecasting Essay immigration on a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of was the zipper online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians?

What was the cause of the destruction of the World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the cause of forecasting Essay increased militancy on the part of North Korea? How to structure, Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Flood, Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Interview Essay Paper Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. Giftedness And Education! Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Flood forecasting Essay, Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. Where Was The Zipper Invented! I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students.

I have traveled in China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is a great sight for forecasting my informational reading and writing class its good. Hi thanks for serine structure helping me. these topics are really good.. Forecasting Essay! i used some of processes these topics for my projects and Flood forecasting got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for transformational hub about Essay relationships. Where Zipper! Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on Flood forecasting Essay, my life. Thanks for structure your LARGE ammount of Flood forecasting tips.

These topics really helped me for school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States. Willis Def Leppard! Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and forecasting effect for making it lol. WOW this is super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis. Serine Structure! Wow.

There are a lot things that cause and effect. Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of these topics through the years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work! Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. Flood Forecasting Essay! I have a cause and effect essay to type for my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic.

Your website and Part attending in Australia topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you. Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Great topics. Essay! James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. Pete! They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and Flood Essay also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing.

Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to read. I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. Def Leppard! I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here.

Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for all categories. Well done. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an Flood Essay effect upon as well as to influence. Willis Def Leppard! I will double check my usage in this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an error. Flood! Thanks!

Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. Students Who Work Time School In Australia! This will come in handy for my English class. Thanks.

I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about Essay it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is Who Work while in Australia something different innovative. Vote up!

Thanks! This is Flood helpful. Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Serine! Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to Flood Essay, point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in different types of courses. I think considering cause and effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the Students Who Work while attending in Australia, situation. Flood Forecasting! Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Sometimes it is hard to pull them apart. Where Zipper! That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for Flood Essay the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in a situation.

Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance. Where Was The Zipper! I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is effective. The cause is Flood Essay what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to was the zipper, take into consideration to Essay, the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Great topics! Voted up and shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Transformational Processes! Leidy--That is a great essay topic.

I think that some of that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to have my students check out some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Flood Forecasting Essay! Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of zipper essays before, and Flood forecasting I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent.

Thank you for sharing. Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. This is something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. Transformational! Going to pass this along and of course vote up. Flood Essay! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and Students Who Work Part while attending in Australia respective owners. Other product and forecasting Essay company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and structure Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on Flood forecasting, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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CIA Agent Career, Salary and Training Info – CIA Careers. If you are seeking global employment opportunities, consider a career with the Central Intelligence Agency. The CIA offers a wide variety of important positions to those who want to serve their country around the Flood forecasting, world. You may think of the Clandestine Service Officers who gather intelligence but there are also positions for processes, those trained in science, technology, analysis, foreign language and engineering as well as administrative positions. You will be required to pass a medical exam which includes drug testing. Forecasting! Recreational use of drugs in the past will not disqualify you with the CIA but current drug use will. A polygraph will be required. The technology associated with polygraph testing has become more reliable which makes it difficult to fool the analyst administering the procedure. You will be subject to a complete background check. The methods, depth and guidelines of background checks are not publicized by the CIA but the investigation is not limited to your background.

It may include checking family members and asking questions of neighbors among other things. Background checks can take months to complete. The first step in processes, applying to work for the CIA is submitting a resume that conforms to a very detailed format that must be followed exactly. A college degree with a GPA of 3.0 is Flood Essay, required while an advanced degree may be considered a factor in awarding promotions and overseas assignments. See: what college courses do you need to have a CIA career? Fluency in a second language is extremely desirable in applicants for serine, CIA positions and currently middle-eastern languages carry a lot of weight in forecasting Essay, the hiring process. Training for a CIA Special Agent lasts 12 months at a facility near Washington, D.C. Training for new CIA employees now includes video games. This is a new addition to the extensive training program. The CIA understands the toll paid in human life that could be the result of a poorly trained intelligence agent. By adding videos they can train and evaluate trainee capabilities in a virtual world where safety is not an issue.

Formerly known as Clandestine Service Trainee, an International Students School in Australia Operations Officer will earn between $55,215 and $84,044 with the salary based on forecasting their level of willis qualifications and Flood forecasting Essay, education. Assignments outside the country vary in serine structure, salary level depending on geographic location – bonuses may be adjusted by location. Other benefits include paid moving expenses, health insurance and retirement plans, continuing education programs, holidays, sick leave, and family support including provisions for family-friendly leave. When you work for the CIA you will follow one of five general career paths. These are Science, Engineering and Technical, National Clandestine Service, Language Opportunities, Analytical Opportunities and Support Services.

If you are considering a career as a CIA Operative, you might look into Essay, programs offered for undergraduate internships for students, co-ops, and graduate studies programs. All of these offer practical work experience along with education to serine prepare the student for Flood Essay, a career in Students, the CIA. Article written by Flood, Radek Gadek. Radek holds a Master’s degree in Criminal Justice from transformational, Boston University. He is currently doing consulting work and forecasting Essay, runs this blog to provide relevant information on criminal justice degrees, colleges and related careers. For anyone interested in a in-person seminar specifically on landing a job in the CIA, the Foreign Policy Association is offering one entitled “CIA Careers Decoded” … you can find a link to it at http://www.FPAU.org. Would you have a better chance at where was the zipper invented working for the CIA or the FBI? I am 16 years old and taking college classes and trying to Flood forecasting Essay figure out what I want to do after I graduate.

Thanks. It’s like predicting the weather for the next month. It’s very hard to gauge which agency will have the and Education Essay, need to hire agents at the time when you would be even considered. Things like current political affairs, threats to Homeland security, and the rate of retiring special agents has a lot to do with when these two agencies will open their doors to new recruits. I’m a 35 year old male and I have a interest in CIA career. I worked all my life been working since high school been on my present job now since I graduated in 1994.

I wanted to Flood know if CIA has an age limit for entrance thank you. The CIA hires people of many ages. While certain positions may have age limits, others may not. The best way to find out pete willis, is to contact CIA recruitment directly. The age limit is 35 or 36 as far as I know. That’s what a cop told me for career interviews. the limit of age is 35 but the age limit may be waived in certain uses. Hi, im 13 years old and very interseted in the CIA. Flood Essay! I guess i want to processes be a “spy”.

Im fluent in Flood, English, and Urdu which is commonly used in Pakistan. Im a US cittizen my parents or siblings have never had a sip of alcohol or had any drugs. This because it is not allowed in structure, my religion. Flood Forecasting Essay! I was thinking that since Im Muslim, would that increase or decrease my chances to be in structure, the CIA. Or not effect it at all? Also, what should i major in, Criminal Justice? Please help me out! I want to start doing all the things i need to do now so it is not harder in the future. Also, do you think I can be in Flood, the CIA? Help me out and thank you for your time. There’s no say if being Muslim will get you in the CIA or not – it’s all based on transformational the need of the agency at Flood forecasting a given time – but Urdu is a great language to speak when considering work in the federal government, especially CIA.

I would love to tell you what you need to do step by step, but that’s not feasible. Try to willis def leppard stay out of Flood Essay trouble, for where zipper, one. Essay! Consider that the CIA hires from the age of 18, college education and willis, other languages are a big plus. As for majoring in Flood Essay, Criminal Justice and structure, being a Clandestine Services Operative, I don’t necessarily advocate one degree over another. The CIA updates their requirements, including the desired extras, on their website. You should check it out. Thanks for your help. im 13 years too and i wanna be a spy too. it dosent matter if you are muslim as long as you are a us citizen. Posting your interest in joining the agency will hurt your chances of a career within CIA, just contact the agency directly.

Don’t like them on FB, don’t announce an Flood forecasting Essay interview, and don’t post the want to where was the zipper invented become a spy thing. Hi, I am also 13, and I’m doing a research career paper on the C.I.A Covert Ops division. I’m learning Korean, and I plan to learn Russian, A middle eastern language and Flood, a few more. I would love some more information on any details you might have. Who Work Part While Attending School In Australia! Or another website would be great thank you. I’m Conrad (17)from South Africa. I always want to become a CIA special agent or a spy. I’am still in school grade 11. I can speak Afrikaans, English and Sotho. At the moment i learn speak Chinesse and Russian.

I have a clean history. Flood Forecasting! I also have training in certian weapons. When i am done with school i going to sign up to where become an Flood forecasting Essay American. Serine! What is my chance of forecasting Essay becoming an agent? What must i do more?

Thank you. No one knows what your chances are. It depends on i want to watch with individual or broad criteria. College education is a plus, but careers at the CIA start as early as 18. I believe you need a 1500 on the SAT 3.0 GPA or better.

But since you know all those languages you might be special. Hi my name is Jesse and Flood Essay, im currently a freshmen in high school in Colorado. I began to become interested in zipper invented, working for the CIA when i went to D.C and visited the spy museum. I have now began to look further into this carrier and found out I am fully capable of working for the CIA. I play almost every sport there is and im good in all of them; im wondering if my athletic edge will give me heads up. im also wondering what classes should i take in high school/College if i follow this carrier. My grades are great but i need to start learning more languages all i know are English and Spanish. Thanks for taking the time to read this! I hope to hear back! There are really no classes in forecasting Essay, high school that can prepare you for Giftedness, the CIA. Very often it is the language skills, the original citizenship and knowledge of your own country, and Essay, definitely interpersonal skills — even the way you look — that the CIA is interested in. Yes, high school grades may be important, and yes, there can be some classes that can help you delve into new realms, but those classes are usually in where, college and not high school.

Languages, Psychology, Political Science, History (of a specific country that CIA has important operations in – turn on Essay the TV to find that out ), and other courses can be useful. Physical aptitude can help. My name is Michael and I would like a career in the CIA as a Clandestine Services Core Collector. Would you please e-mail me information on processes this, and also how to get into the CIA. For instance do I need to forecasting Essay get a masters in criminal justice? The CIA’s Clandestine Service Core Collector (CO) is a very interesting career path.

I don’t have direct access to the CIA, but you can go to CIA.GOV to find out Students Who Work attending, more information. Find out here – what courses and degree programs does CIA prefer? you can get a bachelors degree and still go to the cia. Hi im 15 im from new york and im interested in becoming something in the criminal justice field like csi agent or detective but i dont know which is better and i would like to know if being a female decreases your chances in becoming a detective because ive never really heard of a female doing that career im sure there’s some but ive never heard or seen. Im fluent in Spanish and English i know a lot of Italian im not fluent but i do know most of it and i know sign language (i doubt that’s needed though) also how many years of collage do you need for this career? 1. Yes females are an forecasting Essay integral part of law enforcement and there are a lot of female detectives. You should check out some cable/satellite reality crime TV shows to see what the to watch guy, job consists off (featuring female detectives).

2. Your language skills are very helpful (Spanish is a great asset). 3. Some careers may require no college at the time of application and others, like at many federal law enforcement agencies, you will need a college degree (ie. Bachelors). going with the questions here, I want to know how I can make my resume better. I am currently 18 years old, a first year college student, and a biology nutrition double major. My first semester GPA was a 4.0. I can also read, write and speak Urdu fluently.

By birth I’m American though and have strong pride in forecasting Essay, my country. How do I get myself noticed? strong academics, great interpersonal skills, knowledge of and Education Essay other cultures and languages, and of course… apply for the position. I’m sure there’s more. Could you please help me out? I know that I am interested in doing “spy” work, but I’m confused. Forecasting Essay! What is the difference between a core collector, operations officer, and collection management officer? Thanks for your help. visit the Giftedness and Education, CIA website for more info. Flood Forecasting! Their site is International Part Time while attending School in Australia, rich in information you seek.

I am interested in the CIA because it runs in my blood. Flood Essay! I hope I pass my tests so I can be of help to pete my government. That’s the wrong answer. You should want to help the American people Christina, not the government. WE ARE the government. Hi, I am interested in becoming a member of the CIA. I am just a freshman in high school but I do imagine there are training programs for forecasting Essay, people/students of my age. I am currently doing 3 sports in school and I have decent grades(3.4-3.7). Zipper Invented! I am athletic and feel like I am qualified (sounds cheezy doesn’t it?) haha. I took a course of forecasting Essay Japanese in 7th grade and got familiar with the language.

But then my school district took it out and now only offer Spanish and International Students Who Work while, German which Is ok but I really liked learning Japanese. Ive never done drugs and Flood forecasting Essay, the only invented time I’ve ever had alcoholic anything is at church In one of those tiny plastic cups for communion soo Im pretty. sure I’m clean. (make that “I’m positive I’m clean). I have no criminal record and forecasting Essay, neither do my parents. Noo chance right here ^^^^ Quick question: Exactly what does the where, CIA Special Agents do? I am a freshman at forecasting Essay pvamu considering the criminal justice field especially becoming an CIA Agent. Thanks in advance, Best place to serine find out is cia.gov — only Flood forecasting Essay don’t be surprised the where invented, position is Flood forecasting, not under “CIA Agent.”

CIA employees and field officers are officers not agents, the was the zipper invented, reason being they are not a law enforcement agency, rather an intelligence agency, no agents or special agents. That’s a tv thing. I’m currently in college, and working my way in obtaining in Flood forecasting Essay, a major in business and theatrical arts. I was curious, since I am not undergoing a degree in Criminal Justice, will this in anyway hinder my chances to was the zipper become involved with the NCS? I’m economically smart, socially skilled, and Flood Essay, have great interest in political affairs. Transformational! I’m also fluent in a foreign language, and in great physical shape. Also, Redek, have you been employed by an intelligence agency before? That’s just out of my curiosity :)

Thanks in advance, I am a 17 year old and I realized that I want to be in Flood forecasting Essay, the CIA. Two years ago my uncle referred me to the CIA and they looked at my transcripts and apparently they were amazed with me. I speak over pete willis, ten languages. I speak English, Spanish, German, French, Russian, Chinese, Arabic, Urdu, Japanese and Korean. Essay! I am also able to interpret sign language. I have a clean record throughout my whole life.

I also have only went to transformational pretentious schools and kept a 4.0 throughout my whole school career. I also am a third degree black belt in forecasting Essay, Tajustu, Karate, Tae Kwon Do and Jujitsu. I also am trained in weaponry and a sharpshooter. Serine Structure! I could not have been able to get here without my uncle’s help and I really appreciate it. All I have to say is don’t give up on your dreams. LOL :-) .. you had me at pretentious. Oh my god you are awesome! how did you get all the time to do this. When did you start learning all those languages and where and how did you learn them? Please tell me. You sound exactly like me! I LOVE languages!

Kudos to you my fellow polyglot! I will see you in the CIA. Flood Essay! :) Oh my God seriously? No wonder they were impressed!! Do you mind sharing how you learned so many languages? I only speak English and I’m becoming a little fluent in German and serine, I did take an online course in forecasting Essay, Chinese but I stopped. I really want to learn more languages and Giftedness and Education, be in the NCS so if you don’t mind sharing how you learned so many languages, it would be greatly appreciated. what is the central intelligence agency campus and by Flood Essay, me being a fighter and I’ve did karate for 9 years and kung fu for 6 and to watch my wife sleep with another, i handle weapons all the time when it n danger but ive always make good grades and im very smart.will that increase my chance of being in the CIA but i really want to be a assassin. Okay yeah, I’ve been to the CIA.gov website a bunch of times, I still don’t know exactly what job I should take. I wanted to be a “spy” or “secret agent” one that gets all the action and gets to go undercover.

I think I want to be in the Clandestine Services but what else? Someone please explain. I’m almost 13 and ever since I was 9 I have wanted to be in the CIA, I’m taking Spanish next year because my school doesn’t provide any other languages. When I pass Spanish I can take any other language class in high school. I was in Flood forecasting Essay, martial arts, I got my blue belt but I can’t find another place to finish my black belt.

I plan on learning kickboxing, and more, I am going to take a speech and to watch my wife with another guy, debate class in high school. I don’t know what else to do. I plan on learning at least 8 different languages, and going to college. I’m in an advanced Algebra class next year, and in an advanced English class. I need to Flood Essay know what I should major in and what classes I should take in high school and pete willis def leppard, college. I don’t need to be told, “doesn’t matter just have a 3.0 or better.” I want to have some recommendations so I know what to do, my best friend wants to room with me in college but she thinks she wants to be a model or actress or athlete or something she isn’t really sure so I don’t know how my desired career fits with hers. PLEASE HELP!! Oh and Flood forecasting, I got ISS for kicking a kid in the beginning of the and Education, school year, would that effect anything?

Oh and are there any summer camps to train for the CIA, for Essay, kids and stuff?? And due to the fact that I’m a girl no one thinks I can make it in the CIA, when I tell some one that’s what I want to do, they say fat chance. I know I’m going to willis get in the CIA, doesn’t matter what I have to do. That’s a handful… I think, since CIA hires from the Flood Essay, age of 18 (usually a non-college-graduate age), that they are looking for more than good grades. I mentioned some of the another guy, things in the comments throughout the page, but CIA provides great hints at what it wants on their website. You should check it out again.

Don’t just skim it over.. I just turned 13 in late November and I am probably not as qualified for Flood Essay, the CIA as you (kudos to transformational that) because I only speak English and German and I’m not even fluent in it. Also, I can fight and I’m dying to start kickboxing, but I also have been researching this since I was 11. But I’m a girl. Anyways, if you could contact me, it would be amazing to speak to someone with the same career desires :) I am a freshman in college still undecided with my major…. I have been thinking about forecasting Essay, Criminology (closest my school has to criminal justice).

What do you think of this major in conjunction with a minor in a language? I am already semi-fluent in German but I am not sure if that is a particularly valued language with the CIA. I think Criminology would probably be better than Criminal Justice, but be aware that the Who Work Part while attending, CIA is a different breed of Flood forecasting agency. It wants people with all types of skills, and that includes all types of academic and professional backgrounds. i was wondering if there was a mix of transformational undercover or “spy” work and engineering in any criminal justice jobs i think im going to major in Flood forecasting, criminal justice and minor get an associates in some kind of engineering. Just curious im an Giftedness adult college student 34 going to be majoring in business admin. taking judo as well hopefully. Both parents of mine were in state govt jobs for 30 years. Does your parents past connections and occupations help with the CIA ‘s decision in your employment? I just wanna serve doesnt have to be an agent but just anything.

Parents know the states top people well and was just curious if that has any impact in their background checks? Also can you work for them if you have a heart murmur? even a minor one? The serving thing its family tradition. So i ve always wanted to be in Essay, some kind of serine structure govt job. Also im not the Flood Essay, greatest at lying. Grew up mennonite but from a mennonite/military/navy/govt family. Yeah i know weird combo lol. Can you just be a regular person at processes the CIA? Hey I don’t speak any other languages besides English and a little Spanish I am very athletic and smart i am a second degree black belt in karate and I don’t know what else I need to do to become a CIA agent.

With exceptional grades in your Major of choice, fluency in a foreign language, writing skills, and Flood, interpersonal skills, would this alone qualify someone for a position (clandestine or otherwise) within the CIA upon graduation from college, even without significant work experience? Thank you for i want to watch sleep another, any feedback. Looking to apply for Flood forecasting Essay, the CIA but not sure what type of drug testing Is performed urine blood or hair testing. Processes! Can someone help me? Thanks. If you are joining the CIA just to be an “assassin” then I suggest you don’t even bother applying. Essay! You gotta realize that what you see in movies may or may not be necessarily how the agency does it in Students Who Work Part while School, real life. Even then, the movies glamorize killing, but have you ever done it. Flood Essay! Seeing someone die on t.v. is one thing, but pulling the trigger on someone in real life is transformational, entirely different. Think that over before you apply. Thanks for Flood forecasting Essay, saying this, I was thinking the same thing from reading the posts.

It’s not a game, it’s real life and people shouldn’t join just to be a gun-toting killer. Hey at pete willis 17 i am an IB senior. I don’t have glorified dreams of being an assassin or a spy, but i would love to help in Flood forecasting Essay, the ways I can. The problem is i can’t apply for the student program at the time because of the pete willis, fact that you have to be 18 by April 1rst of your senior year, and my birthday is a couple months after. Born and raised in the U.S, both my parents belong to the Military, specifically the Flood forecasting, Air force. I am not asking my chances, because from reading above it is all circumstantial. Pete Willis! However it mentions on their site that to be an investigator you must have at least three years of prior experience with complex cases. Now I don’t mind working my way up from the streets but what if you aren’t assigned complicated investigations, either due to a lull in crime, or the area you belong too? Would it count if you were under their internship for the summer between classes? Particularly if you wish to specialize in homicide or the like. Speaking of which, i guess i truly have to wait until after a turn 18 turn apply for an internship because they are not going to Flood wave that through, huh?

I wanted to get an early as possible start, though for investigation i may have to work up from police officer anyway. I know the degree doesn’t matter, but botany isn’t high on their list. So would it beneficial to double Major Criminal Justice and Botany and minor in some form of engineering? Sorry, sorry. So many questions, so little text box, and pete, it seems very few people answering. So i will wait for my turn and Flood forecasting, reply.

Best of luck to all who read this, and those who don’t!” hi i need to ask any Asians or Pakistani can also apply or not. im 20 n ready to work in any part of world especially pakistan as a spy or detective or any post. I would think that Asians or Pakistani natives / speakers would be permitted to apply. As for the second part, that all depends on was the zipper agency needs. I’m just about to ETS out of the Army. I am currently deployed in afghanistan and i have a special interest in this line of work to make it a career. Flood Forecasting! I was wondering if the where was the zipper invented, CIA usually hires EX military with a secret security clearance? To say whether or not they NORMALLY hire ex military is impossible, but it will help depending on how long you served, how many times you deployed, where you deployed, etc. Im a sophomore, I’m really interested in working for the CIA, but I don’t know which area I want to Flood go. I either want to do clandestine service, because from looking at the website it seems like they are the ones in and Education, the middle of the action, and I like that, but at Flood forecasting Essay the same time, my family was directly affected by structure, 9-11 (my dad worked at the hotel in Flood Essay, between the towers) and Students Who Work while, I feel like I almost have to something in counterterrorism. Forecasting Essay! Do they overlap at all? Which should I choose?

I’m a high school freshman and with another guy, am interested in becoming a CIA core collector/ operations officer or sso-t when I grow up. I have a 4.2 GPA at Flood forecasting Essay the moment and am learning to be fluent in Hebrew. I am very experienced in professional acting and am learning Krav Maga. I plan on learning Urdu and/or Arabic other languages. Pete Willis! I’m intermediate in Spanish also, from school.

I don’t play any sports, but I might start doing cross country. I am also highly skilled with recording and Essay, A/V equipment. Am I a good fit for transformational, these positions and Flood forecasting, if not what can I do to be a better fit. Also, is a major in international affairs in college good because I might plan to serine major in Flood, that? Hello, I have completed my Bachelors degree in information science and I did a module called competitive intelligence where we looked at pete the information of our competitors and applied it to gain competitive intelligence. When I completed this module I realized that I actually enjoy gathering information and analyzing it to get actionable intelligence. I am interested in working for the CIA what should I do to be part of it? I’m currently 28 and have a BS in Psychology.

I graduated Summa Cum Laude at the top of my class with a 3.8 GPA. I will be finished with my Master’s in Cyber-security in 2 years. Forecasting! I am taking Chinese classes but not sure whether I will be fluent. International Students Part Attending School In Australia! I have great analytical and Essay, interpersonal skills. I have interest in either being an Intelligence Officer, Information Assurance or working in the Clandestine Support Services. Pete Willis! I am currently making about 80k a year at my current job. Flood! Do you see me having trouble getting into the CIA at the age of 30 and with my experience? What can I do to set myself aside from the younger people just now graduating or those who’ve been in Giftedness and Education Essay, the field a very long time? Thanks so much for this feed! i keep seeing that excellent communication skills are needed for forecasting Essay, becoming a CIA agent, im not exactly a “social butterfly” but that doesn’t mean i cant have good communication skills, right? my view on Giftedness communications skills was your ability to communicate a point clearly with out creating problems with a good understanding of the other person’s ideas and what they are talking about. so what exactly is the CIA looking for when they ask for communication skills or interpersonal skills? also, how many languages does the average CIA agent speak? if you need a more specific branch, i have been looking into the clandestine service and i think im interested in the operations officer but im still in Essay, high school so i have plenty of time to change my mind :P.

ps – i have found your website SO useful, thanks!! I’m 18 and unlike everyone i wasn’t really planning on getting into all this, but i am interested. I don’t have really high accolades compared to a lot of processes these people, all i have really going for me is that i’m mexican american so yes i know spanish fluently and english of course, i’m athletic and fit and played basketball for forecasting Essay, 9 years, and to describe myself in 3 words would be tough, passionate, and where was the zipper, loyal person. Though it seems none of that seems to really help my case, i did do some research and the field i was most interested in was Paramilitary Operations Officers. So my first question is if there are women in Essay, this field, and transformational processes, if so how do you get qualified for this field? my second question is that I took off a semester of school and Flood forecasting, will be starting up again in the fall at a junior college, but for that field can you give me a few suggestions of what i should major in this would help a lot. thank you. i haven’t heard of any woman POO. However if you want to become a POO, you must be ex-special force member ( DEVGRU, any seal team, Delta force,… I work in JSOC (Joint Special Operations Command), and I believe I can answer that question for to watch sleep with another, you. It is policy that in order to Essay qualify for Part Time while attending in Australia, POO you must have served in an SOF (Special Operations Force). I am sorry to Flood forecasting Essay say that the transformational processes, military does not accept females in Flood, SOF positions.

You sound very qualified for an SOF but the def leppard, only thing I could say is Flood Essay, work hard on those grades, the average SOF member is about as smart as a Harvard student. I am sorry to be the bearer of bad news. I am currently an undecided major.. Transformational Processes! Not quite sure which area of field I want to Flood go in.. But i was curious if the CIA accepts people with a liberal arts degree?? Does the where was the zipper invented, CIA accept people with Criminal Justice Degrees? And if so what would you go into with the CIA? Since i’ve read around here that a second language is highly recommended, especially middle eastern languages such as Arabic. In 5-10 years, is Flood, that language still going to be highly desired?

Are any Chinese languages desired at all? or mostly just Arabic types. Arabic, Chinese and other Asian derived languages (Japanese, Mandarin, Korean, to name just a few.) will be desired. Think of it this way, as long as the US perceives threats in transformational processes, foreign countries, that country’s / state’s language capabilities and Flood forecasting Essay, cultural awareness will be very desired. Hello I’m Nikita and I was wondering if I need special skills to become an CIA officer. I understand that you will be trained once hired, but do u need to be able to transformational fight before u join CIA?

Please answer- btw I speak Korean, some Spanish, and Russian. I’m a (partially independent) foreign languages student. I’m 22 years old and in Flood Essay, my first year of college. I’m fluent in Spanish, English, Italian, French; and, currently, receptive in Portuguese. Sleep With! I’m also studying Esperanto, independently, and will be starting German next semester. Furthermore, I’m interested in learning Greek, Chinese and Arabic. I’ve done some research in Essay, internship opportunities.

The CIA and UNO are my top considerations. I’m looking to benefit both professionally and academically in the field of foreign languages (particularly translation). Can you describe the ”typical” work environment? What opportunities does the CIA offer to help increase knowledge and proficiency in foreign languages? What opportunities do they offer to low income individuals and minorities? Finally, how competitive is this field?

hey :D, my mom works for serine structure, the NSA. and i wanted to Flood be in where invented, the CIA. probably as an Flood Essay agent. I speak arabic, english. Who Work Part In Australia! im so fluent in arabic without even an accent since i lived in Flood, all sorts of places thanks to my mom and serine, her job. i lived in Egypt, and Flood forecasting Essay, went Germany. i can speak german a bit since i was in a german school in International Students Who Work Part while attending, the 8 grade but anyways im in 11 grade ( american school). i understand how middle easterners cooperate, traditions etc. my grades in school well excluding my freshman year are terrific. was thinking of going to Flood Essay college taking some type of engineering. Anyways main point is that i want to know what else can i do? i really want to i want guy join. I am a lebanese/canadian (dual nationality) citizen, about to enter college as a freshman here in Beirut, and I am fluent in 4 languages (English, French, Arabic and Spanish). On top of that I’m gonna get a BA in psychology. I think I have the Flood forecasting, criteria necessary to be a CIA agent working behind a desk, but does the International Part Time while in Australia, fact that I am not American affect my chances of being a CIA agent? Ibrahim M. Nsouli. Sadly yes it does, the CIA only hires American citizens.

This is for Essay, reasons of national security. The belief is that American citizens will be more loyal to protecting and carrying out sleep with another, Americas interests. While foreigners (Canadians, etc) are more likely to disobey and leak information that can threaten National security. Throughout history this belief has remained very sound. I encourage you to get your American citizenship. I’m a freshman in college and currently on the pre-med track. Essay! But over pete def leppard, the past few months I’ve been researching and dabbling around in careers the CIA has to offer. Flood! I’m definitely a thrill seeker and I’m wondering if a job in the CIA, particularly within the def leppard, Clandestine services, would better suit me. Does being female limit your possibilities as far as where you could work? If you are fluent in arabic, and meet the requirements to be an officer, will being female keep you from performing certain operations?

Working overseas in the Middle East for example and etc. I am 18 year old high school graduate. I want to become a CIA agent but I don’t know where to start. Flood Forecasting Essay! Should I go to the military? If so, what branch should I join? All my life I’ve wondered is Essay, being in the CIA like it is on movies? Hi, I was wondering would you have to be a US citizen to be apart of the CIA? Yes, this is to ensure that the CIA will be at less risk of infiltration. Flood! You see if you are a citizen of a country you are most likely going to transformational processes remain loyal to it.

If you were North Korean and joined the CIA and forecasting, were not american chances are you would leak sensitive information back to North Korea to protect your precious country. The best way to where zipper prevent this is by ensuring that all members of the CIA are U.S citizens. I absolutely love the law enforcement, I’ve always wanted to Flood go to college and get my master’s degree in Essay, Criminal Justice, Criminology, C.I.A, A Private Investigator, and an F.B.I agent. my dad’s side of the Flood Essay, family is in the law enforcement my great aunt works with the government and transformational, my cousin went from being in the swat team to a FBI agent n then FBI undercover and now he is in Flood Essay, the CIA… I really want to become something in the law enforcement i really love the shows like Criminal Minds, Flashpoint, Leverage, Cold Case, the Closer. I really love pushing myself in serine, life, I don’t believe in quitting.. I hope to achieve my goals i have set in life :) Hi, I’m 17 years old and currently in my Junior year in high school. Flood Forecasting Essay! I would like to transformational processes work for forecasting Essay, the CIA like a CSI detective. And Education Essay! I’m fluent in both spanish and english and I was born in Essay, Puerto Rico, but now live in Pennsylvania for 9 years. Does me being born in Puerto Rico not get me a job in the CIA? can you join the cia before applying for college? im thinking about joining and where was the zipper, then doing college at the same time.

Hello,i am 21 this year n doing my degree in law. I am interested in joining the Flood forecasting, cia due to its internationally recognized reputation plus i want to put my skills to pete def leppard something useful. Currently, i am well trained in taekwando, aikido and krav maga. Essay! I am planning on taking wing chun soon. I am fluent in Students Who Work while attending in Australia, english, malaysian malay, indonesian malay, tamil, hindi, urdu. I am planning to Essay learn mandarin and russian soon. I am good when it comes to serine structure analysing and acting fast.

I dont mind taking any positions in the cia but i dont have a citizenship. However i have heard cases where if you are an asset, you will be considered. Flood Essay! Is that true? In almost all the cases of processes non-american citizen exceptions, people who prove valuable assets are put on contract by the CIA. Flood Forecasting Essay! They are not actually part of the CIA, they just work for them.

So they get no real security clearance or protection from the CIA. I would suggest you get your U.S citizenship. My name is Cathy. I was a prior military but my job in the military doesn’t really count for CIA experience. I’m a sophomore college student and majoring in business administration specially for human resource. I was hoping to get a job as a human resource in the CIA. I also speak english, spanish and learning korean. My question is how competitive administrative job in the CIA and can you please tell me if its better to apply to have a BA degree or higher?

Hey, I am really interested in CIA or maybe even FBI, but mostly CIA. Serine Structure! I tried searching on their website if there is Flood forecasting, a height requirement for where zipper invented, the Clandestine Services, but had no luck in finding it. So, I’m seeing if you have any clue at all if there is a requirement in height. Well, I’m 15 now and 5 foot 3. I hope you can answer. There is no height requirement in the CIA.

Unless your physical condition prohibits you from being able to complete the physical requirements of CIA qualification. Hope this helps. I’m 15 can speak English and Spanish learning Russian and plan to learn Arabic, I want to be in the cia, but not really as a spy. I was wondering if anyone knew of Essay a cia Job where I would carry a gun, MAYBE have a desk and go in the field every once in a while?? Or a job in the cia that might come close to that description, or one that might sound like its for International Part Time, me. The CIA website specifically says that it requires prior residency abroad. Does it matter where? And for how long?

I am 18 years old and I am wondering if I should major in Economics, Political Science or Philosophy, will minoring in Eco or PoliSci while majoring in Philosophy be useful, I am also very fluent in Spanish is this a language that the forecasting, CIA find as an asset? Thank you for your time. I was wondering what types of medical exams the CIA does on you while you go through their rounds. I have a certain medical issue, that although wouldn’t hinder my work in any way, I fear they will rule me out because of this. Any advice would be appreciated. Thank you. does the transformational processes, CIA take people from other countries such as South Africa. so i mean…. is this a good career choice for women?

Im 17 and very interested in different cultures and human behavior, I want a fulfilling career. What job would fit this criteria? I also really would like to Flood forecasting travel the world. Does the CIA have traveling opportunities? Hello im 14 years old and I’m looking to join the clandestine service when i graduate college. International Who Work Part School In Australia! Its been my dream to be a “spy” it might look like hard work to go to Flood forecasting Essay the CIA but I know anything is possible as long as its locked in your mind. I’m taking classes to learn Mandarin Chinese this year. Im looking to transformational processes learn Russian, German and Urdu and hopefully many more languages. Im fluent in forecasting, English and I’m Hispanic so i know spanish also. please give me some advice to start knowing what to do when i get there and how to even get there. Thanks! I found this link while searching for college grants.

I have always had a special interest in the CIA. Always. I feel like I was born with special and unique skills. I am starting school this summer. Structure! I am free to travel, as my children have been grown a long time. I am 60. I did read there are special instances when you use older people. Flood Essay! I am so excited about def leppard, this opportunity.

My Father was in the CIA. Thank you for Flood forecasting Essay, your consideration. Hello I have one question I cant seem to find an Students Time School answer to it to be a protective agent for the cia does gender matter? I am 26 years old and speak 5 languages fluently, oral and written with a native accent . English, Italian, Albanian, Macedonian and Spanish. I also have a Bachelors in forecasting, Music. I have lived abroad for Part Time while attending School, many years and now I am back in the US. What career can I apply for and what are my chances of Flood forecasting getting hired by where invented, the CIA?

Hi I am 16 years old and i want to be in forecasting Essay, the CIA or the FBI. I am in JROTC and i am a really hard worker in school (that’s what my teachers say) i am in serine structure, Wrestling and Track, i speak 4 languages 1. (English) 2.(Punjabi) 3.(Urdu) 4.(Hindi). I am currently learning Spanish and hopefully i will be fluent in Essay, a year or 2. I am in the Junior police explores in my county in with guy, Maryland. I have never gotten suspended or in any kind of trouble with my school or the law. Me and forecasting Essay, my family are clean (no criminal records at all) no drugs or anything. I would like to know how my chances are of getting into the CIA or the FBI if i keep trying my best…..i plan on going to West Point to pursue my education after high school. Please tell me its been my dream to work for the CIA or the Students Part Time attending, FBI……….And if i go in the military and am a second lieutenant would that greatly increase my chances of getting in. I don’t see why most of the comments are intergrated with them wanting to be a spy. Flood! Yes, it’s all great to be a spy like in the movies or be inspired by the people who were or are in the CIA database considered as a spy. Most of the CIA positions do not involve being a spy, as the CIA is an and Education Essay agency that intergrates special intelligence and records into the system.

Most of which is Flood forecasting Essay, confidental and not many people know about the disclosed information. I for one would be interested in a CIA position or an FBI position in invented, that line of forecasting duty. I’m less than a month of turning 19 year’s old. I currently work as a Private Security Guard under the structure, state of Texas. I have yet to discover my full potential in entering the line of work we call Law Enforcement. It wouldn’t be a bad idea following the forecasting, line of willis work i’m currently in. Flood Forecasting! It would be great if I can pursue this line of work and rank up on transformational processes my yet to be future in Law Enforcement. Thanks for Flood Essay, taking the time to read my comment, went a little bit out of structure topic. I hope you get some more information in the later future. Hello, my name is Pavel Petrukhin I was born in Voronezh, Russia and Essay, moved to the U.S at serine the age of 5. I am currently debating how I could contribute to the CIA program and a couple things concern me. Forecasting Essay! So I have a few questions and I am looking for some insides on i want my wife sleep guy how I can manage to get into the program.

I speak Russian and English both, I’m extremely physically compatible for this job as well as mentally prepared. Unfortunately, I am lacking some degrees and qualifications (due to age) to be able to compete for Flood forecasting Essay, a position. I would like to know what would be some first steps I can do to earn a way into the program. Would it be through military service or more of education. Will I also be able to acquire the necessary skills in the military to succeed in a career such as the CIA.

I’m interested in maintaining security through either technology or physical action. Please get back to me as soon as you can, thank you! – Pavel. Find schools and get information on the program that’s right for you. Have you ever wondered what courses does a Criminal Justice program consist of? Check out and Education Essay, some of the courses you may take when pursuing your Criminal Justice degree.

Don't know where to start? Check out some of the most insightful articles on Essay careers, colleges and degree options in the criminal justice field.

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Everything You Need to Know About the Patent Bar Exam. September 26, 2013. In order to represent clients before the U.S. Forecasting! Patent Office it is where was the invented, necessary to forecasting Essay take and pass the Patent Bar Examination. Where Was The! In order to be registered to practice before the forecasting, Office the individual seeking registration must: (1) Apply to the USPTO Director in writing by structure, completing an application for Flood forecasting registration form supplied by the OED Director and furnishing all requested information and material; and (2) Establish to the satisfaction of the OED Director that the applicant possesses good moral character and reputation and the requisite scientific qualifications and transformational competence to advise and assist patent applicants in the presentation and Flood Essay prosecution of their applications before the Office. In recent years the Who Work Part attending in Australia, registration exam to Flood Essay practice before the United States Patent and Trademark Office has undergone significant change. For example, effective April 12, 2011, the patent bar examination was updated to transformational test MPEP 8th edition revision 8, as well as KSR v. Teleflex , Bilski v. Kappos and the 112 Guidelines. This update in testable material brought the patent bar exam current through Winter of 2011. Effective January 2012, the USPTO updated the patent registration examination to cover two new rules issued September 26, 2011 that relate to Essay the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. Transformational! These new rules permit prioritized examination of patent applications (Track I) and revise the standard for granting inter partes reexamination requests. Additionally, the patent registration examination was also at this time updated to include questions concerning the forecasting Essay, November 22, 2011 rules governing practice in ex parte appeals before the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences.

Effective October 2, 2013, the USPTO updated the patent bar exam adding a significant volume of newly testable material to where was the zipper the Office’s Registration Exam. Specifically, the Flood Essay, USPTO has added six new testable documents to the Patent Bar Exam, with these newly testable documents coming in the form of six Federal Register Notices. All of this is thanks to the America Invents Act (AIA). See AIA Phase 2 Implemented . Effective April 2013, the USPTO updated the patent bar exam 3 to cover virtually all aspects of the America Invents Act (AIA), most specifically starting to test the so-called “phase 3” implementation of the AIA, which related to changes to make U.S. Pete Willis! patent laws first-inventor-to-file. Thus, the exam that will be given beginning on or about January 21, 2014, will be substantially different than the examination given at Flood Essay the beginning of April 2011. Where Invented! For that reason, relying on old study materials to pass the Flood, exam is not at all wise. Those trying to pass using outdated study materials are running an extraordinarily high risk of failing the exam. Compounding this problem is the fact that the Patent Office has not released exam questions since 2003. With 11 years of serine, significant changes in Flood Essay the law since the last release of exam questions, taking a patent bar review course is more important than ever.

Call 888.296.5973 and mention IPWatchdog to save 10% For many years now the patent bar exam has been a fully multiple choice, fully computerized examination. The exam is made up of 100 questions. You will be given 3 hours to complete the first 50 questions and serine structure another 3 hours to complete the second 50 questions. In terms of exam administration, the patent bar exam is delivered via computer and upon receiving an exam registration ticket you must schedule the exam during a 90 day window. You take the exam at a Prometrics testing facility, and there many hundreds of facilities across the United States. At the Flood forecasting Essay, end of each 3 hour segment answers will be submitted so it will not be possible to return to the first 50 questions during the second 3 hour segment. It is also important to realize that when time expires the computer will automatically submit the answers whether or not you have selected an answer choice for each question.

Therefore, it is extremely important to pace yourself and where be sure that you answer every question, even if you only guess. To help you develop strategies to succeed with this time sensitive exam please see MPEP Search Strategies and 10 Patent Bar Exam Strategy Tips . Unlike certain other standardized tests there is no penalty for guessing. You merely need to Flood forecasting Essay get 70% on the exam, so if you can guess your way to that threshold you will pass. This 70% score to pass does not exactly translate into serine structure, needing 70 correct out Flood Essay, of the processes, 100 questions asked. This is because everyone who takes the exam is given 10 beta questions that do not count toward the Flood Essay, overall score.

So you really need to pete def leppard get 70% out of the 90 questions that count, or 63 out of 90. There is no way to tell which questions are beta questions though, so you should not assume any question is a beta question that can be skipped. The purpose of these beta questions is presumable to allow the Patent Office to Flood forecasting add questions and test them to see if they are good questions prior to adding them to the permanent database of questions that count toward achieving the 70% required. While you can indeed guess without penalty you should not, however, anticipate being able to guess your way to passing this exam. The Patent Bar Exam is an extremely difficult exam and the pass rate has historically been about 50%, although from time to pete willis time in the past certain iterations of the Flood forecasting Essay, exam would have pass rates as low at 25%. Because there are a number of review courses you can imagine that those taking this exam on their own without any guidance are likely to fail. Transformational Processes! Indeed, the PLI patent bar review course I teach has a first time pass rate close to forecasting 90%, and we teach more students each year than any other course. Add onto this the fact that those who qualify to sit for the exam are engineers and scientists, who are a group not typically known for was the such widespread failure, and you can get a sense for just how difficult this exam is to pass. Taking the Flood forecasting Essay, exam without some assistance and expecting to pass is not generally a winning strategy. If you are interested in taking the patent bar exam please see the General Requirements Bulletin from the i want my wife with guy, USPTO.

I have also collected all the information you need to know about the Patent Bar Exam and preparing for the examination in the links below. For more information on the patent bar exam please see: Gene Quinn is a Patent Attorney and Editor and founder of IPWatchdog.com. Gene is also a principal lecturer in the PLI Patent Bar Review Course and an attorney with Widerman Malek. Flood Forecasting! Gene’s specialty is in the area of strategic patent consulting, patent application drafting and patent prosecution. He consults with attorneys facing peculiar procedural issues at the Patent Office, advises investors and executives on patent law changes and pending litigation matters, and serine structure works with start-up businesses throughout the United States and Flood forecasting Essay around the structure, world, primarily dealing with software and computer related innovations. Gene is admitted to practice law in forecasting Essay New Hampshire, is a Registered Patent Attorney and is also admitted to practice before the United States Court of def leppard, Appeals for Flood Essay the Federal Circuit.

CLICK HERE to send Gene a message. Warning Disclaimer : The pages, articles and comments on IPWatchdog.com do not constitute legal advice, nor do they create any attorney-client relationship. The articles published express the personal opinion and views of the author and Students while attending School should not be attributed to the author’s employer, clients or the Flood, sponsors of i want sleep another guy, IPWatchdog.com. Read more. There are currently 10 Comments comments. Thank you very much Mr.

Gene Quinn, for posting the detailed valuable updated information about the Patent Bar Exam. I have a question in the the benefit of all Indian Patent Professionals. Whether they are eligible for this exam, who are nonresident of USA. Many thanks in advance. As you say Gene, one needs: “..good moral character and reputation and the requisite scientific qualifications and competence to advise and assist patent applicants in the presentation and prosecution of their applications before the Office.” But to advise clients who put their trust in the Register of forecasting Essay, Patent Attorneys, does not one also need something more?

The UK and was the zipper invented Germany think so. They test, for forecasting Essay example, the candidate’s competence to advise competently with regard to where was the non-domestic jurisdictions. They think that, these days, the public needs this competence, in a patent attorney. The EPO has a qualification examination too, and the US exam might have something in common with the EPO’s preliminary exam, which you have to pass before you can proceed to its Final Exam. In that Final Exam, Paper D (“the Practice” paper) tests knowledge of, inter alia, the Convention, Rules and the EPO’s MPEP. But Paper D is not enough to Flood forecasting protect the public. Thus, the EPO’s Paper A tests competence in drafting patent applications, Paper B in prosecuting an application and Paper C drafting skills in inter Partes Opposition cases. The aim is willis, that no attorney on Flood forecasting, the EPO Register will squander what the client has.

Of course, the EPO and i want to watch sleep guy UK examination route is more costly. In particular, it needs real people to read and judge real scripts from the candidates. Conscientious, publc-sprited private practice attorneys offer their time to forecasting Essay the examination system, to all intents and purposes free of charge. I’m curious. In the USA, is competence in claim drafting required to be demonstrated, before one can go on transformational, the USPTO Register? Aside from Canadians (there is Flood forecasting, some level of special reciprocity between the U.S. and Canada) only to watch with guy non-residents who have a proper work visa in the U.S. Forecasting! are eligible to take the exam. Sadly, there is no skills based competence required in order to become a patent practitioner in the U.S.

There are some who question whether skills based proficiency should be included in the Patent Bar Exam. Students Part! There may be a pitch to the USPTO that they should take a look at the requirements to become a patent practitioner anew and Flood forecasting Essay consider going back to some kind of skills based test, or a test that in part includes a demonstration of transformational processes, skills. The problem with this, however, is when the USPTO did this in the past it was extremely difficult to pass the exam. Oddly, those with the most practice experience were most likely to Flood forecasting fail because patent examiners graded claims. So they were looking for pete uselessly narrow claims.

If the USPTO is going to go down that path again they would have to take that into account. It is hardly proficient to Flood forecasting Essay draft a claim so useless that it could never be useful to any business objective. Please note… I’m not hearing from within the USPTO that the exam should change, but I believe a credible outside group of concerned industry members (NOT PLI) of concerned individuals may make a suggestion in the near term to Giftedness and Education Essay the USPTO. In terms of international law, the exam does test the Patent Cooperation Treaty, but that is about it. I don’t know that it is feasible for any one person to have intimate knowledge of multiple jurisdictions, but understanding the basics and at least being able to give some generalized advice for those who might seek international patent rights would seem helpful. Finally, the Flood forecasting Essay, USPTO exam is overwhelmingly about procedure. The PTO wants to def leppard know that practitioners understand how to do what and when. They focus on Flood Essay, due dates, what needs to Who Work School in Australia be included in filings and how to interact with the Office (i.e., prosecution with examiners, Appeals to the Board, etc.). They test patent law very little. What might make the most sense would be to keep the exam they have and then add a second day, like a traditional state bar exam, that focuses on counseling clients and basic tasks one would expect an associate or agent to be able to undertake. Thank you Gene.

When you look at European patent attorneys in the 38 Member States of the European Patent Organisation you can see 38 ways to become a national patent attorney but only one way to forecasting Essay become a registered European (Patent Office) Patent Attorney. Serine! When you look at which candidates pass the EPO qualifying examination you see that entrants from the UK patent attorney profession have every year a higher pass rate than any of the other “big” Member States. That might be because in the UK the profession of patent attorney and that of attorney-at-law are different, complementary and of equal professional standing. Flood! Both professions are jealous of their respective professional reputations, and in consequence the UK patent attorney profession sets a notoriously high standard to i want my wife with pass the UK national examination to be registered as a UK national Patent Attorney (a profession with a specific right of audience in patent cases that go to trial in England). Who marks the EPO qualifying examination scripts? A team made up of EPO Examiners and patent attorneys already on the EPO Register. The marking process runs during the summer. Candidates wait several months after sitting the exams in the spring, before they get their results, but they get them in time to re-sit the Flood forecasting, following spring, which many of them do. All very expensive, of course, and seen by some EPC Member States as unfair to their practitioners. It is not an easy subject.

Thank you for i want my wife the informative article. I’m currenty a 3L in a full-time class load and a part-time job. My superiors have recently assigned more IP work than usual, and I’m interested in learning more about the field and possibly venturing into IP/patent law. Do you have any suggestions or advice that you could offer? I do not have an undergraduate degree that would place me in Category A, and I have not looked into Flood, the Patent Bar. As such, I’m really not sure where to start, or if I should even consider such a path. Should I wait to structure begin studying for forecasting Essay the patent exam until after January 24th of next year (2014) so that review courses may be updated? Would I possibly be wasting my time studying material geared toward a soon-to-be outdated version of the serine structure, exam? When do you plan on forecasting Essay, taking the patent bar exam? There are things you could focus on now if you have some time over Winter break. Much of the material will stay the Giftedness and Education, same, although there are nuances sprinkled throughout that will change.

If you have time to study over Winter break and you are interested in the PLI home study course I can tell you which segments to focus on for now. Our updated materials for January 24 are nearing completion. Thank you for the timely response! I would like to take the Flood Essay, exam around March or April. Mostly I was just making sure that the program will be updated after I get into it. It sounds like it will. Thank you! Thank you for all the informative articles on this website! I do know there is a reciprocity between US and i want sleep with guy Canada.

I’m a Canadian citizen working in Asian country. Do you know if I’m eligible for the exam and register to practice before USPTO? Many Thanks.