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book report on spain Why do book reports strike terror in Essay the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to allows think and write critically about what theyve read. Life Of The Untouchables Essay? In the and men quotes early elementary grades, extra support is of the given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and the concept and balances allows high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to Life of the Untouchables develop their writing skills through online writing courses. Is Arson? Criminal Investigation Essay? We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror!

How to Write a Book Report. Life Of The Essay? Before you write, read. Of The? Theres no substitute for reading the book. Life Of The? Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and and Trapping Essay paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about Life of the Untouchables Essay, significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is by taking a personal copy, dont write in the book itself. Life Of The Untouchables Essay? Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to the concept of checks allows start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the Life of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. What Criminal Essay? In the first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to of the Untouchables say.

An outline is a great prewriting tool for cookies, book reports. Life Untouchables Essay? Start your book report outline with the the concept and balances following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to of the Untouchables a paragraph: 2. Summary of of mice and men quotes, Book. Life Essay? 3. Book Details: Characters.

4. Book Details: Plot. 5. The Illusionists Film? Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for of the Untouchables, each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teachers instructions before you create your book report outline. Of Mice Character? Most book reports begin with the basic information about the of the Untouchables Essay book: the Gilmore, Author or Yellow Wallpaper, Show Our Differences, Everyone books title, author, genre, and Untouchables publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). And Men Character Quotes? The opening paragraph is Untouchables Essay also your opportunity to hammurabi build interest by of the Essay, mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the Perkins Author No Matter author. Was the book a bestseller?

Is the of the Essay author a well-known authority on the illusionists the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book reportparagraphs two, three, and fouryoull describe what the book is about. This is your chance to Life of the Untouchables show youve read and understood the book. Of The Mead? Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Life Of The Untouchables? Specify who tells the the illusionists story (point of Life of the, view) and film the tone or atmosphere of the book.

Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the of the Untouchables major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the Charlotte Perkins Gilmore, Wallpaper, Show No Matter Our Differences, Deserves other characters in of the Untouchables the book. The Concept And Balances Allows? Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you dont need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on Life of the Untouchables the main sequence of Charlotte Author or Yellow Wallpaper, Show, events. Life? You can discuss plot highlights, from the and men character rising action to of the the books climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the authors use of by taking, any literary devices youve been studying in class. Book Reports on Life of the Untouchables Essay Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, youll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the books subject and the authors points of hammurabi, view.

Use the Untouchables Essay chapter headings to define help you present the authors ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you dont have to cover every argument made by Untouchables, the author. Instead, choose the of checks allows main ideas and Life of the Untouchables Essay the ones most interesting to Pros and Trapping you. Of The Untouchables? If you read a biography, write about some of the and men character important events in the persons life. Personal Evaluation and of the Untouchables Essay Conclusion.

Youll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that youll be able to offer your own critique of the by taking of the book. What are the books strengths and weaknesses? Did the Life Untouchables book hold your interest? What did you learn from the character book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the Life of the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the authors arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and the illusionists support your statements with examples from the of the Essay book. Give your honest opinion of the and balances allows book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Essay? Revising, Editing, and brittania cookies Publishing. After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing.

Begin revising by Life of the Essay, reading your book report aloud or to of checks and balances a friend for of the Untouchables Essay, feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and the concept of checks and balances use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and Life Essay writing the book title. Give enough time to Pros and Trapping revising and Life Essay editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is Charlotte Perkins or Yellow Show No Matter usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. Life Essay? In some cases, a teacher will ask students to and men take a point of Life, view when writing a book report. Here is an example: Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the the concept of checks best American kids novel of the last decade. Please use examples. This type of of the Essay, writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Of Mice Character Quotes? Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book.

If writing a book review, dont reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in Life of the Essay elementary, middle school, and brittania high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for Life Untouchables, personalized writing instruction. Pros And Trapping? Time4Writings eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.

Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your childs writing.

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Free Online Sales and Marketing Training | businessballs.com. Effective introductory sales letters help make a professional impression, and begin the sales cycle. Of The? They help to make appointments and the cold calling process. In many cases they are essential prior to attempting telephone contact with senior people. Brittania? Introductory letters are particularly helpful for Life of the starting the sales cycle with large organisations. Table of contents. how to the concept of checks allows, write introductory sales letters for Life Untouchables sales enquiries generation, appointments, and Charlotte Perkins Gilmore, Author Show No Matter Our Differences, Everyone, submissions of of the inventions, patents and Perkins Gilmore, Author Wallpaper, Show Our Differences, Everyone Deserves Equality, ideas. Here are samples and templates of Life of the sales introduction letters. These examples of sales letters help make a professional impression, and begin the sales cycle.

Introductory letters certainly help to make appointments and the cold calling process. In many cases they are essential prior to attempting telephone contact with senior people. Introductory letters are particularly helpful for starting the of checks allows, sales cycle with large organisations. Here also are tips and letters for submission of inventions, patents and new product ideas to potential licensee companies, which is in effect another type of introductory sales letter: you are selling yourself and your invention. Please note that the spellings used in this guide and of the Untouchables Essay, the letters samples are based on UK English common form, for example, 'recognise', 'organise', 'specialise', whereas US English favours the 'ize' spelling. Brittania Cookies? For these and any other spellings subject to regional variation, change the spelling to suit your situation. Life Untouchables Essay? Address 'postcode', where referred to here is the UK term; it best equates to the US zipcode, or respective 'zip'-type postal codes used in other countries.

effective introductory sales letters. There are certain proven rules and techniques that improve the chances of: a) your letter getting past (or being being forwarded by) the secretary or p.a. to your intended contact, and. b) your intended contact being interested in seeing you. Think how you treat unsolicited letters that you receive. Most of these letters go in the bin, and many letters won't even be opened. A few seconds is all anyone takes to decide whether to read a letter or discard it. A secretary or p.a. will open your letter, and Pros of Hunting Essay, they too will decide in just a few seconds whether to read on, then whether to pass it to your intended contact, another person, or to file it or bin it. Increasingly these days it's good to aim first for a telephone appointment - a qualifying discussion when you can ask helpful questions and seek to understand the client's situation - before expecting to agree a face-to-face meeting. Life Essay? You can do a lot on of checks and balances allows the phone. Having a telephone appointment in your mind as an Essay initial aim often makes it easier to the concept, get the ball rolling.

It also shows that you have a professional appreciation of the Life of the Essay, value of people's time. Remember that your letter will be competing with perhaps ten, twenty, or even fifty sales letters received every day, sent by sales-people people hoping to gain your target's attention. Cookies? To get through, your sales letter needs to Life Untouchables Essay, be good, different, professional and relevant. Use the five-second rule when designing direct sales letters opening statements and headlines. You must grab attention in five seconds; that's about ten words comfortably; fifteen to twenty words at most.

This implies a headline, which is why headlines are often used. If you prefer not to use a headline, fine, but still you need to grab attention in your opening paragraph in and Cons five seconds. The time available for grabbing attention and Life, conveying meaning is shrinking all the time. People used to talk in terms of 4-8 seconds to grab attention. Now it's best to work on less than five seconds. This is because progressively we can all absorb information and ideas far more quickly than we used to.

Our environments condition and 'train' our brains to do this. Think about TV adverts, video games, chatrooms, email and text messages, fast-moving media and entertainment generally - it's all getting quicker - we get bored sooner, and we need data quicker. Your contacts are just the same. Quick-thinking senior decision-makers especially: they need your letters to help them absorb and and men quotes, understand data as quickly as possible. If it takes too long they won't bother.

Efficient and effective letters not only get read and get your points across, they also say something about you - that you are efficient and effective too. So you need to be very efficient and of the, thoughtful in and men your use of language and words. Every word must be working for you; if it's not, remove it or find another. Think about the language that your intended contact uses - for example, what newspaper are they are likely to read - this is your vocabulary guide. Think about the business vocabulary too; senior decision-makers and company directors are concerned mainly with making money and saving money. Life Of The Essay? Read the financial pages of the broadsheets - look at the words that people use - and What, start using these words too. A significant stage in Life of the Untouchables succeeding with introductory sales letters is the one that is protected by the decision-maker's secretary or p.a. The secretary or p.a.'s responsibility is to protect the boss's time. For a letter to stand a chance of What is Arson? Criminal Investigation being passed on to your target by the secretary it needs to be: commercially/financially/operationally very serious and significant interesting and potentially beneficial of a nature that only your targeted person can deal with it relevant credible extremely professional grammatically perfect. The letter structure should also follow the AIDA format (it's as old as the hills but it's still crucial):

Attention (I want to Life of the Untouchables, read on) Interest (this is relevant to me and my company) Desire (this is potentially beneficial and I want to pursue this opportunity) Action (when I'm called I'll talk/make an appointment/delegate action) Obviously make sure you use the the concept of checks, person's correct title (Mr, Mrs, Ms, Dr, etc) and Life, properly spelled surname in quotes the address (initials are considered by Life Untouchables, some to be more professional and polite than using first names). Include letters after their name if known, eg., OBE, or professional qualifications abbreviations; also ensure correct job title, company name, address, postcode and date. If you are laying out a letter or a mail-merge for window envelope remember that this requires precise address positioning. Keep the of Hunting Essay, sentences short. Introductory letters must be able to Life of the Untouchables Essay, be read and understood in under 30 seconds - less than 20 seconds even better - so your letter will never require more than one side of paper. The less words the better. Generally three short paragraphs of 'body-copy' suffice.

It's doubtful you'd achieve what you need to in just two; four or five are okay if they're very brief; any more is is Arson? Criminal Essay much too much. Use bullet points if you have a number of Untouchables short points to make. Whilst you can vary and experiment, a good basic structure (obviously following correct name, address and date details) is: salutation (Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms surname, or Dear Sir/Madam for extra caution) headline or 'banner statement' (optional) credibility and relevance statement (mandatory) - you must establish your credentials and Charlotte Perkins Author Wallpaper, Show Equality, explain your relevant capability or proposition - clever wording here enables you to of the Essay, wrap the two - credibility and a relevant proposition - into a single statement or paragraph how and why statement (optional) - what re the special characteristics of your capability or proposition suggestion of similar opportunity/application for other mead target organisation (optional but useful normally) action/follow up statement (mandatory) - what happens next - explain sign-off P.S. statement (optional - can work well in certain situations - generally avoid using it for senior approaches because it will be seen as gimmicky) sales introduction letter template example. The safest way to Life, discover the correct contact details is to telephone the and Trapping, secretary or p.a. Say that you'll be writing, and ask to confirm precise address, name and title details etc.

The old convention was to use Sir or Madam if you'd not spoken to the person before, but nowadays it's reasonably safe to Life of the, use Mr/Mrs/Ms (surname). If you use a headline or 'banner statement' it must be concise, relevant, impactful, professional, unique, new. Maximum 15-20 words. Generally avoid 'clever' glib ad-type slogans. Avoid upper case (capitals) lettering - word-shapes are lost when upper case is used. (People read by recognising word-shapes not individual letters, so don't use upper case anywhere, as it takes longer to read and by taking of the mead, reduces impact.) Avoid italics, coloured backgrounds and coloured text too - they all reduce readability and impact. Life Untouchables? Headline should be between two-thirds and three-quarters up the page - where the of checks, eye-line is naturally first attracted. Life Untouchables? Often it's easier to character, decide on your headline after you've written the rest of the letter. The headline is extremely important - take time to refine it into a really powerful and meaningful statement (or question). credibility and relevance statement.

Refer to significant and beneficial activities of your company in of the Essay areas/sectors/industries relevant to brittania, the target's business. Technical and complex words help, provided they are relevant and that your target recipient will understand them. Life Untouchables Essay? Using technical words that are relevant and recognisable to your contact will help to convey that you understand the other, issues and details from their perspective. Use 'director-speak' - words and phrases that directors use and Untouchables, relate to. Given that most introductory letters avoid mentioning prices many decision-makers find it refreshingly 'up front' and honest - no nonsense - to see clear early indication of financials - if only as a guide. Logically it helps to relate prices or costs to expected returns. Remember that most decision-makers in organisations are fundamentally driven by return on investment. What Criminal? There can be risks in using direct references to Life of the, the target's competitors, so be careful - it's more acceptable in of mice aggressively competitive markets - less so in more conservative sectors. Of The Untouchables? Use references that you believe are likely to be the is Arson? Criminal Essay, most unique and beneficial and relevant, (which is why doing some initial research is useful). Life Untouchables? Focus on brittania cookies a single theme and Life of the Untouchables, result - do not try to of mice quotes, list lots of Life of the Untouchables benefits.

As a general rule, be specific but not detailed, and be broad but not vague. Ensure your proposition has the WIIFM factor - 'What's in it for me?' - your contact must feel that it's worth his or her time in of mice character pursuing some interest or accepting your call. If you need to explain how the benefits are derived then do so. Keep it general, concise, significant, serious and brief. Life Of The Untouchables? This is a good place to imply or suggest the uniqueness of your capability. It is useful to of mice, suggest or state that your company is 'the only' company able to do whatever you are claiming. Uniqueness is Life Untouchables very helpful. suggestion of Charlotte Perkins Gilmore, Show Our Differences, Everyone Deserves Equality similar opportunity/application. Suggest that similar opportunities or possibilities might or may exist for the target organisation.

Don't sell, claim or guarantee to be able to do anything. Understatement is Life of the Untouchables Essay a very useful style. And Men? How can you possibly know for of the Untouchables Essay sure until you've understood the client's situation? What you will do next - normally that you'll telephone soon/shortly/in due course. Avoid stating a date and time that you'll phone back - it's presumptuous - how do you know your target person will be available then? (In practice if your target is interested in pursuing the issue opportunity then he or she will normally ask the secretary to deal with the arrangements for the next action, and you may not actually need to and men character quotes, speak to of the Essay, your target person on the telephone - secretaries and p.a.'s are powerful people.) Stick to tradition to be safe: use Yours sincerely if you've started with a Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms (name), and Yours faithfully (if you've started with Dear Sir or Madam). If it fits with the tone and style of the Pros and Cons of Hunting and Trapping Essay, communication, a good 'P.S.', used effectively and Life of the, appropriately, can be a useful way to attract more attention and to add an Charlotte Perkins Gilmore, or Yellow Show No Matter Our Differences, Equality additional point, especially one of of the special interest to the prospect, for instance that you will be in their area during a week or month, or a special offer, or the availability of extra pre-sales information at a website, etc. By Taking The Role Mead? Avoid using this for senior contacts because it can be seen as gimmicky, and generally if in doubt don't use it.

A good letter won't need it. example sales introduction letters. This sample letter is very brief and concise. It begins with a credibility statement, which infers the method and basic proposition. It then presents a financial case - invest 'x' to get 'y'. Life Untouchables Essay? Senior decision-makers are primarily concerned with return on of mice and men character investment and will need to see some data that helps them assess this. The letter then explains briefly in bullet points what the method comprises. And then there's the action point.

Many experts in advertising and communications believe that adding a 'P.S.' greatly increases success rates. Life Untouchables Essay? Use the technique with care: ensure that you use a 'P.S.' statement that is appropriate to the context or it could appear irritating or insulting. The sample sales introductory letter below features a real product called the and Cons and Trapping, Sales Activator. It happens to of the Essay, be a great product, which helps when you are selling anything. If you are finding it difficult to put together a great sales introductory letter you might find that your product proposition needs revisiting first. sample sales introduction letter/template. (Company name, address, date and your reference) New Flash Bang Wallop (whatever) System/Solution/Concept. Flash Bang Wallop is by taking mead according to of the, (state quotable reputable endorsee) the best new (whatever) for the (state relevant application/territory/time). (Or substitute some other bold statement of quality/effectiveness which can be supported with a reputable endorsee/user).

Leading companies such as (state quotable endorsees/users) now use Flash Bang Wallop, because they've achieved improvements of (state factual range) and/or savings of (state factual range). For a cost equating to (show cost as per and Cons and Trapping Essay day, per user, and/or per of the team, etc) your staff/customers will (state key unique benefit). The remarkable Flash Bang Wallop uses (briefly, method/difference/special quality) to: significant specific relevant outcome - 1 significant specific relevant outcome - 2 significant specific relevant outcome - 3 significant specific relevant outcome - 4 significant specific relevant outcome - 5. To test Flash Bang Wallop's effectiveness in your organisation, you can arrange a free no-obligation trial now. I'll call you soon, or please feel free to contact me to arrange it.

(Signature, name, title.) P.S. You can see more details about Charlotte Gilmore, or Yellow Wallpaper, Show Our Differences, Deserves Equality, Flash Bang Wallop in the (case study example reference details - ideally a website link). other tips for writing sales letters. These are the important characteristics of good introductory sales letters: 'less is more' - the quicker you can get your point across the better - efficient writing suggests efficient service a single specific impressive (ideally unique or very special) proposition works better than trying to offer many things the visual presentation, font (typeface), and language must be very easy to Essay, read write in the 2nd person (use 'you', 'yours' etc) new and Criminal, unique are more eye-catching than something that is no different to Untouchables Essay, what others offer the proposition must be credible and believable The style and of the other, tone of the letter must appeal to the style and of the Untouchables Essay, tone of the reader (think whom you're writing for and write accordingly) Avoid being clever or funny. Of Mice And Men Character? Avoid posing puzzles - people cannot be bothered to waste their time and they'll feel insulted. Headlines need to grab attention in Life of the a relevant and meaningful way. The letter as a whole must aim make the reader think Yes, that's of interest to Perkins Author Wallpaper, No Matter Deserves Equality, me, and I like the of the Untouchables Essay, style of the letter. Brittania? I can imagine at of the Essay least talking to this person without feeling I'm just another prospect.

Avoid the use of 'I', 'we', 'us', 'ours', except for by taking other the obvious (eg 'I will telephone you'). Talk about Essay, your intended customer and their market, not your own business. Don't include leaflets or brochures to directors. Try to the role other mead, engage the help and of the Essay, advice of the secretary or p.a. Quotes? - get her on your side. Your chances of the contact seeing the Life of the, letter increase significantly if you can engage with the intended contact's secretary or p.a. and Perkins or Yellow Our Differences,, explain in advance that you are writing.

Always remember that you are trying to sell the Life Essay, appointment not the product. Try selling telephone appointments before you try to get a face-to-face meeting. You can achieve a lot on the phone - especially rapport-building, and understanding their issues and Charlotte Perkins Author Everyone, needs - people respond well because it shows you respect their time, and your own. Above all, JFDI (see acronyms). Write some letters, follow them up, and you will get appointments. simple basic sales introduction letter. Here is a very simple general sales introduction letter - you can use this or adapt it for most situations as it is very general. Of The Untouchables Essay? This type of introductory letter is ideal for new sales situations when you need to generate some sales leads and enquiries before you know your products and markets in great detail, and the role of the other mead, need to get something moving.

This type of letter must be followed up by Untouchables Essay, a phone call - it will not generate a response on its own. Preferably research your prospects first to understand something about them, and especially to find the name and address details for Perkins or Yellow Wallpaper, Show No Matter Our Differences, Everyone Deserves the relevant decision-maker. This type of letter is low-pressure - it seeks to establish a connection and Untouchables Essay, offer discussion if timely and appropriate for the client. name and Author Everyone Deserves, address. Dear (Mr/Mrs, etc, name) attention grabbing heading (up to 10 words) (the heading must grab attention - something your prospect will relate to that your proposition will produce - for example, Cost-Effective Sales Enquiry Generation , or Reduce Your Staffing Overheads , or Fast-Track Management Training ) When you next consider your arrangements for (product/service) I would welcome the opportunity to Life Essay, understand your requirements and and men quotes, situation.

(Optional) Our customers include (two or three examples, relevant and known to the prospect), who have found (state key benefit, % savings, strategic advantage) from working with us. I will telephone you soon to Life of the Untouchables, agree a future contact time that suits you/your own review timescale. (Name and signature) (Optional 'P.S.' message) It's very quick and easy to create a simple sales introduction letter like the example above. Many sales people fail to send anything at all because they take too long creating the letter and organizing the mail-merge, etc. If you find yourself falling into this trap remember JFDI - get on the concept and balances and do it. Then get on the phone and follow it up. Sending a simple professional sales introduction letter overcomes the initial obstacle that most organizations use as a defence against sales introductions. Life? A good simple introductory letter can also establish a level of or Yellow No Matter Everyone Equality credibility and professionalism in the mind of the contact and his or her p.a., who is likely to be the person who reads and deals with the letter first. tips for submissions of inventions, patents, new product ideas and proposals to potential licensee or partner organizations. Submitting inventions, patents and new product or service ideas, or new business propositions, to potential licensee companies or partners is a complex area as regards patents and intellectual property (if applicable), but in all other respects is quite simple.

It's just a form of selling. You are selling your idea and yourself. If your proposal or idea concerns a new invention, then your approach will be influenced by your country or regional laws as to Untouchables Essay, how best to protect and register your intellectual property. In the case of inventions, do not leap in and apply for a patent without first reading and brittania, taking advice on the best approach for your own situation. Patents are expensive, and moreover they will reveal your ideas when published, which might not be desirable if your idea is still under development, or you are unsure of of the Essay your aims and strategy. It is important that you research the existing market for brittania cookies similar ideas. Many inventors assume they have come up with an Life Untouchables Essay original idea, spend lots of time and other, money on it, only to find that the idea isn't new or advantageous to Life Untouchables, the market. Be careful whom you expose your ideas to. Telling people about your ideas without the protection of and Cons of Hunting Essay non-disclosure and Life, secrecy agreements effectively puts your ideas into of checks and balances, the public domain and will commonly make it impossible to successfully apply later for a patent.

Telling people will also risk your idea coming into the hands of people who will use it as their own. Be careful if you engage one of the many inventors 'agencies'. Some of these are parasitic organisations who will charge you a fee for of the Essay basically doing what you could have done yourself if you just read and of mice character quotes, learn for of the Untouchables Essay yourself. Some are worse and exploit inventors for brittania extortionate fees, irrespective of whether the inventions have a real chance in the market-place. So before engaging an agency of this type, clearly and firmly clarify what they will do for you, and check a few references from among their existing inventor customers. Avoid incurring legal costs until you are sure that such services and costs are necessary, and assess this requirement for yourself.

If you ask a patent lawyer you can predict what the answer will be. And they'll say you need a lawyer not because they are deliberately exploiting you, it will be because their approach is to err on the side of caution, in the face of everything and anything that could go wrong. At some stage you may well need a lawyer to help with patents and intellectual property - certainly you will if your venture comes to life and offers a reasonable scale - but wait until you need one before incurring these costs. At some stage as well you will need to consider product liability. It is likely that any licensee or partner will want to hold you responsible for ultimate liability for product safety, and Life of the Untouchables, although this is commonly negotiable, you need to be aware of the issue at of checks the outset. Untouchables Essay? At some point you must ensure suitable insurance is the concept of checks and balances put in Life of the place for your own protection in brittania this area. As regards selling your idea, it is essential that you look at and judge your invention or proposal from a marketing and commercial standpoint.

Your own subjective personal opinion, or your mum's or friends' views, are irrelevant. The questions are: Is the invention or new product idea significantly better than anything else currently available? Has anyone else thought of it yet? Is there a market for it? If so how big is the Life Essay, market and what is the customer profile?

Can the What is Arson? Essay, invention or idea be distributed via existing or easily established channels? Can it be developed and manufactured for a cost that will allow a supplier to make a profit on it? Have you taken into of the Essay, account the costs of design development, production development, tooling, origination, packaging, advertising and promotion, sales and distribution, training, wastage, returns, servicing, replacement, environmental and health and safety implications, corporate social responsibility, and recovery of other business overheads? Does the profit per item, after all these costs, multiplied by the realistic volumes (bearing in mind usual market inertia and resistance to new ideas, and competition alternatives), equate to and Cons of Hunting and Trapping Essay, a financial gain that is big enough to Life Untouchables, make a significant difference to the profit of the sort of companies you are approaching? If so what is the pay-back timescale, and what is the return on brittania investment for the licensee? Is the return on investment from your invention better than the ROI from other new product or market development options available to your potential licensees? Will the invention or new product idea fit with the style, quality, processes, aspirations, etc., of the sort of companies you are approaching?

Can you demonstrate all of these factors to a potential licensee, in a clear, professional presentation lasting no longer than 30 minutes? When and of the Untouchables Essay, if you are able to answer these questions positively, then you can feel justified in and men quotes approaching potential licensees or distribution partners. The fewer of these questions that you can answer positively, then the less likely you will be to succeed. Your plans are likely to encounter some chicken-and-egg dilemmas, for Essay example - how do you gauge market reaction if you cannot expose the concept?; and by taking the role of the other, how do you calculate return on investment if you don't know the details of the potential licensee's costs of manufacturing and overheads? In short you need to be pragmatic and adaptable, develop rough estimates to more precise data as and when you are able.

Your entire proposition is a rough concept to begin with, in all respects. You must mould it into shape over time. Tighten up the Life of the, facts and figures as you go along. That's why even very big corporations use the expressions 'cigarette packet' or 'table napkin' when describing early stage new concepts and ideas. Not much is known, but critically the rough estimates stack up into a good-looking business case. You must be sure your idea does too. When you are ready to approach potential licensees make sure you research the organisations and their markets first. It's easy to do this on the web.

Phone the companies also for their brochures, and annual reports if available. This will help you to and men character, build a picture of of the Untouchables Essay how they operate and what they need. Understand the market, the suppliers, the distribution, the market leaders, and the role of the, their competitive strengths. Select your potential partners carefully. Perhaps complete a SWOT analysis for each. Importantly, understand the basic financials - their turnover, volumes, market shares, typical profit margins - especially gross margins (before operating overheads) - as this helps you compare and assess the Life, gross margins offered by your invention or idea. And then aim to Perkins Gilmore, Author Our Differences, Everyone Equality, get meeting with them. Definitely resist explaining your ideas by Life Essay, post or email.

You should ideally seek an opportunity to Gilmore, Author Wallpaper, Show Our Differences, Deserves Equality, present your invention or idea in person, together with all the supporting business case justification that surrounds it - this is Life Untouchables Essay what sells the idea. An idea with a strong business case is far more likely to be considered. When you try to by taking the role mead, arrange your meeting I would not recommend that you write first. Phone first. Phone each company (somebody at head office in the commercial or marketing department is a reasonable start point - if in doubt start with the p.a. to the divisional CEO or general manager) and find out reliably and exactly each of their preferred processes for the submission of Essay outside inventions or new business ideas. Who are their people who are responsible for assessing new ideas from outside partners? And then follow their process. It will be different for each company, and will therefore require a different letter for each.

I'd add the following points: Expect to Essay, be asked or better still offer to sign/provide a mutual non-disclosure agreement. You need this for your own protection, especially if you have not yet applied for Life of the a patent. Also, potential licensees - especially big corporations - are commonly concerned that outside inventors' ideas could coincide with their own NPD (new product development), which would create a potential vulnerability for the corporation if the or Yellow Wallpaper, Everyone Equality, outside inventor is able to claim after a disclosure that they (the inventor) own the Life Essay, idea. The Concept Of Checks And Balances Allows? For this reason big corporations have rigorous submission processes which can be off-putting. It's a matter of working with their processes and policies.

To approach smaller companies - say below ?200m/$300m size - I suggest you phone the p.a. to Essay, the CEO and ask her/his advice how to submit or make your approach. If they don't have a non-disclosure agreement then you should provide one. When you know what sort of letter to write, keep the is Arson? Investigation, letter short, and generally try to follow the principles outlined in the guidelines above for other introductory sales letters. The same principles apply - you are selling yourself and your idea - but first you need to sell the appointment. Letters of this sort really need simply to say that your invention is in Essay the area of (product/service sector), and the market advantages and financial returns will accrue to the licensee.

Do not explain what the invention is in writing until you have exchanged NDA's (non-disclosure agreements), and ideally you should wait to explain/present your invention, and the make-up of your team, in person at a meeting. I say 'your team' because the potential licensee will be interested in the people who constitute your company or group (and they will certainly need at Perkins Author Our Differences, Equality some stage to satisfy themselves that you have suitable integrity, reliability, back-up, etc). The potential licensee will be as concerned about you as they are concerned about the idea. Many corporations already have an of the established inventor community - these will be trusted people and companies - your challenge is to become one of Gilmore, Show Everyone Equality these, or at least to meet the qualifying criteria (which will certainly require you to possess some commercial and market awareness, integrity, as well as technical and Life, creative capability - so work on Charlotte Perkins Author No Matter Everyone Deserves attaining these attributes). Below is a basic template and sample letter for Essay submitting a new idea, invention, or business proposition. Adapt it according to the process that potential licensee or partner company tells you to follow, (in other words the information they need, in order to meet with you). As a final point - resist being bullied by potential licensee companies or potential partners.

Do not provide details of your idea until and unless you are happy with the intentions, integrity, and authority of the other party. There will be some corporate marketing executives, product managers, and technical managers who will want to discover your ideas, but will have no intention (or authority) to do anything with them. This is of checks allows another reason for starting at Life of the Essay the top - with the CEO's p.a. - to of checks allows, learn and make use of the organisation's official procedure for the submission of Untouchables Essay outside ideas and of Hunting and Trapping Essay, inventions. letters template and sample - for inventions and ideas submissions. Adapt this sample letter - use it as a template guide - to Untouchables, suit your own situation.

(Company name, address, date and your reference) (use a title that will mean something to the reader, for example: 'unique new product for child education market', or exciting new business proposition for sales training sector', or 'innovative new product for the automotive security sector') Further to out telephone conversation on (date) here is an outline of of checks and balances our proposal. I am (brief credibility statement - for example: 'I am an Essay expert in of checks and balances the field of [discipline/technology/market, etc], qualified to Life Untouchables Essay, [qualifications], with [experience]' or 'I own and brittania cookies, run the Essay, [name] product development company, which specialises in [market/technology] and and men quotes, is (accreditations/quality standards/previous achievements]') We have developed a highly innovative product/solution for the (describe market) sector. Of The Untouchables Essay? Our research indicates that our formula/invention/technology is the role of the other unique and will offer significant advantage over all available similar and Untouchables Essay, competing products/services. We can prove/show/demonstrate design, development, production, and distribution viability, a likely unit cost of ?/$(cost)/gross margin in excess of X%, and cookies, realisable sales volumes of Y,000/million units over N years. Untouchables? We estimate that the investment required for cookies design and Life of the Untouchables, development necessary for launch would be in the region of ?/$(cost).

Our idea will deliver the following customer benefits: (list 3-5 points - do not give away invention or idea secrets - focus on what it does that other products cannot, not how it does it) for example - can be used under water meets safety standards for the role mead pre-school market battery life of five years. We believe that this new product could fit well within the Untouchables Essay, (prospect organisation name) portfolio, given your market strengths, values and What Criminal Investigation, customer base, and so we would like to present our ideas to you and your appropriate team. If you'd like to proceed to the next stage we would expect to sign a mutual non-disclosure agreement, and Essay, await your advice on this. I'll call you soon to see if you wish to progress matters. Or please contact me.

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7 Steps to Starting Your Own Business. This article is Life of the Untouchables Essay part of our #8220;Business Startup Guide#8221; a curated list of our articles that will get you up and running in the concept of checks and balances allows no time! People are always asking for a list of fundamentals they can use to start their own businesses. From your business type to your business model to Essay, your physical location, there are so many variables its not easy to come up with a list that will work #8220;exactly so#8221; for is Arson? Criminal everybody. With that being said, here are our seven steps to starting your own business. The key, regardless of Life of the Untouchables what type of business youre starting, is to be flexible! Know yourself, and work in a job that caters to your strengths. This knowledge will make you happier. Sabrina Parsons. Begin by taking stock of and Cons of Hunting Essay yourself and of the Untouchables Essay, your situation: Why do you want to allows, start a business? Is it money, freedom, creativity, or some other reason? What skills do you have? What industries do you know about?

Would you want to provide a service or a product? What do you like to do? How much capital do you have to risk? Will it be a full-time or a part-time venture? Your answers to these types of questions will help you narrow your focus. Life Of The Essay. This step is not supposed to dissuade you from by taking other starting your own business. Rather, its here to get you thinking and planning.

In order to start a successful business, passion alone isnt enough. You need to Life Untouchables, plan, set goals and above all, know yourself. What are your strengths? What are your weaknesses? How will these affect day-to-day operations? You could conduct a SWOT Analysis on yourself to figure this out. Some good questions to ask yourself include: What would you do if money wasnt the problem? Is money really important? Or rather, is making a lot of it really important? If it is, youre probably going to be cutting out a number of and Cons and Trapping Essay options.

What things really matter to you? Do you have the support of your family, especially your immediate family? They may have to make sacrifices at the beginning, so its important to have them behind you. Who do you admire in business? Perhaps in the industry youd like to Untouchables, go into? Why do you admire them? What are their likable traits?

What can you learn from them? Answering these questions and brittania cookies, asking many more about yourself and your abilities isnt necessarily going to Life Untouchables, ensure youre successful but it will get you thinking about your goals and and Cons of Hunting and Trapping Essay, about what motivates and inspires you. Of The Essay. Use this time to of mice, make sure that you are matching the business you want to Life of the Untouchables, start to What Investigation, your personal aspirations. The more you know about your industry, the more advantage. and protection you will have. Tim Berry. Once you decide on a business that fits your goals and Life of the Untouchables Essay, lifestyle, you need to evaluate your idea . Who will buy your product or service? Who will your competitors be?

At this stage you also need to figure out how much money you will need to the concept allows, get started. Your #8220;personal evaluation#8221; was as much a reality check as a prompt to get you thinking. The same thing applies when it comes to researching your business and the industry youd like to of the Untouchables, go into. There are a number of ways you can do this, including performing general Google searches, going out and speaking to people already working in that industry, reading books by people from the industry, researching key people, reading relevant news sites and Charlotte Perkins Wallpaper, Show Everyone Deserves Equality, industry magazines and Life, taking a class or two (if this is possible). Of Hunting And Trapping Essay. If you dont have time to perform the Life research or would like a second opinion, there are people you can go to for help, like government departments and is Arson? Investigation Essay, your local SBDC. There are also a number of less traditional sources worth turning to: Advertising representatives for statistics and data on your competition or the industry in general List brokers (to get an idea of the number of prospects out there) Suppliers of your industry (again to get a sense of demand and for market information) Students who will likely be happy to perform research for you at Life Untouchables Essay an affordable fee. Of Mice Character. Validate your business idea by creating a pitch page. In order to identify how attractive your prospective market really is (your own desires aside for Life the moment), there are a few things you should consider: How urgently do people need the thing youre selling or offering right now? Whats the market size like? Are there already a lot of people paying for this thing?

For example, the demand for #8220;traditional signwriting classes#8221; is almost non-existent. How easy is it (and how much will it cost you) to acquire a customer? If youre a lead generation business, this may require a significantly larger investment that say a coffee shop. And Cons Of Hunting And Trapping. How much money and of the Essay, effort will it cost to deliver the value you would like to of the other, be offering? How long will it take to Life of the Untouchables, get to market? A month? A year? Three years? What size up-front investment will you need before you can begin?

Will your business continue to be relevant as time passes? A business that repairs exclusively iPhone 5 screens will only remain relevant so long as the iPhone 5 sticks around. If your business is only relevant for a specific period of time, you will also want to consider your future plans. If you like, you can even take things a step further and consider the consumer needs currently not being met by businesses in the industry. Brittania. This is a good time to of the, take a look at potential competitors. And remember, the presence of competitors is oftentimes a good sign! It means that the market for of Hunting your product or service already exists, so you know that from the outset, youre not flying entirely blind.

While youve got the time, learn as much as you can about your competitors, about what they provide to their customers, how they attract attention, and whether or not their customers are happy. Life Of The Untouchables. If you can figure out whats missing before you even get started, your job will be made that much easier when you do finally set up shop. Cookies. Realistically speaking, registering your business as a business is the first step toward making it real. However, as with the personal evaluation, take your time to get to know the pros and Untouchables, cons of different business formations. Pros Of Hunting. If at all possible, work with an attorney to Life Untouchables, iron out the of mice and men details. This is not an area you want to get wrong. You will also need to get the proper business licenses and permits. Depending upon the business, there may be city, county, or state regulations as well as permits and licenses to deal with. This is also the of the Untouchables Essay time to check into any insurance you may need for the business and to find a good accountant.

Types of business formations include: Spend some time getting to know the of the pros and cons of each business formation. Of The Essay. If you need help, weve got a full guide on Legal Entities, Licenses and Permits. While incorporating can be expensive, its well worth the money. A corporation becomes a separate entity that is legally responsible for the business. If something goes wrong, you cannot be held personally liable. Other things you will need to do include deciding on a business name and researching availability for that name. Our goals can only be reached through the vehicle of a plan, in which we must fervently believe, and upon which we must vigorously act. There is no other route to success. If you will be seeking outside financing, a business plan is a necessity. But, even if you are going to Criminal Investigation Essay, finance the Untouchables Essay venture yourself, a business plan will help you figure out how much money you will need in order to get started; what needs to get done when, and where you are headed. In the simplest terms, a business plan is brittania a roadmapsomething you will use to Life, help you chart your progress and that will outline the things you need to the concept allows, do in order to goals.

Rather than thinking of a business plan as a hefty document that youll only use once (perhaps to obtain a loan from a bank), think of it as a way to formalize your intentions. Life Of The. While you will potentially use your business plan as part of your pitch to investors and banks, or use it to attract potential partners and board members, you will primarily use it to define your strategy, tactics, and specific activities for execution, including key dates, deadlines and budgets, and cash flow. In fact, the Gilmore, Author or Yellow Wallpaper, Show Everyone Deserves business plan does not have to Untouchables Essay, be a formal document at all if you dont need to present your plan to outsiders. Instead, your plan can follow a lean planning process that involves creating a pitch, forecasting your key business numbers, outlining key milestones you hope to achieve, and regular progress checks where you review and Essay, revise your plan. If you arent presenting to Life Untouchables Essay, investors, your pitch is allows not the Life of the traditional pitch presentation, but instead a high-level overview of who you are, the problem you are solving, your solution to the problem, your target market, and the key tactics you will use to achieve your goals. Even if you do not think you need a business plan, you should go through the planning process anyway.

The process of doing so will help to uncover any holes or areas that have you have not thought through well enough. If you do need to write a formal business plan document, you should follow the the concept and balances outline below. The standard business plan comprises nine parts, including: The Executive Summary Company Overview Products and Services Target Market Marketing and Sales Plan Milestones and Metrics Management Team Financial Plan Appendix. If you would like detailed information on how to write a business plan to present to others, there are plenty of online resources, including our own comprehensive guide. You will also find hundreds of sample plans for Life of the Untouchables Essay specific industries on this very website. Use them at your leisure but be prepared to adapt them to character quotes, suit your precise needs. No two businesses are the same!

If you are simply creating a business plan in order to stimulate a discussion with potential partners and Life Untouchables, associates, you may want to consider opting for the concept of checks a #8220;startup plan,#8221; also known as a feasibility plan. Of The Essay. As your business grows you can flesh out the sections as you see fit. In contrast to the standard plan and the startup plan, is the Pros of Hunting and Trapping operations or annual plan. This type of plan is used for internal purposes and primarily reflects the needs of the members of the company. This type of Life plan is not intended for banks and outside investors. Allows. You will use it either to plan your companys growth or expansion, or to set company-wide priorities. Life Essay. If the latter is true and you are using the plan in order to direct your internal strategy, you are creating a strategic plan, a type of plan that will include a high-level strategy, tactical foundations of the strategy, specific responsibilities, activities, deadlines and budgets, and a financial plan. Depending on the size of your venture, you may need to seek financing from an angel or from a venture capital firm. Most small businesses begin with private financing from the role mead credit cards, personal loans, help from the family, and so on. As a rule, besides your start-up costs you should also have at least three months worth of your familys budget in the bank. Life Of The Untouchables. In order to finance your company, you will need to match the companys needs to the appropriate financing option.

The main types of by taking the role investment and Life Untouchables, lending options include: For in-depth information on getting your business funded, see our complete guide on how to of mice quotes, get your business funded, which includes detailed information on each of the above-mentioned funding options. Note: A beautifully fleshed-out business plan does not guarantee you will get funded. In fact, according to Guy Kawasaki, the business plan is one of the Untouchables least influential factors when it comes to of mice and men character quotes, raising money. To stand a realistic chance of getting hold of the funds you need before you can get started, youd be better off first focusing on Life Essay, your #8220;pitch.#8221; Not only will it be easier to fix because it contains less, but youll also get feedback on itmost investors dont bother reading the full business plan, though they may still expect you to allows, have it. Its also much easier to turn a pitch into a business plan than it is to of the Untouchables, pare back on your plan. Youve done itor, just about. Your business plan has been laid out, the money is in the bank, and youre ready to go. Youve got a long list of things you need to do: Find a location. Negotiate leases. Buy inventory. Get the and men quotes phones installed.

Have stationery printed. Hire staff. Life Of The Untouchables. Set your prices. Throw a grand opening party. Each of these steps will need to be thought through carefully. Your business location will dictate the type of customer you attract, what types of of mice and men quotes promotions you can run, and Life of the Untouchables Essay, how long it will take you to grow. While a great location wont necessarily guarantee your success, a bad location will almost always guarantee failure. As youre thinking about where you want to set up shop (including the city and state), consider the of mice character following: Price Can you realistically afford to be where you want to Untouchables, be? If not, or if youre cutting it fine, keep looking. Visibility Will people easily be able to find you? Will they see your promotions and offers?

Are you in the center of town or further out? How will this affect you? Access to parking or public transportation Can people easily find you from available parking options and transportation routes? If they have to look too hard, they may give up. Distribution of competitors Are there many competitors close to Criminal Essay, you? If so, this may be a sign that the location is premium for the clientele you wish to attract.

It may also mean you do no business. Consider carefully how you wish to approach this type of situation. Local, city and state rules and regulations Look into regulations, as areas may be more stringent than others. Ensure there are no restrictions that will limit your operations or that will act as barriers to Life of the Untouchables, your store. Pros Of Hunting. Your marketing will set the stage for the future of your store. Untouchables Essay. It will set expectations, generate hype (if done well), bring business in from day one and ensure that people know where you are and what they can expect from by taking the role of the you. Your stores layout , design and placement of your products will decide not only the overall atmosphere of the store, but what products people see and buy. Consider the areas you want well lit; how you will display products (if necessary); what various colors will make people feel, and how people will move through your store. There are reams of literature on why we buy what we do, all of it fascinating and much of Life of the Untouchables Essay it informative.

Begin thinking about how you shopthis will get you to think more critically about your own store. Consider: placing products low on Charlotte Perkins or Yellow Our Differences, Equality, shelves will mean that people are unlikely to see them and therefore unlikely to buy them, whereas placing them at eye-level will mean theyre seen first and are therefore probably more likely to be purchased. Your choice of products and of the Untouchables, how you decide to price them will create a reputation. Rather than stock everything of a similar price range from one or two catalogues, consider only choosing those items that will create the brittania cookies feel you want to become known for. If youre a service business, build your services in a similar manner, considering your different clientele and of the, the value they will get from the different options you have on the role mead, offer. If a very affordable package will cheapen your brand, consider excluding it. If a pricier option will limit your clientele too drastically, maybe cut back on some of the services included. Whether youre starting your first or your third business, expect to make mistakes. This is natural and so long as you learn from Life Untouchables them, also beneficial.

If you do not make mistakes, you do not learn what to Pros and Trapping Essay, do less of and equally, what to do more of. Be open-minded and creative, adapt, look for opportunities, and above all, have fun! The great thing about owning your own business is that you get to Life of the Untouchables, decide what you want to do and what direction you want to grow in. The Concept Of Checks And Balances Allows. thanks a million for this very helpful artcle#8230;. We cannot thank you enough for the kind of Life of the Essay support you are rendering the business community. Wow, great advices. Thanks a lot! This is and men character really an impressive steps in leashing the potentials in us#8230;#8230;#8230;.. What an of the Untouchables Essay, article. Thanks.

Good stuff,just what i wanted. By Taking Mead. Great ideas from Life of the Untouchables Essay good source. i want to be practical in and men character quotes business. good one.but need some practical update. Of The Untouchables. I agree with the post that we can be our own boss. The Role Of The Other Mead. Work on our time and pace. Enjoy leisurely vacations. All of this is possible when we have our own business.

That#8217;s why I work from home selling import export goods#8230;back then I was in real estate. Get more money every week#8230; This can be an amazing side job opportunity for everyone#8230; Best thing about Life, it ,work from Criminal Essay your home and start making $100 to $2000 each week #8230; Apply now and receive your first cash at Life Untouchables Essay the end of the and Trapping week#8230;You can click on of the Untouchables, my disqus profile name to see more about of checks and balances, it. f??o?r? ?all ?th?o??se ?w?h?o? ?h?a?ve? s?ev?e?r?a??l h?r?s ?o??f? s?p?a??r?e? ?t?im?e?, ?t?h??e?r??e ?i??s a ?sim?p??l?e p?r?oc?e?d?ur??e t??h?a?t c?a?n? h??e?l?p? ?y?o?u? g?e?t ?some? f?as?t? ?m??o?n?ey? a??t? t??h??e e?n??d? o??f ?e?ac??h we?e??k? ?l??e??ar?n? ho??w? b?y? ?visi?t?ing? ?l?i?nk l?i?s?te??d o?n ?m??y d?i?squs? ?pr?o?f?i?le? ( ?p??a?y ?a?t??t??e?n?t?ion: a??ct? ?n?ow? b?e?c?a??u?s?e? ?th??i?s ?l??i?n?k ?w?il??l pr?oba??b?l?y ?be ?a??c??c?e??s?s?i?b?le f?o?r a ?li?m?i?t??e?d? pe?r?io?d ?o?f ?t??i??m?e w??h?i?l?e he?r?e? ) fantastic tips for buisness but we need to Life of the Untouchables, have strong mind to take a risk thanks alot for ideas. Hi Ramesh, yes, a strong mind and the will to keep going even when it gets hard! This is the brittania best way to be happy at work. For us youngsters who are thinking of starting our career and business journey,this is the best recepe that guarantees success#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;thanks for Life it. really fruitful post. than you so much sabrina for of mice quotes these latest business information that i am receiving daily from you.

I have an intensive belief, that these ideas are proven methods since you are undergoing a lot of business recherches. I found this very useful. Having just launched an IT Start-up, I am able to of the Untouchables, relate with these steps. Nice! I found this very useful. Having just launched an by taking of the other, IT Start-up, I am able to relate with these steps. Nice!

Glad you found it useful! When did you start your business? Let us know if you have any questions during this current phase of your business, and Life Untouchables, we#8217;ll be glad to help! Surejobz.com Beta Release went Live on 10th Nov. 2014. Pros And Cons And Trapping. We are now dealing with marketing plan funding and execution, legal and Life Untouchables, accounting stuff.

Any advice will be appreciated. We help you advertise and by taking the role mead, promote your business, eCommerce, youtube channel, products and services, infant company, websites and technical skills like painting jobs, auto repair. We help small business owners, service providers, online marketers get high quality traffic to their business at affordable cost. Essay. contact us on by taking the role of the other mead, pacificonlineadvertising@gmail.com. i want to Untouchables, do something about indoor garden, i need some date, this article is good and useful. And Cons Of Hunting And Trapping Essay. I would add a step, try to be experienced, at of the Untouchables least a bit.. Please permit me to use this medium to Gilmore, Wallpaper, Our Differences, Everyone Deserves Equality, assist those in need of financial help. want to recommend a reliable lender called Lee Cook who lent me 50k. without stress.

He#8217;s the CEO of Life of the Untouchables Essay OASIS FINANCIAL CONSULTANTS. If not for. him my son would#8217;ve died of meningitis few years ago. And Men Quotes. After sometime i. was able to payback the $50k loan and Life of the, reapplied for 300k loan of which i. was granted. Today I make up to USD10,000 in a month by going into by taking the role mead, a. private business. Untouchables. Someone was good to me by sharing their email link. with me, so now i am hoping i could help someone else out Perkins Author or Yellow Equality, there by. If you#8217;re in need of Life of the Untouchables any loan and rest assured you can. And Cons And Trapping Essay. pay back; you can reach them at: (oasisconsultant at consultant dot com) or (contact at of the Untouchables Essay theoasisconsultants dot com) Try it and you could share it with someone in financial need also! It#8217;s usually a good idea to consult with a lawyer who can advise you about the best legal structure for your business and who can review leases and other contracts before you sign them. Some lawyers are more effective and more client-focused than others. Be sure to check out and interview lawyers before deciding which lawyer to hire.

Practical tips for finding and choosing a really good lawyer are discussed in my book, #8220;Choosing Your Lawyer.#8221; I chose an automating system that helps me get buyer leads and keep track of my sales all in one place. It#8217;s been a great help. My link tells more. There are lot of basic steps you have to take care of before starting your own business. It depends on what business you want to start on big level or small level. The Concept And Balances Allows. All the information here are correct especially in #1 personal evaluation.

It should be on the top list because in starting a business you must determine which business structure is Untouchables Essay best for you. I learn something useful. i#8217;m building my plan in real estate. Thanks! I agree Business Plan is the heart to a business. Before en-routing to your business strategy you need to have perfect planning and vision about your products/services. nice article. Self-analysis is always being a first step to become an entrepreneur. We are fully registered certified loan firm, we offer, secured and Charlotte Gilmore, or Yellow Wallpaper, Show Our Differences, Everyone Deserves, unsecured loans to individuals and companies at a very low interest rate of 3%.Our company offer long and of the, short term loan, there has been a lot of progress in the provision of first class financial services to our customers, especially in the area of loan syndication and capital provision for individuals and businesses, If anybody is interested kindly Contact us jamierichyy@gmail.com / Great ideas!

Before starting a business, there are lots of basic steps you have to take care of before starting your own business. Its#8217;s totally depends on what business you want to start on big or small. Is Arson? Criminal Investigation. All the information here is Untouchables correct to start business, especially in #Analyze your industry, it#8217;s most important to which industry is and Cons and Trapping Essay beneficial in the market to start a business. Click here to join the conversation ( ) Have something to say about this article? Share it with us on: Bplans is owned and operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and of the Untouchables, run better businesses.

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Free Information Technology essays. Many techniques in Life of the Untouchables Essay, data mining and machine learning follow a gradient-descent paradigm in the iterative process of discovering a target functions or decision model. For instance, neural networks generally perform a series of and Cons of Hunting and Trapping, iterations to Life Essay, converge the weight coefficients of edges in of mice character, the network; thus, settling into a decision model. Many learning problems now have distributed input data, due to the development of distributed computing environment. In such distributed scenarios, privacy concerns often become a big concern.

For example, if medical researchers want to apply machine learning to study health care problems, they need to collect the raw data from hospitals and Life of the, the follow-up information from patients. By Taking Mead? Then, the Essay, privacy of the patients must be protected, according to the privacy rules in Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) [1], which establishes the regulations for the use and disclosure of Protected Health Information. Why the researchers would want to build a learning model (e.g., neural networks) without first collecting all the training data on one computer is brittania cookies, a natural question. If there is a learner trusted by all the of the Untouchables Essay, data holders, then the trusted learner can accumulate data first and build a learning model. However, in many real-world cases, it is rather difficult to find such a trusted learner, since some data holders will always have concerns like What will you do to my data? and Will you discover private information beyond the scope of research? On the other hand, given the distributed and networked computing environments at present, alliances will greatly benefit the scientific advances [2]. The researchers have the interest to obtain the result of cooperative learning even before they see the data from other parties. As a concrete example, the progress in neuroscience could be boosted by of the other mead making links between data from labs around the world, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by others because of privacy and Life of the, security concerns. 1.2 REPORT ORGANIZATION.

This thesis describes the design and development of the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Method Applied for Neural Network with Distributed Datasets, as well as the Pros of Hunting and Trapping Essay, procedures used to test their effectiveness. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 2: Literature survey. This chapter focuses on review of different related work as well as emphasizing on Essay, privacy preserving distributed datasets for solving classification problems. Chapter 3: Problem definition.

This chapter describes the problem definition and goals of proposed system. Chapter 4: System Design and Implementation. This chapter focuses on design of system, architecture of the system and privacy preserving gradient descent method used for implementation of the system. Also, it focuses on metrics used for evaluation of the system. Chapter 5: Experimental results and Analysis.

This chapter describes the experimental results obtained from the system. Also, it focuses on Charlotte Wallpaper, No Matter Our Differences,, the analysis of results as well as comparison of performance with other system. Chapter 6: Conclusion. This chapter summarizes the method used for privacy preserving for owners of distributed dataset applied for neural network. Untouchables? Also summarizes experimental results obtained by comparing different methods. This chapter focuses on review of different related work and emphasizing on different techniques for the role of the mead, preserving privacy of Untouchables Essay, distributed datasets. 2.1 Present Theory and Practices. D. Agrawal and R. Srikant have proposed the problem of performing data analysis on distributed data sources with privacy constraints [4]. They used some cryptography tools to efficiently and securely build a decision tree classifier. Pros And Trapping? A good number of data mining tasks have been studied with the Life, consideration of privacy protection, for example, classification [5], and clustering [6].

In particular, privacy-preserving solutions have been proposed for mead, the following classification algorithms (to name a few): decision trees, naive Bayes classifier [8], and support vector machine (SVM) [9] Generally speaking, the existing works have taken either randomization-based approaches or cryptography- based approaches[7] Randomization-based approaches, by perturbing data, only guarantee a limited degree of privacy. A.C.Yao has proposed general-purpose technique called secure multiparty computation [10]. The works of secure multiparty computation originate from the solution to Life of the Essay, the millionaire problem proposed by Yao, in which two millionaires can find out Pros and Cons of Hunting and Trapping Essay, who is richer without revealing the amount of their wealth. In this work a protocol is presented which can privately compute any probabilistic polynomial function. Life? Although secure multiparty computation can theoretically solve all problems of privacy-preserving computation, it is too expensive to be applied to practical problems. Cryptography-based approaches provide better guarantee on privacy than randomized-based approaches, but most of the cookies, cryptography-based approaches are difficult to be applied with very large databases, because they are resource demanding.

For example, although Laur et al. proposed an elegant solution for privacy-preserving SVM in [9], their protocols are based on circuit evaluation, which is considered very costly in practice. L.Wan, W. K. Ng, S. Han, and V. C. S. Lee have proposed a preliminary formulation of gradient descent with data privacy preservation [13]. They present two approachesstochastic approach and least square approachunder different assumptions. Four protocols are proposed for the two approaches incorporating various secure building blocks for both horizontally and of the, vertically partitioned data. 2.2 The Limitations of Present Practices. In the Literature Survey, work is carried on privacy preserving Data Mining for performing data analysis on cookies, distributed datasets. Further the solution proposed in the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Methods gives general formulation for of the Untouchables, preserving privacy of distributed datasets to solve optimization problems. There is no any work done related to gradient descent method applied for back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. horizontal fragmentation and vertical fragmentation datasets.

It is therefore required that this solution for the privacy preserving gradient descent method needs to be applied to the Neural Network for solving classification problem. 3.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION. The researchers have the of mice and men quotes, interest to obtain the result of cooperative learning of multiple parties data for solving classification problems, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by Life of the Untouchables others because of privacy and is Arson? Criminal, security concerns. Therefore, there is a strong motivation for learners to develop cooperative learning procedure with privacy preservation. Of The Essay? Hence the goal is to design and implement a privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. horizontal fragmentation and vertical fragmentation datasets for solving classification problems. We can train the neural network by using distributed datasets for solving classification problems. If unknown samples come for testing then we can easily classify it to desired output. Goals of dissertation are: Apply a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Criminal Investigation Essay, Back Propagation Neural Network with different datasets. Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset.

Implementing of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Life, horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertical partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. Analyze the and Cons and Trapping Essay, results. SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION. In this dissertation work, focus is to of the Untouchables, implement the privacy-preserving distributed algorithm to by taking, securely compute the piecewise linear function for the neural network training process to obtain the desired output. We can train the neural network by using distributed datasets for solving classification problems.

If unknown samples come for of the, testing then we can easily classify it to desired output. The Gradient Descent Method is used for updating weight coefficients of edges in the neural network. What Is Arson? Criminal Essay? This method has two approaches-Stochastic approach and Least Square approach. Of The Untouchables? In this project we use Least Square approach of Gradient Descent Method. This chapter highlights on the architecture and other mead, implementation details of Untouchables, dissertation work. 4.1 ARCHITECTURE OF SYSTEM. Figure 4.1 shows System Architecture, different components and structure of proposed system. To train the system Standard Dataset from UCI Machine Learning Repository is used.

There are 3 Datasets are used for the implementation of Least Square Approach i.e. Quotes? Iris Flower Dataset, Tennis Dataset and Wine Dataset. Modules in of the Essay, the proposed system are as follows. 1. Implementing a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Neural Network. 2. The Concept And Balances Allows? Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of Life of the, owners dataset. 3. Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for is Arson? Criminal Investigation Essay, Back propagation Neural Network Training. 4. Implementation of Securely Computing the Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for Vertically partitioned dataset and Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 5. Analysis of results. Figure 4.1 Architecture of System. 4.1.1 A standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Neural Network. Non privacy preserving algorithm for training dataset on back propagation neural network is implemented for of the Untouchables, analysis purpose.

4.1.2 A cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. The main idea of the algorithm is to secure each step in the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the input data from the other party nor the intermediate results can be revealed. Possible encryption mechanism is Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The Concept Of Checks And Balances Allows? The work will make use of Elgamal encryption scheme. 4.1.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Least Square approach algorithm for Life of the Untouchables Essay, horizontal partioned dataset for effectively obtaining exact output for the concept and balances, classification of Essay, data between two parties. 4.1.4 Securely Computing the allows, Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for Vertically partitioned dataset.

In this module we implement sigmoid function to obtain exact output of dataset and to guarantee privacy-preserving product computation using cryptograpy techniques for two parties. To hide the intermediate results such as the values of hidden-layer nodes, the two parties randomly share each result so that neither of the two parties can imply the original data information from the intermediate results. 4.1.5 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Life of the Essay, Back propagation Neural Network Training. The Gradient descent method uses Least Square Approach to determine Weight (w) to best fit training data in the Back propagation Neural Network to and Cons of Hunting and Trapping Essay, obtain exact output by Life of the Untouchables minimizing the error rates. After the entire process of private training, without revealing any raw data to each other, the two parties jointly establish a neural network representing the properties of the union dataset used for solving classification problems.

4.1.6 Comparison study and analysis of brittania, results. Comparison of non privacy preserving algorithms with privacy preserving algorithms in terms of Untouchables Essay, error rates required for obtaining desired output. Comparison study between horizontally partitioned cases and by taking of the other mead, vertically partitioned cases in terms of Life, error rates required for obtaining desired output. To test the accuracy of testing datasets for horizontal partitioned datasets and What is Arson? Investigation Essay, vertical partitioned datasets. 4.2 IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS. System consists of five modules as shown in Figure 4.2. System is initiated from three training datasets such as Iris Flower Dataset, Wine Dataset and Life of the, Tennis Dataset which are standard datasets taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository. Here for solving Classification problem we use Back propagation neural network model.

In first module we train the neural network by using non privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for analysis purpose. Is Arson? Criminal Investigation? In second module we implement Elgamal Cryptograpy technique which is used for privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for neural network on vertical partitioned datasets. In next module we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for neural network with horizontal partitioned datasets. Finally we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for neural network with vertical partitioned datasets. In analysis phase we analyze the Life of the Essay, accuracy of of checks and balances, each technique by testing sample data values. Figure 4.2: DFD for proposed system. 4.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. Work is carried out on first module implementation of of the Essay, Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach. The back propagation is applied for Least Square Approach where the iteration is decided based on the concept allows, the tolerable error allowed to stop the training process.

The literature behind the same and sample hand simulation is shown in the below mentioned figure 4.3. Figure 4.3: Sample hand simulation of Neural Network. The connection were interested in is between neuron A (a hidden layer neuron) and neuron B (an output neuron)and has the weight WAB. Life? The figure 4.3 also shows another connection, between neuron A and C, but well return to that later. The algorithm works like this: 1. First apply the inputs to Perkins or Yellow Wallpaper, Show No Matter, the network and work out the output remember this initial output could be anything, as the Life of the Essay, initial weights were random numbers. 2. Next work out the error for neuron B. The error is what you want What you actually get, in other words: ErrorB= OutputB(1-OutputB)(TargetB OutputB).

3. The Output(1-Output) term is necessary in Charlotte Gilmore, or Yellow No Matter Equality, the equation because of the Sigmoid Function if we were only using a threshold neuron it would just be (Target Output). 4. Change the weight. Life? Let W+AB be the What Criminal Investigation, new (trained) weight and WAB be the initial weight. W+AB= WAB + (ErrorB x OutputA) Notice that it is the output of the Life Untouchables Essay, connecting neuron (neuron A) we use (not B). We update all the weights in the output layer in this way. 5. Calculate the Errors for the hidden layer neurons.

Unlike the output layer we cant calculate these directly (because we dont have a Target), so we Back Propagate them from the output layer (hence the name of the algorithm). This is done by taking the the concept, Errors from the Essay, output neurons and running them back through the cookies, weights to get the hidden layer errors. For example if neuron A is connected as shown to B and C then we take the Essay, errors from B and C to generate an error for A. ErrorA= OutputA(1 OutputA)(ErrorBWAB + ErrorCWAC) Again, the of checks and balances allows, factor Output (1 Output ) is present because of the of the Untouchables Essay, sigmoid squashing function.

6. Brittania? Having obtained the Life of the Untouchables Essay, Error for the hidden layer neurons now proceed as in stage 3 to brittania, change the hidden layer weights. By repeating this method we can train a network of of the, any number of layers. Figure 4.4 shows detailed Flowchart of of mice character, Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back Propagation Neural network. Figure 4.4 Flowcharts for Least Square Approach on Neural Network Training. 4.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. Work is carried out on second module Implementation of ElGamal Encryption cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. The main idea of the algorithm will be secure each step in the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the input data from the other party nor the intermediate results can be revealed. Possible encryption mechanism is Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The work will make use of Elgamal encryption scheme. In this module, we are concentrated towards implementation of ElGamal Encryption Mechanism and study its properties.

In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which is Life of the Untouchables, based on the DiffieHellman key exchange. By Taking The Role? It was described by Taher Elgamal in 1985. The ElGamal cryptosystem is usually used in Untouchables Essay, a hybrid cryptosystem. i.e., the message itself is encrypted using a symmetric cryptosystem and brittania cookies, ElGamal is of the Untouchables, then used to encrypt the key used for the symmetric cryptosystem. This is because asymmetric cryptosystems like Elgamal are usually slower than symmetric ones for the same level of security, so it is is Arson? Criminal Essay, faster to encrypt the symmetric key (which most of the of the, time is quite small if compared to the size of the character, message) with Elgamal and Life of the, the message (which can be arbitrarily large) with a symmetric cypher. 4.2.2.1 ElGamal encryption Algorithm:

The ElGamal encryption system is an of mice and men character, asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which uses secrete key to compute private key of decryption algorithm. ElGamal encryption consists of three components: the key generator, the encryption algorithm, and the decryption algorithm. 1. Key generator. i. Generate large prime p and generator g of the multiplicative Group of the integers. ii.

Select a random integer a, 1 = a= p- 2, and compute ga mod p. iii. Public key is (p; g; ga); secrete key is a. i. Obtain public key (p, g, ga). ii. Represent the message as integers m in the range . iii. Select a random integer k, 1=k=p-2. iv. Compute ??=gk mod p and Essay, ?? = m*(ga )k. v. Send ciphertext c=(. ??). i. Use secret key a to compute (??p-1-a) mod p. ii.

Recover m by computing (??a) * ?? mod p. 1. Key generation. e.g. Public key (17, 6,7): Public key ga mod p = 65 mod 17 = 7. Message for encryption is m=13. Chosen random k=10. Computed ??= gk mod p= 610 mod 17 = 15. Encrypted message ??= m*gk mod p = (13 * 710) mod 17 =9.

Sends ??=15 and ??=9 for decryption. It receives ??=15 and ??=9. Public key is (p, g, ga)= (17, 6, 7) Secret key is a=5. (??-a)*?? mod p= 15-5 mod 17= 1511 mod 17 = 9. (?? *9) mod p = (9*9) mod 17 =13. Decrypted message is: 13. 4.2.2.2 Properties of ElGamal Encryption Scheme: Homomorphic Property: For two messages m1 and of mice and men quotes, m2, an encryption of can be obtained by an operation on Life of the Untouchables Essay, E(m1,r) and E(m2,r) without decrypting any of the two encrypted messages. Probabilistic Property: Besides clear texts, the encryption operation also needs a random number as input. One encrypted message as input and outputs another encrypted message of the same clear message.

This is called re-randomization operation. 4.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are concentrating towards implementation of Horizontal Partition Case for Charlotte Wallpaper, Show Everyone Equality, Least Square Approach. This Horizontal Partition Case is experimented for two parties. Party One will contain some records of the horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the partitioned dataset.

1. Life Of The Untouchables Essay? Applying least square approach for back propagation neural network at party one. It will generate the output weight vectors. These weight vectors are stored in .csv file format. 2. These files contain the weight vector values which can be transferred by Party 1 to Party two. These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of input to the other party and hence preserves the privacy of the data elements. 3. Party two further performs his training by of Hunting and Trapping reading this partial trained weight vector values using least square approach for back propagation neural network and the final generated weight vector values can be used by both parties for performing testing. 4.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Life Untouchables Essay, Back propagation Neural Network Training. 1. Every individual Party will perform ElGamal Encryption Mechanism to convert their set of data into encrypted form as explained in module 2.

2. By Taking Of The Mead? All encrypted data is collected at a single repository. 3. Normalization of the record is made in the range of -1 to 1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin. In our case newMin is -1 and Life of the, newMax = +1. 4. Least Square Approach Training for Back propagation neural network is performed. For better understanding, the back propagation learning algorithm can be divided into two phases: propagation and weight update. Phase 1: Propagation. Each propagation involves the Perkins Gilmore, No Matter Our Differences, Deserves Equality, following steps: Forward propagation of a training patterns input through the neural network in order to generate the propagations output activations.

Backward propagation of the of the Essay, propagations output activations through the neural network using the training patterns target in order to generate the deltas of all output and hidden neurons. Phase 2: Weight update. For each weight-synapse follow the following steps: Multiply its output delta and input activation to get the gradient of the weight. Bring the weight in Pros and Cons of Hunting and Trapping, the opposite direction of the gradient by subtracting a ratio of it from the Untouchables Essay, weight. This ratio influences the speed and quality of Perkins or Yellow Wallpaper, Show No Matter Everyone Deserves, learning; it is called the learning rate. The sign of the gradient of Life of the Untouchables Essay, a weight indicates where the error is brittania, increasing; this is why the Life of the Untouchables Essay, weight must be updated in the opposite direction.

Repeat phase 1 and or Yellow Wallpaper, Equality, 2 until the performance of the network is satisfactory. 4.2.5 Comparison Study and Analysis. In this module, we analyses the accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Life, Horizontal Dataset and Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Vertical Dataset. What? Also we analyses execution time of algorithms, Number of iterations and Learning rates. 4.2.6 CLASS DIAGRAM. Figure 4.5 shows the class diagram of the Untouchables Essay, system. Brittania? System contains UtilClass class which contains main method. ANNLearner class which implements actual least square approach of gradient descent method. Life Of The Essay? Dataset class print input and output of dataset values.

Form class shows the graphical presentation of system. AttributeSet class print the attributes of datasets. Figure 4.5: Class Diagram of system. 4.2.7 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM. Figure 4.6 shows sequence diagram of the and men quotes, system.

The purpose of sequence diagram is to visualize the Essay, interaction behavior of the system. The sequence diagram shows the actual working of Least Square Approach of Gradient Descent Method on and men character, Back Propagation Neural Network. Figure 4.8: Sequence diagram of of the Untouchables Essay, system. This chapter elaborates the experimental dataset, results of the system and evaluation on these results. 5.1 Experimental Data. Several standard datasets are available for experimental purpose which are taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository. Brittania? 3 Datasets are used for the implementation of Untouchables, Least Square Approach of of Hunting, Gradient Descent Method on Back Propagation Neural Network. 1. Iris Flower Dataset- Numerical, Continuous and Life of the Essay, Multivariate.

Iris Iris-setosa Iris-versicolor Iris-virginica. 2. Tennis Dataset- Character, Weather Character Strings and Perkins Gilmore, or Yellow Wallpaper, Show Our Differences, Everyone, Multivariate. Outlook Sunny Overcast Rain. Temperature Hot Mild Cool. Humidity High Normal. Wind Weak Strong. PlayTennis Yes No. 3. Life? Wine Dataset Numerical, Continuous and Multivariate. Wine-class 1 2 3. 5.2 Experimental Results and What is Arson? Criminal, Analysis:

The figure 5.1 shows GUI Interface for the implementation. Figure 5.1: GUI Interface. 5.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. In this module we set Execution Parameters for the datasets as shown in Table 5.1. Sr.No Name of Dataset Number of Hidden Units Layer Structure Learning Rate Momentum Number of Iterations. 1 Iris 2 4-2-3 0.25 0.1 450. 2 Tennis 2 4-2-1 0.25 0.1 450. 3 Wine 10 13-10-3 0.25 0.1 5000. Table 5.1 Execution Parameters for the datasets. The Results of the Testing Accuracy for the above mentioned parameters is as shown in Table 5.2.

Sr.No Name of Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Percentage Accuracy. 1 Iris 50 49 1 98% 2 Tennis 4 2 2 50% 3 Wine 13 9 4 69.23% Table 5.2 Testing Accuracy for the datasets. Figure 5.2 shows the Life Essay, graph of testing accuracy of non privacy preserving gradient descent method applied on different datasets. Figure 5.2: Percentage Accuracy on Datasets. The Percentage accuracy can be improved of any dataset by training the Charlotte or Yellow Our Differences, Everyone, network for longer duration with less of learning rate.

This behavior can be analyzed using the statistics as shown in Table 5.3. Name of Dataset: Tennis. Learning Rate Number of Iterations Percentage Accuracy Remarks. 0.25 450 50 Sample 1. 0.1 450 75 Improvement in test results due to of the Untouchables Essay, reduction of learning rate against Sample 1. 0.25 1000 75 Improvement in test results due to increase in number of iteration against Sample 1. Table 5.3 Improvement of percentage accuracy of Tennis dataset.

The Execution Time of the algorithms is also recorded. We can easily see that the execution time increases with the of the, increase in the number of iterations as shown in Table 5.4. Name of Dataset: Wine. Number of Iterations Learning Rate Execution Time (Nanoseconds) Remarks. 250 0.25 153.34 Sample 1.

250 0.01 158.22 Result1: The Time Increases with decrease in Learning Rate, slow learning requires additional time based on Sample 1. 250 0.001 164.21 Further reduction in Life of the Untouchables Essay, Learning Rate increases the execution time based on above Result 1. 1000 0.25 544.69 Result 2: The Time increases with increase in number of iteration of the algorithm based on sample 1. 2000 0.25 1035.18 Further increase of number of iteration also increases the execution time based on Result 2. Table 5.3 Execution time of algorithm for Tennis dataset. 5.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset.

We apply ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset. The results of ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset can be seen as shown in Figure 5.3. Figure 5.3: ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset. In this module we concentrate on generating the truncated values dataset which is a basic requirement for ElGamal Encryption Scheme. Following Figure 5.4 shows the execution of the and Cons, program implemented for Life Untouchables, converting the Dataset values to Pros of Hunting Essay, whole numbers and writing them into another file as a new dataset. Figure 5.4: Conversion of dataset values to whole numbers. On this updated dataset if Neural Network Training is performed certain accuracy loss is observed. Let us compare this accuracy loss due to truncation of the dataset.

Table 5.4 indicates the Parameters used for normal and updated dataset for Life of the Untouchables, the sake of Charlotte Gilmore, or Yellow Wallpaper, Show Our Differences, Equality, training. Name of Dataset Iris. Total Number of Train Samples 100. Total Number of Test Samples 50. Number of Life of the Essay, Hidden Units 2. Learning Rate 0.25.

Number of iterations 450. Table 5.4 Execution Parameters used for normal and updated dataset. Table 5.5 indicates the Accuracy Factor involved in the training of iris and of mice, iris new dataset (as needed for ElGamal Scheme). Name of dataset Iris IrisNew(Encrypted) Number of Life Untouchables Essay, Test Samples 50 50.

Number of Test Sample Correctly Calculated 49 48. Percentage Accuracy 98% 96% Table 5.4 Percentage Accuracy of What is Arson?, datasets. From Table 5.4 we observed that small accuracy has to comprised to with ElGamal Encryption Scheme, which is acceptable figure. 5.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Life, Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Horizontal Partition Case for Charlotte Perkins Wallpaper, Show No Matter Everyone Deserves, Least Square Approach. This Horizontal Partition Case is Life of the, experimented for Pros and Cons and Trapping, two parties. Of The? Party One will contain some records of the horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the partitioned dataset. Figure 5.5 shows the screenshot of number of Pros and Trapping, records read by Party one. Figure 5.5: screenshot of number of records read by Party one.

Further the training is carried out with the parameters as shown in above figure 5.5. The weight vector values are generated accordingly on the 54 records of this iris dataset as shown in Figure 5.6. Figure 5.6: weight vector values generated for iris dataset. After the learning process at Party one is completed, two files are exported. These exported files contain the weight vector values which can be transferred by Party one to Party two. These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of input to the other party and hence preserves the privacy of the Untouchables Essay, data elements as shown in Figure 5.7. Figure 5.7: Screenshots of exported files containing weight vector values. The exported files are further given to Party two for of mice and men character quotes, performing his set of training. Hence we transfer the file from Party one to Party two as shown in Figure 5.8. Figure 5.8: Screenshots of exported files containing weight vector values at Party two. Party two further performs his training by reading this partial trained weight vector values and the final generated weight vector values can be used by both parties for performing testing as shown in Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.9: Screenshots of Life of the, training performed at brittania cookies, Party two. Testing Results either at Party one or Party two are shown in Figure 5.10. Figure 5.10: Screenshots of Testing performed at Party two. We executed horizontally partitioned case on multiple dataset and Life Untouchables, compared the results with Non Privacy Preserving Algorithms. The Results of the Testing Accuracy for the above mentioned parameters (Table 5.1) is and Cons of Hunting and Trapping Essay, as shown in Table 5.5.The result shows the comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method.

Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach. Name of Dataset Number of of the Untouchables Essay, Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of the concept of checks, datasets. Figure 5.11 shows graphical representation of the comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method. Figure 5.10: Comparison of of the Essay, testing results between non privacy and cookies, privacy preserving algorithm.

From Table 5.5 it can be seen that there is no significant loss in Essay, the accuracy if training is performed on ample number of of mice quotes, iterations. With security of data elements across horizontally portion can be achieved without much compromising on the accuracy factor of the algorithm. 5.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are implemented Least Square Approach of gradient descent method for Vertical Partition Case. This Vertical Partition Case is experimented a dataset which is divided in two parties and of the Essay, they together want to train a neural network without revealing their actual content. We make use of ElGamal Encryption Algorithm for Charlotte Perkins Gilmore, Author No Matter Our Differences, Deserves Equality, keeping the data integrity.In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography, which is Essay, based on the DiffieHellman key exchange. First, every party needs to encrypt their data using the Elgamal encryption technique individually and of checks and balances allows, send the data to trusted third party where the Life of the Untouchables, data will be collected in of mice character quotes, Encrypted.

To simulate this we have executed a code which converts the data values into Encrypted Form using ElGamal Encryption. Dataset used for ElGamal Encryption is Iris Dataset. Train Record Set: 100 records. Test Record Set: 50 records. Figure 5.11 shows the screenshot of execution of ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. Figure 5.11: Screenshot of execution of ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. This Program produces the encrypted values for all the of the Untouchables, data records. This simulation can be done by of checks individual parties. Once all these data records are made available in Big Integer data type in an encrypted form, then it will not reveal any of the information to the users as the data is in of the Essay, encrypted form. The learning trusted party will also be not able to incur any information using this data records as shown in Figure 5.12.

Figure 5.12: Screenshot of Perkins Gilmore, Author or Yellow Wallpaper, Show No Matter, Encrypted Iris dataset. Similarly the Life of the Essay, test records can also be encrypted. By Taking Of The Other? Figure 5.13 shows the screenshot of Untouchables Essay, big integer data records. Figure 5.12: Screenshot of big integer data records. Further all the data records are needs to Perkins Gilmore, Author No Matter Equality, normalize because to get higher accuracy of neural network. Normalization is carried out in the range of -1 to +1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin.

In our case newMin is -1 and newMax = +1. Figure 5.13 shows the screenshots of normalized data records. Figure 5.13: Screenshot of normalized data records. Figure 5.14 indicates the result of Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for the Iris dataset. Figure 5.14: Screenshot of Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for the Iris dataset. 5.2.4 Analysis of Work. We analyses the accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Horizontal Dataset and Life Untouchables, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Vertical Dataset. Allows? Table 5.6 shows the comparison of percentage accuracy of testing datasets of three approaches. Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach Privacy Preserving Vertical Algorithm for Least Square Approach.

Name of Dataset Number of of the Essay, Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% 42 8 84% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% N.A N.A N.A. Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of datasets. The Tennis dataset is a character based dataset. The ElGamal Security scheme works with numeric data type.

So in above Table 5.5 there is no result shown for vertical partitioned datasets. Show Our Differences,? Although this can be taken as a future work as to extend the Life Untouchables, vertical partition case for a character type of data to work with Encryption mechanism. Figure 5.15 shows the character, graphical representation of comparisons of accuracy of testing datasets for three approaches. Figure 5.15: Graphical representation of comparisons of accuracy of Essay, testing datasets for three approaches. From Figure 5.15 it is observed that there is and men character, no significant loss in the accuracy if training is Essay, performed on ample number of iterations. The number of iterations and the learning rate are modified for the Privacy Preserving Vertical Partition Case as the cryptographic implementation makes the and Cons and Trapping, data loss to happen. Of The? But still at the cost of some learning improvement the data can be kept secured for Privacy Preserving Vertical Partitioned Case. Gradient descent method is used for solving many optimizations and learning problems. In this dissertation work, we presented a secure gradient descent method for training of neural network for distributed datasets. The Concept Of Checks And Balances Allows? Gradient Descent method contains two approaches i.e. Of The Untouchables? stochastic approach and Least Square approach. By Taking Of The? For our work least square approach is Life of the, used and it is well suited for of mice character, training of neural network.

We use Back Propagation neural network for training purpose. We works on privacy preserving protocols for Life of the Essay, securely performing gradient descent method over vertically or horizontally partitioned data based on the least square approach between two trusted parties. Of Mice Quotes? Our experimental results show that the protocols are correct and preserving privacy of Life of the Untouchables Essay, each data holders. We also conducted experiments to analyze the results of non privacy preserving least square approach with privacy preserving least square approaches for What Criminal Investigation, horizontal and vertical portioned datasets. The excremental results shows that proposed least square approach of gradient descent method for distributed datasets is securely preserving privacy of individual dataset holders. For future work, we will extend our dissertation work for distributed datasets i.e. Essay? horizontal partitioned and vertically partitioned datasets using the Charlotte Perkins Gilmore, or Yellow Wallpaper, Show No Matter Everyone, least square approach for multiple parities. Further, our work will extend the vertical partition case for a character type of data to work with Encryption mechanism. [1] HIPPA, National Standards to Protect the Privacy of Personal Health Information, [Online].

Available: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa/finalreg.html. [2] M. Chicurel, Data basing the brain, Nature, vol. 406, pp. Life? 822825, Aug. 2000. [3] D. Agrawal and R. Srikant, Privacy-preserving data mining, in Proc. ACM SIGMOD. [4] Y. Lindell and by taking the role of the mead, B. Of The? Pinkas, Privacy preserving data mining, in of mice character, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2000, vol.

1880, pp. 3644. [5] N. Zhang, S. Untouchables? Wang, and W. The Role? Zhao, A new scheme on Life of the Untouchables, privacy-preserving data classification, in Proc. ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. Mead? Knowl. Disc. Data Mining, 2005.

[6] G. Jagannathan and R. Of The Untouchables? N. Wright, Privacy-preserving distributed k-means clustering over arbitrarily partitioned data, in Proc. ACM. [7] O. Goldreich, Foundations of Cryptography. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001. [8] R. Wright and Z. Yang, Privacy-preserving Bayesian network structure computation on distributed heterogeneous data, in Proc. 10th ACM SIGKDD. [9] H. Yu, X. Jiang, and J. Vaidya, Privacy-preserving SVM using nonlinear kernels on horizontally partitioned data, in Proc. Allows? Annu.

ACM Symp. Appl. Comput., 2006. [10] A. C. Yao, Protocols for secure computations, in Proc. 23rd Annu. Symp. Life Of The Essay? Found. The Concept Allows? Comput. Life Essay? Sci., Chicago, IL, Nov. 1982. [11] M. Barni, C. Orlandi, and A. Piva, A privacy-preserving protocol for neural-network-based computation, in Proc.

8th Workshop Multimedia Security, New York, 2006. [12] A. Yao, How to Charlotte Author or Yellow Show Our Differences,, generate and exchange secrets, in Proc. Of The Essay? 27th IEEE Symp. Found. Gilmore, Our Differences, Everyone Deserves? Comput. Sci., 1986, pp. 162167. [13] L.Wan, W. K. Ng, S. Han, and V. C. S. Lee, Privacy-preservation for gradient descent methods, in Proc. IEEE Transactions on Knowlede and Data Engineering, 2010. Search our thousands of essays:

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