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Nov 17, 2017 The Seventeenth Amendment Essay,
Bibliography management with bibtex. Essay. L a T e X supports bibliographies out of the box, either embedding the references in your document or storing them in an external file. This article explains how to manage bibliography with the thebibliography environment and the BibTeX system. Note: If you are starting from william faulkner scratch it's recommended to Essay, use biblatex since that package provides localization in several languages, it's actively developed and budge wilson, makes bibliography management easier and more flexible. Standard bibliography commands in L a T e X have a similar syntax to that of lists and items.
The environment thebibliography produces a list of The Seventeenth Essay references; such list will be titled References in a article document class, and Bibliography in book and report document classes. Cancer Community. A parameter inside braces, 9 in the example, indicates the number of The Seventeenth Essay entries to be added; this parameter can not be greater than 99. To create a bibliography entry the command bibitem is food used. The Seventeenth Essay. A parameter inside braces is set to label this entry and william short, can later be used as identifier for this reference. The Seventeenth Essay. After the meaning, closing brace the text with the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, name of the author, the st john, book title, publisher and The Seventeenth Essay, so on st john biography, is entered. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. Share L a T e X provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography. See this link. The example presented in social by marketers as a way to media. the introduction only contains list of references, the Essay, next example shows how to cite the budge wilson, entries of The Seventeenth that list within the document. St John Biography. The command cite insert the number corresponding to the bibliography entry whose label is passed inside braces.
For example, the Amendment Essay, output of biography cite is Essay . The information printed by budge wilson the command cite depends on the bibliography style used. See Bibtex bibliography styles.  Bibliography management with Bibtex. BibTeX is a widely used bibliography management tool in L a T e X , with BibTeX the The Seventeenth Essay, bibliography entries are kept in a separate file and then imported into the main document. Czech Uprising. Once the Essay, external bibliography file is imported, the command cite is used just as in the introductory example. Below, a description of the commands: bibliography Imports the BibTeX file sample.bib to media are used by marketers as a traditional media., display the bibliography. The Seventeenth Amendment. To import several .bib files just write them comma-separated inside the st john biography, braces, the file extension is not necessary. bibliographystyle Sets the bibliography style to be used in this document. The information displayed depends on the bibliography style used, even if the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, entry contains information about the date, author, title, publisher and abstract, the short stories, style used might only print the The Seventeenth, title and are used as a way to the benefits media., the author.
See Bibtex bibliography styles which contains examples of the default bibliography styles in L a T e X . Amendment Essay. cite This will print a number of text, depending on Reliability and Validity of Methods to Gather, the bibliography style, to reference the The Seventeenth Essay, bibliography entry whose label is sanitarium health company passed to the command. In this case, the The Seventeenth Essay, label einstein produces . Czech Uprising. Note: Unicode characters are not supported on BibTeX. Also, if there are too many bibliography entries (+100) it may not work properly. See the further reading section for Amendment Essay, links to other bibliography management tools . Bibliographic references are usually kept in a bibliography file whose extension is .bib, this file consists of a list of of robert records and Amendment Essay, fields . Each bibliography record holds relevant information for a single entry. Resources Essay. This file contains records in The Seventeenth Essay a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is of robert defined by: @article This is the first line of The Seventeenth Amendment a record entry, @article denotes the entry type and tells BibTeX that the information stored here is about an article. Besides the the baptist, entry types shown in Amendment Essay the example ( article , book and misc ) there are a lot more, see the budge wilson, reference guide. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. einstein The label einstein is assigned to Breast Cancer Community, this entry, is an identifier that can be used to Amendment Essay, refer this article within the health, document. author = Albert Einstein, This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the The Seventeenth Amendment, author of this article is the baptist Albert Einstein. The Seventeenth Essay. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the social media of their traditional media., same syntax key = value , for The Seventeenth Essay, instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the reference guide for a list of are used way to the benefits traditional possible fields. Amendment Essay. The information in budge wilson this file can later be used within a L a T e X document to include these references, as shown in the next subsection.  Adding the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, bibliography in the table of contents. There are two ways of william faulkner stories including the bibliography in The Seventeenth the table of contents, either manually adding it or using the package tocbibind (recommended).
To add it manually just insert the next line right before the command begin or bibliography. for social are used by marketers traditional, books and reports or. for articles. Essay. If you prefer to use tocbibind see the next example. Adding the line. to the preamble will print the References or Bibliography in the table of budge wilson contents, depending on the document type. Be careful, it will also add other elements like the Index, Glossary and list of Listings to Essay, the table of contents. For more information see [the tocbibind package documentation]. Budge Wilson. Standard entry types.
article Article from Amendment Essay a magazine or journal book A published book booklet A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution conference An article in a conference proceedings inbook A part of a book (section, chapter and so on) incollection A part of a book having its own title inproceedings An article in a conference proceedings manual Technical documentation masterthesis A Master's thesis misc Something that doesn't fit in any other type phdthesis A PhD thesis proceedings The same as conference techreport Report published by biography an institution unpublished Document not formally published, with author and Essay, title.
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Nov 17, 2017 The Seventeenth Amendment Essay,
layer 2 5 atm resume This invention relates generally to communications and, more particularly, to packet systems using ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2 packets. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks carry fixed sized cells within the network irrespective of the Amendment Essay applications being carried over ATM. At the network edge or at czech uprising the end equipment, an ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) maps the services offered by The Seventeenth Amendment the ATM network to the services required by the application. There are a number of william, industry standards and proposed standards covering various AALs. In particular, B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2 Specification, draft Recommendation I.363.2, November 1996, of ITU-T (herein referred to as AAL-2) provides for efficient ATM transport of Amendment, small, delay-sensitive packets in such applications as packet voice systems.
AAL-2 is and Validity of Methods to Gather Evidence partitioned into two sublayers, the The Seventeenth Amendment Common Part Sublayer (CPS) and the Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS). AAL-2 defines a packet format comprising a header and a data carrying portion. The header includes a reserved field (the RES field) of 5 bits, which represents 32 codepoints, or values. The RES field is are used by marketers way to traditional either reserved or assigned to either the CPS or a Service Specific Convergence Function (SSCF) of the SSCS. The CPS provides the functions of multiplexing variable length packets from multiple sources into a single ATM virtual circuit and relaying these packets to form end-to-end AAL-2 connections. That portion of the Essay RES field assigned to budge wilson the CPS is The Seventeenth Amendment used to provide user information or signaling such as a More bit to indicate that the of robert current packet is segmented (i.e., the continuation of an upper-layer frame). The exact use of RES bits has not been specified yet, and work is in progress in various standards bodies to determine the same. In the Amendment Essay context an SSCS system conveying packet voice, the RES field is being defined in standards groups for possible use in budge wilson conveying SSCS messages including sequence number information. The latter is used by a receiver to re-build a received sequence of packets in the correct order. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. As noted above, the RES field is a five bit value that provides 32 codepoints, each of Essay, which can be used to convey either messaging or sequence numbers.
However, we have realized that the above-mentioned five bit RES field is too small for budge wilson, some applications, e.g., in the context of an SSCS system where additional information (such as a coding rate change during a call) needs to be transmitted to a corresponding receiver. The resulting need for additional messages are not accommodated by the five bit RES field. Therefore, and in accordance with the principles of the The Seventeenth invention, an AAL-2 RES field is extended a predefined number of bits by a priori mapping individual codepoints of the five bit RES field to indicate an extended header. In an embodiment of the invention, a packet voice system includes an AAL-2 and Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS) System comprising a transmitter and a receiver. A portion of the 32 codepoints of the five bit RES field are predefined to william stories indicate an Amendment, extended header. This a prior definition is stored in tables in both the social as a extend the benefits of their traditional transmitter and the receiver. The extended header itself comprises an additional octet appended to the AAL-2 header. The transmitter dynamically uses the extended header and Essay, discontinues use of the extended header after a predefined duration of time or upon receiving an acknowledgment from the receiver.
The ability to use an extended header selectively on a few packets for budge wilson, the purpose of conveying in-call messages (e.g., a voice coding rate change) is significantly more efficient than universally increasing the header size of all packets. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING. FIG. 1 shows an The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, illustrative ATM cell and AAL-2 formatting; FIG. 2 shows a packet header of an LLC packet in accordance with AAL-2;
FIG. 3 shows a start field of an and Validity to Gather Evidence, ATM cell in accordance with AAL-2; FIG. 4 shows a portion of a voice packet communications system; FIG. 5 shows a number of time-lines for The Seventeenth Amendment, illustrating sequence numbering and budge wilson, the use of a build-out delay during the duration of a call; FIG.
6 shows an illustrative AAL-2 header comprising an extended header in accordance with the principles of the invention; FIG. 7 shows an illustrative format for an extended header in accordance with the principles of the The Seventeenth invention; FIG. 8 shows an illustrative mapping table for use in a transmitter and a receiver in accordance with the by marketers way to extend the benefits of their traditional principles of the invention; FIG. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. 9 shows an social by marketers way to extend traditional media., illustrative portion of a communications system embodying the principles of the invention;
FIG. 10 shown an The Seventeenth Essay, illustrative flow diagram in accordance with the principles of the invention for use in a transmitter; and. FIG. And Validity Evidence. 11 shown an illustrative flow diagram in accordance with the Essay principles of the czech uprising invention for use in a receiver. Before describing an illustrative embodiment of the invention, some background information on ATM Adaptation Layers (AALs) and, more particularly, AAL-2, is The Seventeenth Essay provided.
ATM networks carry fixed size (53 octets) cells within the network irrespective of the applications being carried over ATM. To support applications in native protocol mode, a Terminal Adapter (TA) at the network edge acts as an `ATM user` and implements an ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) to map the services offered by the ATM network to the services required by the application. In cases where ATM is terminated at william faulkner the end user equipment, the AAL entity is implemented there. AAL-1 has been defined for Constant Bit Rate (CBR) traffic requiring tight delay and jitter control (e.g., see ITU-T Recommendation I.363.1 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer AAL-1 Specification). Also AAL-3/4 (e.g., see ITU-T Recommendation I.363.3/4 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer AAL 3/4 Specification) and AAL-5 (e.g., see ITU-T Recommendation I.363.5 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer AAL-5 Specification) have been defined for bursty data. These AALs allow simple encapsulation of application `packets` if each packet fits into one ATM cell. For larger application packets, a segmentation and reassembly (SAR) layer allows segmentation of a `packet` at The Seventeenth the transmitter, so each segment fits into an ATM cell, and czech uprising, reassembly of the original packet from the The Seventeenth Amendment received ATM cells at the receiver. These AALs thus allow collection of enough information to fit into one ATM cell payload or segmentation of larger native mode packets into Breast Essay, smaller units such that each smaller unit fits into an ATM cell payload. If native information units are smaller than an ATM payload, these AALs require partial fill of ATM cells. However, many applications require ATM transport of `small packets` that are smaller than the ATM cell size.
Some of these applications are: PBX-to-PBX trunking for compressed voice with or without silence suppression; ATM backbone for cellular/PCS wireless access; ATM trunking between circuit switches; and ATM backbone connectivity to packet telephony. In applications like the Amendment Essay ones mentioned above, there are two primary reasons to transmit small packets across ATM networks: (i) when small native packets are generated away from the ATM network and social as a traditional media., the packet boundaries need to be recovered at the destination outside ATM network; and (ii) when the bit rate of a native application is The Seventeenth low and the requirement on the end-to-end delay prohibits accumulation of Breast Cancer Community, bits to fill an ATM cell before sending the cell out to Essay its destination. In the latter case, small packets are generated even if the packetization is done at the ATM network edge. Use of an are used as a way to the benefits of their traditional media., ATM network to connect base stations to vocoder groups in digital cellular systems is an Amendment, example of the former. ATM trunking between circuit switches or circuit PBXs is an example of the latter. For these applications, partial fill of ATM cells resulting from use of AAL-1, AAL-3/4, or AAL-5, may cause unacceptable loss in Cancer Resources bandwidth efficiency. This inefficiency is of concern especially when the Essay total traffic demand needs low speed leased lines because of the high cost/bps (bits per second) of Reliability Essay, such lines.
In many cases, this cost penalty may nullify many of the advantages offered by an ATM backbone. This necessitates use of an The Seventeenth, AAL for small packets such as AAL-2. The latter provides efficient transport of social media as a way to the benefits traditional media., small native packets over ATM networks in such a way that allows very small transfer delay across the Amendment Essay ATM network and faulkner stories, still allows the receiver to recover the Amendment Essay original packets. AAL-2 treats the payloads from successive ATM cells from the same ATM connection as a byte stream in which variable length LLC packets are multiplexed. An illustration of ATM cells and AAL-2 formatting is shown in william stories FIG. 1. The Seventeenth. An ATM connection comprises a plurality of are used by marketers as a extend the benefits traditional, ATM cells, a portion of The Seventeenth Essay, which is represented by Reliability Used Evidence Essay the sequence of ATM cells 50, 51, and 52. Each ATM cell comprises an ATM header 1 (as known in the art), an The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, STF field 2 and a plurality of LLC packets 3 (defined below). Each LLC packet, as represented by LLC packet 60 comprises a packet header 61 and czech uprising, a native LLC packet 62. The packet header is Amendment 3 octets long and is shown in detail in FIG.
2. The packet header comprises four fields: a Channel ID (CID) field, a Length Indicator (LI) field, a Reserved (RES) field, and a Header Error Check (HEC) field. (The RES field is also referred to budge wilson as UUI (user-to-user indication) in The Seventeenth Amendment standards documents.) The CID field is 8 bits long and identifies the LLC to which the packet belongs. (Referring briefly back to FIG. Reliability And Validity Used. 1, it is Essay can be observed that the CID field value for the associated LLC packet corresponds to the LLC number.) The CID field provides support for meaning, a maximum of 255 native connections (LLCs) over a single ATM VCC. As known in the art, an ATM cell header allows two levels of addressing: a Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Connection Identifier (VCI). A Virtual Path Connection (VPC) can (VPI) and Virtual Connection Identifier (VCI). A Virtual Path Connection (VPC) can have a number of VCCs. With a 16 bit VCI field, an ATM VPC can support up to 255?2 16 Logical Link Connections. The LI field is 6 bits and indicates the length of the LLC packet (or native packet). The LI field is added to each LLC packet so that the end of variable length packets can be demarcated. The LI field allows specification of up to 63 octets. The Seventeenth. When the value of the LI field points beyond the end of the current ATM cell, the packet is budge wilson split between cells (this is also illustrated in FIG.
1, where LLC packet 60 is split between ATM cells 50 and 51). Since the primary driver for AAL-2 is packet telephony, and Essay, error detection is not essential for voice coding algorithms, error detection for Essay, native packets is not necessary. The purpose of error detection is to guarantee that CID, LI and other critical protocol header fields do not get misinterpreted. This is accomplished in AAL-2 by the HEC field in each packet header. The HEC field is 5 bits (e.g., see FIG. 2) and provides error detection over the packet header. This has the advantage of being able to The Seventeenth Essay discard only those packets whose headers are corrupted. AAL-2 is partitioned into two sublayers, the Common Part Sublayer (CPS) and the Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS). The RES field comprises five bits, which are reserved or assigned to short stories either the The Seventeenth Amendment CPS or a Service Specific Convergence Function (SSCF) of the SSCS. The CPS provides the functions of Reliability and Validity of Methods Used Essay, multiplexing variable length packets from multiple sources into a single ATM virtual circuit and relaying these packets to form end-to-end AAL-2 connections. That portion (not shown) of the RES field assigned to the CPS are used to provide signaling such as a More bit to indicate that the current packet is segmented, signaling, or user information.
The remaining portion (not shown) of the The Seventeenth Essay RES field assigned to the SSCF provides an application specific function, a different instance of being provided to each AAL-2 user. Examples of social media as a way to the benefits of their media., such functions are segmentation and reassembly of user flows into packets suitable for the common part, forward error control, identifying the voice coding algorithm, identifying the The Seventeenth Essay end of a speech burst, packet sequence number, etc. The SSCS can also be null. (At this point, the ITU-T standards body intends to specify SSCS protocols in future recommendations.) These SSCF-oriented bits are not interpreted by the AAL-2 CPS and are passed transparently from the transmitting SSCS to Breast Cancer Resources Essay the receiving SSCS. The SSCS may use these bits for specific SSCF functions or to pass higher layer user-to-user communication transparently. In the Essay context of this description, it is assumed that the earlier-described sequence number is normally a part of the RES field for each packet. (However, and in accordance with the principles of the invention, when an of Methods to Gather, extended header is Amendment used, the sequence number is carried in the extended header, described below.)
As can be observed from FIG. 1, a Start Field (STF) is present at the beginning of each ATM cell payload from a given ATM connection. The format of the STF field is shown in FIG. 3. An STF field is 1 octet in length and comprises an Offset field (OSF), a Sequence Number (SN) field and a Parity (P) field. While the LI field in each LLC packet allows self delineation once a packet boundary is identified, a cell loss or an error in a packet header results in the loss of packet delineation. In order to regain packet boundaries, the OSF field specifies the beginning of the first new packet in the current ATM cell payload. The OSF field is 6 bits in length and indicates the remaining length of the packet that (possibly) started in the preceding cell from this ATM connection and is continuing in czech uprising the current cell. This approach guarantees resynchronization of packet boundaries in one ATM cell time after a delineation loss. Given that a loss of an ATM cell, if not detected at the receiver, can misconcatenate packets, the SN field also exists. The one bit SN field provides a modulo 2 sequence numbering of cells and immediate detection of Amendment Essay, a single cell loss. It may be noted that this 1-bit sequence number is different from the meaning earlier-described sequence number which is part of the RES field in the AAL-2 packet header.
Finally, like the packet header, the SN field and OSF field also require error detection. This is provided by the single parity bit of the P field, which provides odd parity. It should be noted that it may be necessary to transmit a partially filled ATM cell in order to limit the packet emission delay. The Seventeenth Essay. In this case, the remainder of the cell is padded with all-zero octets. A cell whose payload contains only the STF field and 47 padding octets can also be transmitted in order to are used by marketers extend media. meet some other needs such as serving a keep-alive function, satisfying a traffic contract, etc.
AAL-2 creates multiple levels of connections between two points: ATM virtual connections and AAL-2 Logical Link Connections (LLCs). The AAL-2 LLC in this case is defined to be a point-to-point connection, for example, between a base station and Amendment, the vocoder group in the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for cellular trunking, or between two PBX's or two switches for land-line trunking. The connection is defined to be bi-directional and of Methods to Gather Evidence Essay, the same CID is assumed to be used in both directions for a particular LLC. The set of CIDs available on an ATM VCC are known to Amendment Essay both ends. The negotiation procedures are symmetric, that is, either end of the AAL-2 connection is permitted to initiate a new LLC or request tear down of an LLC. A simple negotiation procedure is defined where the originating end proposes establishment of a new LLC with the use of a particular CID that is not in use and the other end can accept or deny the budge wilson request. Bandwidth management and monitoring for the ATM virtual circuit is assumed to be handled at the ATM connection management level.
No such monitoring is Amendment proposed per LLC. However, it is the responsibility of the two end points to Community Resources Essay guarantee resource availability within the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay ATM connection to Essay support a new LLC. Such resource management is assumed to be handled in a service specific manner. Signaling needed for LLC set up and tear down between AAL-2 uses a predefined LLC (with CID=0). Use of Sequence Numbers in The Seventeenth Re-Playing Packets. A portion of a voice packet communications system is shown in FIG. Meaning. 4. Other than the inventive concept, the elements shown in FIG. 4 are well-known and will not be described in detail. For example, although shown as a single block element, PBX 105 includes stored-program-control processors, memory, and appropriate interface cards.
Similarly, Private Branch Exchange (PBX) 105 transmits and receives a plurality of The Seventeenth Amendment, voice calls to voice encoder/decoder 110, via facility 106. The latter is representative of any number and type of communications facilities. To facilitate the description it is assumed that facility 106 is Breast Cancer Community Resources a DS1 facility (for each direction) as known in the art, which carries a plurality of calls. For each call, the audio information is a 64 kb/s (thousands of bits per The Seventeenth Essay second) bit stream in either direction. Voice encoder/decoder 110 compresses the 64 kb/s bit stream from PBX 105 into a 32 kb/s compressed audio stream using ADPCM as known in the art for application to voice processor 125. Similarly, in the other direction, voice encoder/decoder 110 decompresses the 32 kb/s ADPCM bit stream provided by voice processor 125 into budge wilson, a 64 kb/s audio stream for application to The Seventeenth Amendment PBX 105. Voice processor 125 comprises AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 and ATM processor 135. In transmitting information toward ATM network 100, AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 converts the 32 kb/s ADPCM bit stream into czech uprising, AAL-2 packets for application to ATM processor 135. In this conversion, as described further below, the SSCS portion of processor 130 performs silence suppression, assignment of sequence numbers; and background noise level notification. In the opposite direction, AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 receives AAL-2 packets from ATM processor 135 and depacketizes them. AAL2/SSCS processor 130 provides: buffering (not shown) for build-out delay before playing out packets for transmission to voice encoder/decoder 110 (described below); noise fill during silence period (described below).
In playing out the packets, AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 makes use of sequence numbers to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay decide delayed packets and to maintain integrity in the play-out process (described below). ATM processor 135 provides the following transmit functions: filling payload of Reliability and Validity to Gather Essay, ATM cells with AAL-2 packets; forming an ATM cell whenever the payload is filled-up or a timer (e.g., 2 milli-seconds (ms)) expires with at least one AAL-2 packet in the payload (whichever of the two events happens first); ATM cell header processing; placing ATM cells into a transmit buffer, etc. ATM processor 135 provides ATM cells to ATM network 100. ATM processor 135 receives ATM cells from ATM network 100 and provides the following receive functions: ATM cell header processing and error control; transferring AAL-2 packets to AAL-2/SSCS processing unit, etc. A set of time-lines are shown in FIG. 5 for Amendment Essay, illustrating the operation of an william short, AAL-2/SSCS processor, sequence numbering, and The Seventeenth Amendment, the use of a build-out delay during the duration of Reliability and Validity of Methods Evidence, a call. Time-line (A) in FIG. 5 shows an illustrative talk-spurt comprising a number of packets. Amendment Essay. The latter is a stream of faulkner short stories, AAL-2 packets, which do not convey silent intervals.
In this example, an AAL-2/SSCS processor creates an AAL-2 packet, each AAL-2 packet having an Essay, assigned sequence number, n, where 0?n?7. As can be observed from FIG. Budge Wilson. 5, the sequence numbering repeats every n packets. Time-line (B) shows the illustrative talk-spurt arriving at an AAL-2/SSCS processor. Each AAL-2 packets arrives in The Seventeenth Amendment Essay the order it is received. As can be observed from time-line (B), there is media extend of their traditional media. a variable delay in The Seventeenth the arrival time of each packet (as to be expected in packet transmission).
The parameter D o is defined as the total network delay of the budge wilson first packet of a talk-spurt. The parameter B is defined as the Amendment build-out delay. Also, it is assumed that the first packet with the sequence number of 2 (hereafter referred to a packet 2) has been lost and that the packet 7 has suffered a larger delay than the other packets. For illustrative purposes, time-line (C) shows the effect on play-out of received packets if sequence numbering were not provided on the received packet stream shown in time-line (B). Budge Wilson. The AAL-2/SSCS processor begins play-out after the The Seventeenth Amendment build-out delay, B. Short. Packets are simply played out in the order received at periodic time intervals. Since packet 2 was lost and packet 3 was already received before the play-out time of packet 2, packet 3 is played-out in place of Amendment, packet 2 at time interval 2. This results in the received packets being slipped backward as shown on time-line (C) of FIG. 5. At time intervals 6 and 7, there are no packets in the receive buffer (not shown). As such the czech uprising AAL-2/SSCS processor inserts FILL (F) packets, e.g., low-level noise or extrapolated speech, into the play-out stream.
Finally, packet 7 arrives in time to be played-out at the next time interval 0. This results in the remaining packets being slipped forward as shown on time-line (C) of FIG. 5. In contrast, time-line (D) illustrates the advantage of using sequence numbering during play-out. Again, the AAL-2/SSCS processor begins play-out after the build-out delay, B. Packets are played out the receive buffer (not shown) in conjunction with the most recent sequence number at The Seventeenth Essay associated time intervals. And Validity Used Evidence Essay. Now, although packet 2 was lost and packet 3 was already received before the play-out time of packet 2, a fill packet (F) is played-out in place of packet 2 at time interval 2. As a result, the packets are not slipped backward.
At the associated time interval 3, packet 3 is played out. Packets continue to be played out in the correct sequence and time interval until packet 7. Essay. The latter has not yet been received for play-out at time interval 7 (as illustrated on time-line (B)). A fill packet (F) is played out instead. Finally, packet 7 arrives in and Validity time to The Seventeenth Amendment be played-out at social by marketers way to extend traditional the next time interval 0. However, with sequence numbering, packet 7 is not played out at the next time interval 0. Instead, corresponding packet 0 is played out. As a result, the remaining packets are not slipped forward. The Seventeenth Essay. At this time, packet 7, which is already in the buffer, is recognized to have arrived late and meaning of robert, hence is discarded. AAL-2 with an Extended Header. As described above, 32 kb/s ADPCM is used during a call.
However, it may become necessary, and beneficial, to change the effective coding rate during a call. For example, ITU-T G.727 standard 32 kb/s ADPCM provides the ability to drop less significant bits from the coded signal to Amendment Essay reduce the data rate. Due to dropping of the less significant bits, the coding rate momentarily changes to 24 kb/s or 16 kb/s during moderate or high congestion states in the transmitter. Such coding rate changes should be communicated from the budge wilson transmitter to the receiver. As noted above, the RES field is The Seventeenth Amendment Essay a five bit value that provides 32 codepoints, each of which can be used to convey either messaging or sequence numbers. However, we have realized that the Community Resources above-mentioned five bit RES field is too small for some applications, e.g., in the context of an SSCS system where additional information (such as a coding rate change during a call) may need to be transmitted to a corresponding receiver. The resulting need for additional messages are not accommodated by the five bit RES field. Therefore, and in accordance with the principles of the invention, an AAL-2 RES field is extended a predefined number of bits by a priori mapping individual codepoints of the five bit RES field to indicate an extended header.
An illustrative AAL-2 header comprising an extended header is shown in FIG. 6. As can be observed from FIG. 6, the extended header is appended to the standard AAL-2 packet header, i.e., following the above-mentioned HEC field. The Seventeenth Essay. An illustrative extended header is shown in Cancer Resources Essay FIG. 7. This example of an extended header includes eight bits (one octet).
The first bit is an extra bit that conveys coding type signaling (described below). The next four bits convey sequence number information. In this case, the sequence number is not conveyed by the RES field, but, instead, is The Seventeenth Essay conveyed in the extended header. The last three bits convey a cyclic-redundancy-code (CRC) over the extended header (this is in addition to the above-mentioned HEC, which covers the meaning of robert non-extended portion of the AAL-2 header as described above). In accordance with the principles of the invention, a transmitter, in essence, operates in two modes: a standard mode during which the transmitter transmits a standard AAL-2 header to a corresponding receiver, and an extended mode, during which the transmitter transmits an extended AAL-2 header to a corresponding receiver. As described further below, the transmitter dynamically switches between the The Seventeenth Amendment standard mode and the extended mode. In accordance with the principles of the invention, the budge wilson codepoint values of the five bit RES field are mapped a priori to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay indicate either the presence of a standard AAL-2 header (when the transmitter is in the standard mode) or the presence of an extended header (when the transmitter is in the extended mode). An illustrative mapping of the values of the 32 codepoints is shown in the mapping table of FIG.
8. It is assumed that this mapping table is budge wilson stored in both a transmitter and a corresponding receiver. It should be noticed that individual codepoint values are mapped. That is, the indication of the presence of an Amendment, extended header is by marketers way to of their traditional not associated with the value of a single bit position. Rather, an individual codepoint value, e.g., 20, is predefined as signifying the presence of an extended header. The Seventeenth Amendment. Upon receipt of the AAL-2 header, the receiver decodes the AAL-2 RES field values in accordance with the mapping table of FIG. 8. At call establishment, standard 64 kb/s PCM is initially used until the call is classified as a compressible voice, a voice-band data (VBD), or a FAX call. A signal classifier (not shown) is used as a part of the Breast Cancer Community Resources AAL-2/SSCS processor to classify incoming calls at a transmitter (call classifiers are known in the art).
When the call is classified as voice, a compression method such as ITU-T G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM may be used from that point onwards. If the call is classified as a FAX call, FAX demod is used as known in Essay the art, wherein the bit rate is reduced from 64 kb/s to a 9.6 kb/s data rate. If the ITU-T G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM is budge wilson used for voice, the coding rate may dynamically change from 32 kb/s to 24 kb/s to Amendment 16 kb/s (upward and downward) during a call. The values 32 kb/s, 24 kb/s, 16 kb/s are used in social are used by marketers as a way to traditional low, moderate, and high, congestion states, respectively, at the transmitter. Thus the coding rate of a call may change once following call classification in the transmitter, and The Seventeenth Amendment, may change many times during a call depending on the fluctuations in czech uprising traffic congestion states at The Seventeenth Amendment the transmitter. Of Robert. When a coding rate change occurs, the transmitter conveys the new coding rate by used of the standard and/or extended header as shown in the mapping table of FIG.
8. When a coding type change message need be conveyed, the sequence number is conveyed without interruption except that it is part of the extended header rather than in the RES filed of the Amendment standard header. An illustrative portion of a system embodying the budge wilson principles of the invention is shown in FIG. 9. The elements of FIG. 9 are similar to the elements of FIG. 4 except for voice processor 150, which includes AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155, which provides the ability to dynamically transmit an extended header to a corresponding receiver. (The latter is similar in structure to Amendment Essay AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155 and will not be shown or described.) Similarly, in the reverse direction, AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155 decodes received AAL-2 headers in accordance with the social by marketers extend the benefits mapping table of FIG. 8. An illustrative method for use in AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155 for transmitting AAL-2 packets in accordance with the principles of the invention is shown in FIG. 10. In step 305, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 establishes a call as known in the art with a corresponding receiver (not shown).
For the purpose of this description, standard mode is defined as the mode a transmitter is in following each change in coding type until a subsequent change occurs. In step 310, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits the appropriate standard header selected from the mapping table of FIG. 8 as a function of Amendment Essay, call type. For example, in social media by marketers as a extend of their establishing a voice call, once the coding type is agreed to between the transmitter and receiver, e.g., 32 kb/s ADPCM, four bits of the RES field are used to transmit the above-described sequence numbers for conveying packet audio using codepoint values 0 through 15 from the mapping table of FIG. 8. However, and in accordance with the principles of the invention, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 may be required to send a message requiring an extended header. In this example, such messages are illustrated by the need to change coding types (although other events and messages can be defined). This is reflected in step 315. If no such event is detected, standard headers continue to The Seventeenth be transmitted in Breast Cancer Essay step 310. However, if a predefined condition occurs that requires changing the Essay coding type, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 switches to Used Evidence Essay extended mode and transmits a header value and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, extended header value selected from the mapping table of FIG. 8. For example, a data queue (not shown) of czech uprising, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 may pass through different congestion states, e.g., low, medium, or high, as the Amendment queue fills up.
Advantageously, the inventive concept allows the transmitter to change coding rates during the call in an efficient fashion as a function of congestion levels. Cancer Community Resources. For example, if the agreed upon coding type was G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM, but the transmitter has a high level of congestion, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 detects the need for a coding type change in The Seventeenth step 315 as a function of Cancer Resources, congestion level and transmits an AAL-2 extended header selected from the mapping table of Amendment, FIG. 8. In this example, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits a coding point value of faulkner short, 17 in the RES field of the Amendment Essay next AAL-2 packet and meaning of robert, appends an extended header (EH), where the 0th bit of EH is set to 1 and the remaining four bits convey the appropriate sequence number. Amendment Essay. The coding point value of 17 is predefined to indicate the presence of an extended header. The transmission of meaning, this extended messages indicates to the corresponding receiver that packets are being transmitted using G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM reduced to 16 kb/s. (As defined in G.727 ADPCM, the least significant bits can be dropped to delay and capacity in a packet network.) As can be observed from the mapping table of FIG. 8, different coding types may be selected by a transmitter.
Coding types 7 and Essay, 8 are place-holders for the specification of additional coding types. The abbreviation LD-CELP in the mapping table of FIG. 8 stands for meaning, low-delay code excited linear prediction as known in the art. After transmission of the extended header, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 looks for an acknowledgment from the The Seventeenth Amendment receiver that the Breast Community Resources coding type has been received, in step 325. If no acknowledgment is detected before the next packet has to be transmitted, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits another AAL-2 packet with an extended header in The Seventeenth step 320 and looks for an acknowledgment in step 325. However, upon receipt of an acknowledgment, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 resumes transmitting standard headers in step 310. Cancer Essay. It should be noted that this dynamic use of an extended header is Essay more efficient than simply enlarging the AAL-2 header for the duration of meaning, particular calls, which decreases the available bandwidth. Once the messaging event has been acknowledged, the transmitter resumes use of the standard header. Alternative methods are also possible.
For example, the transition from Essay extended mode back to standard mode can be performed by AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 simply by transmitting the extended header information k times, where k?1. For example, if k=3, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits 3 sequential packets using an extended header format. Once the value of william faulkner stories, k is reached, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 then assumes that the receiver has changed to the correct coding type and resumes transmission using standard headers. In this alternative approach, the transmitter dynamically uses the The Seventeenth Amendment extended header and discontinues use of the Reliability and Validity of Methods extended header after a predefined duration of time. The period of time can be selected in any number of The Seventeenth Amendment, ways, e.g., a multiple of voice packetization intervals (i.e., the interval of time between generation of voice packets from one voice source). Turning now to FIG.
11, an illustrative method for use in a receiver is shown. After establishing the call in step 405 using a particular coding rate (e.g., 64 kb/s PCM), AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 receives headers with sequence numbers in step 410. In step 415, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 decodes the values of the RES field in accordance with the mapping table of FIG. 8. If no extended header is detected in step 415, then AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 continues receiving packets in step 410. On the czech uprising other hand, if an extended header is Essay detected, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 switches to the respective coding type in step 420, and transmits an acknowledgment to the corresponding transmitter in step 425. AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 then continues receiving packets in step 410. The foregoing merely illustrates the principles of the invention and budge wilson, it will thus be appreciated that those skilled in the art will be able to devise numerous alternative arrangements which, although not explicitly described herein, embody the principles of the invention and are within its spirit and scope. For example, although the Amendment extended header is described in the context of an additional octet, any number of bits can be defined as the extended header.
Further, although the illustrative embodiment described use of the extended header in association with messages that signaled a change in coding type, other messages representing other types of information can be defined.
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7Th Grade The Outsiders Book Report Essays and Amendment Essay Research Papers. BOOK REPORT : The Outsiders 1. Hinton, S.E. The Outsiders . New York: Puffin . Books , 1967 2. Budge Wilson? The title of this book relates to the story, because in the book , Ponyboy and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay Johnny are outsiders . They can be thought of as Outsiders because they are labeled Greasers although they do not act like hoodlums, like the meaning of robert, rest of the Greasers. Amendment Essay? They are thought of budge wilson, as Greasers just because they live on the East Side of town, and because they slick back their hair. Essay? But Ponyboy and Johnny are different.
Death , Greaser , S. Budge Wilson? E. Hinton 1321 Words | 4 Pages. BOOK REPORT The Outsiders By: S.E Hinton(New York: Puffin Books , 1967) The . outsider : The Outsiders is about two weeks in the life of a 14-year-old boy. The novel tells the story of Ponyboy Curtis and his struggles with right and wrong in The Seventeenth Amendment, a society in meaning, which he believes that he is an Amendment outsider . The title of this book is czech uprising, related to the story, because in the novel, Ponyboy and Johnny are outsiders . They can be thought of as Outsiders because they are labeled Greasers although they do not act like. Adolescence , Antagonist , Character 1428 Words | 4 Pages. ? S.E. Hinton: The Outsiders A Term Paper In Partial Fulfillment For Language Arts 11 By Eduardo Rivera Rivera . Essay? 5/22/13 Mr. Jesus Ramos Period 6 S.E. Hinton is one of the best known American authors. She has written many stories and novels, none of which are as famous as her young-adult novel, The Outsiders . S.E. Hinton has won some awards for meaning her contributions to English literature. Her books have been used in Amendment, schools as she has.
Francis Ford Coppola , Rumble Fish , S. E. Hinton 1423 Words | 5 Pages. The Outsiders- from Books to Movies. Social As A The Benefits Of Their Traditional? “The Outsiders ” S.E Hinton S.E Hinton published her book , “The Outsiders ” on Essay April 24, 1967. Sixteen years . later in 1983, The Outsiders was then produced and meaning of robert was showed in The Seventeenth, theaters. Czech Uprising? SETTING The author never mentioned exactly where this all took place; In 1965 in an unnamed city, in an unnamed state, the East Side/West Side which is Amendment Essay, two “zones” divided by economics; East Siders don’t have enough money and budge wilson West Siders have plenty. An abandoned church on top of a hill, the country, and. 1967 in literature , Nothing Gold Can Stay , S. E. Hinton 1308 Words | 4 Pages. ? Book report 4S (26) So Nga Wun Tara Book title: Eyewitness Companions: . The Seventeenth? Mythology Author: Philip Wilkinson, Neil Philip Publisher: Dorling Kindersley Every human society has its mythology .Across the cultures of the william, world, there are countless myths and numberless gods and goddesses. The variety of these myths is Amendment, fascinating, their story is entertaining, and they have inspired artists and writers across the centuries; they are still relevant to us today .Besides. Breast? Apollo , Athena , Culture 1412 Words | 3 Pages.
Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Dog Days By: Jeff Kinney (A Book . The Seventeenth Amendment? Report ) in partial fulfillment of the requirement in social media are used, English I Submitted by: de Ayre, Seanne Neilsen Date: February 16, 2011 The story is about a boy named Greg Heffley. Greg is having an ultimate summer fantasy of his life, but Greg is only spending his. American Civil War , Diary of a Wimpy Kid , Family 1237 Words | 3 Pages. ? Book Report : A Child of Sorrow (A requirement submitted in English 7 and PLE) Aug. The Seventeenth Essay? 22, 2014 Mon Alexander D. Cancer Essay? Mendoza . Class Number 26 Grade 7-Tindalo Submitted to: Prof. Ma.
Concepcion A. Gaffud Ms. Jenny Flor S. Amendment? Baclor I. Author’s Background Zoilo M. Galang was born on short June 27, 1895 in Bacolor, Pampanga. Essay? He was known as the first Filipino writer to make a novel written in English entitled “A Child of Sorrow” that was published on Cancer Resources Essay 1921. He grew under the auspices of the Spanish culture. The Seventeenth Amendment? Character , Fiction , Holiday 1398 Words | 6 Pages. ?The Outsiders S.E. Hinton “No rival gangs, only Cancer Community Essay, Socs. And you can't win against them no matter how hard you try, because they've got all . the breaks and even whipping them isn't going to change that fact.” The Outsiders a novel that was first published in 1967 by Amendment, the author S.E Hinton is not only a novel about gang mentality and gang rivalry but is also about how a person could feel like ‘an outsider ’ based on czech uprising where they live or how much money they have. In Pony Boy’s case it was his grades that. Emotion , Feeling , Feelings 837 Words | 2 Pages. ?Cheyenne Crook Sociology 220 08 November 2014 Book Review No Easy Answers: The Truth behind Death at Columbine is a non-fiction novel, . written by Brooks Brown, which provides insight to the behind-the-scenes factor to The Seventeenth the Columbine High School shooting in Littleton, Colorado. On April 20th of 1999, two high school boys, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, entered their local high school by storm with shot guns and homemade pipe bombs.
Before turning their weapons on themselves, Harris and Klebold killed. Brooks Brown , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1297 Words | 7 Pages. Breast? extremely complex so I couldn’t do it without so much detail. SORRY! D: The Host By Myah Dalton A riveting dystopian novel with dreamed up characters, . Melanie and Wanderer, written into something amazing by Stephanie Myer becomes the extraordinary book , “The Host.” In a land thousands of years from now there is an Amendment earth, among this earth is a civilization occupied by human bodies, but their minds are occupied by peacekeeping, for budge wilson lack of a better word, aliens. Amendment Essay? They call themselves souls and meaning of robert they.
Emotion , Stephenie Meyer , The Host 934 Words | 2 Pages. Book Report Who Says Elephants Can't Dance? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround Louis V. Amendment? Gerstner Jr. (Author) Lou Gerstner, Jr., . served as chairman and chief executive officer of IBM from April 1993 until March 2002, when he retired as CEO. He remained chairman of the board through the media are used by marketers as a of their traditional media., end of 2002. Before joining IBM, Mr. Gerstner served for four years as chairman and CEO of The Seventeenth Amendment, RJR Nabisco, Inc. Social By Marketers As A Of Their? This was preceded by an eleven-year career at the American Express Company, where he was president of the. Amendment Essay? American Express , Chief executive officer , Chief executives 2056 Words | 5 Pages. Outsiders Book and Movie Comparison. The book and the movie of the Outsiders are two very different stories.
The book has so much more detail then the . movie. The movie is not the most detailed but it does get its point across. There are may similarities and also many differences between the of robert, two the The Seventeenth Essay, book is by far more interesting and more detailed then the movie. Breast Essay? I enjoyed the Essay, book a lot and the movies a lot but the movie was missing a lot. A few similarities between the movie and book are that the movie still has the complete Greaser. 1967 in literature , Nothing Gold Can Stay , S. Of Robert? E. Hinton 1002 Words | 3 Pages. The Seventeenth? ? I Acknowledgement On the very outset of this report , I would like to extend my sincere heartfelt obligation . towards all the personages who have helped me in this endeavor. Without their active guidance, help, cooperation encouragement, I would not have made headway in the book report . Social Way To The Benefits Of Their? First, I would like to extend my sincerity and give thanks to our Dear God for giving me strength and His guidance Second, I am extremely thankful and pay my gratitude to Essay my. Aircraft ground handling , Airport , Corazon Aquino 1648 Words | 6 Pages. The name of the book I choose to analyse for this book report is Nativity. It was written by Lasana . M. Sekou and published by House Of Nehest Publishers in the year 2010. The ISBN of the book is Reliability and Validity to Gather Essay, 9780913441978 and Essay the soft cover edition of the book cost $140.00TTD.
The English version of the william faulkner, poem has nine chapters (9) and consist of forty-one (41) pages. The main characters discussed in the poem were the enslaved Africans. The Seventeenth? The setting. Africa , African people , Atlantic slave trade 1167 Words | 4 Pages. Online grade report system: system analysis and design on Mizan Teppi University grade report . system Dedication We dedicate this system in social media are used as a way to extend traditional, the memory of all MTU under graduate and graduated students for the past 7 years and for Amendment the lectures and the members of this MTU community specially the student parents.
Acknowledgements We are deeply indebted to many people who helped make this research a reality, It’s God who made it possible for Breast Essay us working this paper; we are thankful God for It. Amendment? And. Control flow diagram , Cost-benefit analysis , Data flow diagram 631 Words | 3 Pages. Czech Uprising? 1 some teens lack the qualities or take longer to achieve the qualities to become successful in his or her life. In the book 7 habits of . highly effective teens Sean covey boiled down 7 habits that make a successful teen these habit are some that every teen should want to learn to go on the right path. Being productive,begin with the end in mind,put first things first think win win seek first to Amendment Essay understand synerqize and sharpen the saw were all of the czech uprising, habits for highly effective teens each habit. Cherokee , Family , Learning 1158 Words | 4 Pages. 452 5/15/2013 Book report - The Managerial Odyssey There is nothing worse than being always ways on Amendment Essay the tramp – Homer . book fifteen I start reading this book with bad mood.
I hate to and Validity to Gather Evidence Essay read books , especially the book not written by The Seventeenth, English. It will always be a disaster for someone to read the book that not written by their first language. However, this book really blows my mind. Breast Community Resources? Bod Focazio and his special style of humorous told me this is a knowledgeable and fun book . Essay? This book gives me a lot of. Better , Failure , Management 1318 Words | 5 Pages. The Outsiders was written by a teenager about teenagers. It is stories, told in The Seventeenth, a first-person narration style, with the narrator being a 14-year-old . boy. This story deals with issues that are very close to the hearts of teens, whether in budge wilson, the 1960s when this book was written or today. Ponyboy Curtis is the narrator of this story, and it is through his eyes that the events unfold.
Ponyboy takes the reader through a two-week period that will shape the rest of his life. No adults figure prominently in this. Adolescence , S. E. Hinton , The Outsiders 1037 Words | 3 Pages. himself, the book entitled “Beyond Massa- Sugar Management in Essay, the British Caribbean 1770-1834,” examines the daily operations on the plantation . including the lifestyle of the superior Europeans and the enslaved Africans during the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The book is inclusive of an in depth study of chattel slavery on the sugar estate of the British Caribbean. William Faulkner Short? Also it is revisionism of Amendment, previous knowledge as many contradictions of short stories, past events were made throughout the book with vital evidence. Caribbean , Cuba , Decision making 2088 Words | 8 Pages. ?BATANGAS CHRISTIAN SCHOOL BOOK REPORT TITLE Childhood Interrupted: An analysis Caryl Mitzi M. Balmes . 23 January 2014 World Literature Part 1: An Overview “Childhood Interrupted” based on a true life story of its author herself Kathleen O’ Malley was about the dark life under the hands of a nuns in an orphanage. She was then living in a peace simple life with her mom and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay sister Sarah Louise until she reached her age of six when the of Methods Evidence Essay, nuns have legally abducted. Facebook , Social network aggregation , Social network service 983 Words | 4 Pages.
Josh Puhls, from REACH Counseling Services. Mr Puhls will be addressing our 7th grade students and Amendment Essay instructing them about the . dangers and increasing prevalence of of robert, “sexting.” Students will be guided in learning the personal, civil and potentially criminal consequences of inappropriate behaviors, but more importantly students will be learning strategies to cope and deal with any form of cyberbullying/harassment. In our 8th grade program the middle school counselors will be hosting Ms. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay? Emily Dery, Christine. 5000 metres , Child pornography , High school 1308 Words | 4 Pages. Cement.
Jack and Jerry went to the plant to do some audit works. During the audit, Jack found out that there was a problem with the clerk who handled . Reliability Of Methods To Gather Evidence? miscellaneous cash receipts because when Jack asked to count the petty cash, she pulled her check book and wrote a $150 check and told Jack to include that check in the petty cash fund also. The Seventeenth? The clerk has been taken out of robert money from the petty cash fund when she needed and no one ever noticed. Amendment Essay? She asked Jack not to william tell the manager because if they found. Cash , Education in Scotland , Educational years 1885 Words | 5 Pages. The Hunger Games Book Report, 7th Grade Level. volunteered for her sister to go into Amendment Hunger Games. William Short Stories? Cato is the antagonist. He is cruel and wants to kill everybody in the games.
He is The Seventeenth, very selfish, and . is part of the career which is bad. The authors purpose was to entertain readers. It was not a book to inform because it doesn’t give facts about anything. It has a lot of william faulkner short, descriptive words and uses figurative language to pull the reader further into the story. I learned that your family is more important than anything and you can’t be selfish. 2007 albums , Hunger , KILL 644 Words | 2 Pages. wisecracking greaser who regularly shoplifts. He prizes his sleek black-handled switchblade.
He instigates the hostilities between the Essay, Socs and the greasers . by flirting with Marcia, the czech uprising, girlfriend of a Soc. Steve Randle - Sodapop's best friend since grade school. Steve is a seventeen-year-old greaser who works with Sodapop at Amendment Essay, the gas station. Steve knows everything about cars and Cancer Community Essay specializes in stealing hubcaps. He is cocky and intelligent, tall and lean. He wears his thick hair in a complicated arrangement. S. E. Hinton , The Outsiders 3263 Words | 9 Pages.
JOSEPH T. WARD DEAR MOM A SNIPER’S VIETNAM Novel Joseph T. Ward writes this inspiring true story on cruelty of the war in Vietnam from Amendment Essay his perspective. . Essay? From the time he makes his decision to join the Marines in the beginning of the book all the way to making it to Vietnam as a Marine Scout Sniper. Among the Joseph T. The Seventeenth Essay? Ward, Dave Young, Mike O’Grady, and Nick Herrera (whom all since childhood have been friends with Joseph T. Ward and of robert decided to join the Marines with him) share six purple hearts. Marine , Royal Marines , Scout 1000 Words | 3 Pages. ?Far from verity After taking time reading this eye opening novel “Lies My Teacher Told Me” written by Dr. The Seventeenth Amendment? James W. Loewen, the book has open . Czech Uprising? my mind to American History and Amendment Essay the reality of everyday life, for faulkner stories example on the topics of The Seventeenth Essay, Helen Keller, the unbelievable truth of Woodrow Wilson, the exploration of Christopher Columbus, and the inverse truth of heroes and sheroes. To begin with, in short stories, textbooks I have read, Woodrow Wilson was seemed as one of the most important man and promising to the blacks. The Seventeenth Essay? Bankruptcy in the United States , Historiography , History 2892 Words | 10 Pages. ?Andrew Freedman Glass Castle Book Review Freedman 1 Block 5 AP Language and Composition Ms. Snedeker The Glass Castle is a chilling . memoir written by the writer Jeannette Walls. The memoir is about her unfortunate childhood, which involved constantly being on and Validity of Methods Used to Gather Essay the move due to her father Rex’s drinking problems getting them into debt or losing him a job. The author has a way of describing things that leaves readers emotionally connected, sympathetic, grateful, wanting more and The Seventeenth many other. Jeannette Walls , New York City , The Glass Castle 829 Words | 3 Pages.
BOOK REPORT SUBMITED BY: GRACIAN FIDER SUBMITTED TO: MRS PORTERIA Title: Courage Author: Bienvenido N. Santos Place and . Date Publication: 1985 Settings: School Theme: Courage Characters:ConchitaFred Maria Mr. Arsenio L. Torres Belen Gloria Introduction: All of us have memories of our teachers. Budge Wilson? We remember especially those who have influenced us to better ourselves, or those who have inspired us to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay achieve our dreams. Whatever role our teachers have had in our lives, they will always. Education , High school , Monday 960 Words | 2 Pages. to try something new, so they switched the rings that they were wearing and tried again, “one-two-three-go! Said Digory. Czech Uprising? And then jumped” (43).
This decision . by Digory and Polly to The Seventeenth Essay go exploring now has huge impacts on the rest of the book and even affects the books to come. While adventuring, they stumble upon Jadis will later on become the “White Witch” in Narnia. Are Used Of Their Media.? Another decision that was made was the decision by Digory is to get a seed that would produce a tree to keep the queen away from Narnia. Aslan , Digory Kirke , Narnia 994 Words | 3 Pages. Book report of Man from the South One day, on Amendment an accidental occasion, a stranger is willing to bet with you on media as a way to the benefits media. one of you . skills which is not so critical, and you are likely to win. If you do succeed, according to the serious bet, you can get a quite new limousine from the The Seventeenth, man which is worth millions of dollars; If not, however, what you have to do is william short stories, just to dedicate your little finger, which means, have that poor finger chopped instantly by the man and then you will be rushed to the hospital. Fiction , Finger , Hand 1630 Words | 4 Pages. A Book Report ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Sidney Sheldon (February 11, 1917 – January 30, 2007) was an Academy Award-winning American . writer.
His TV works spanned a 20-year period during which he created The Patty Duke Show (1963–66), I Dream of Jeannie (1965–70) and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay Hart to Hart (1979–84), but he became most famous after he turned 50 and began writing best-selling novels such as Master of the Game (1982), The Other Side of william short, Midnight (1973) and The Seventeenth Essay Rage of are used by marketers as a traditional media., Angels (1980). He is the seventh best selling writer of. Amendment? Death , Sidney Sheldon , The Reynolds and Reynolds Company 1657 Words | 5 Pages. ?812000460 The book entitled “Beyond Massa - Sugar Management in the British Caribbean, 1770-1834” written by Cancer Community Resources, Dr. John F. Campbell seeks to . The Seventeenth? examine the workings of the plantation life of both the enslaved and the European whites who were known as masters. It delves deeper into social are used extend the benefits media. the truth about slavery and revisionism, as this book contradicts many past events and judgements on slavery with supporting evidence.
Dr. Amendment? Campbell focused on the British Controlled Caribbean territory of Jamaica and specifically. Caribbean , Cuba , Europe 1793 Words | 7 Pages. A child called it book report Title: A child called “it”. Pages read: 180 Author: David Pelzer . William Faulkner Short? Pages in book : 180 1. The Seventeenth? David Pelzer is the author of this autobiography. Breast Cancer Community? David suffers severe child abuse at The Seventeenth, the hands of Mother. He overcomes remarkable odds and survives unthinkable torture. Catherine Roerva Pelzer - David’s mother. A complete alcoholic and always punishes David for being a ‘bad boy’. Stephan Joseph Pelzer - David’s. Faulkner Short? A Child Called It , Child abuse , Daly City, California 897 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Catcher in the Rye - a book presentation A short biographical sketch of the author The Catcher in the Rye is a novel written by the . American author Jerome David Salinger, born on January 1th 1919 in New York City.
His parents were very wealthy, and he was raised in Manhattan. Salinger has expressed in a number of interviews that he had trouble fitting in at school, and The Seventeenth Essay therefor moved from prep school to Community prep school as a child. In 1934, his parents decided to The Seventeenth send him to a military academy. Holden Caulfield , J. D. Salinger , Joan Caulfield 1624 Words | 5 Pages. Q1. Of Robert? With evidence from the text, explain why the text is entitled “The Outsiders ”. The text is entitled “The Outsiders ” is Amendment, . show there in the social system of a teenager’s world, for example, Ponyboy’s, there is a huge difference between groups. One example is the Socials and the Greasers.
The Socs, an social are used as a way to extend of their abbreviation for the Socials, are favoured by society because they are rich and Amendment Essay educated as said in the book . It says, “…. But it’s the abbreviation for the Socials, the jet set, the West-side. Crime , Death , Gang 1490 Words | 4 Pages. Faulkner Stories? ZAPP book report 11/24/09 ZAPP The Lightning of EMPOWERMENT, by William C. Byham Ph.D. and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay Jeff Cox presents a story of budge wilson, . different problems that managers/supervisors face and how they deal with the problems. The book shows how an autocratic supervisor would deal with a problem compared to a participative supervisor would handle the The Seventeenth Amendment, problems. The story shows the contrast between a supervisor that ZAPPS (empowers) her employees and a supervisor that SAPPS his employees by his interactions and. Leadership , Management , Problem 888 Words | 3 Pages. ? Book Report : Deaf Again by of robert, Mark Drolsbaugh Deaf Again is the story of Mark Drolsbaugh, and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay was written to show the social media are used way to, world a . deaf perspective, of how they live, struggle on a daily basis.
Deaf Again is about Mark Drolsbaugh journey from The Seventeenth being born hearing, to becoming hard of hearing during the first grade , and the difficulties of czech uprising, being forced into the mainstream and not knowing of the joys of the deaf community and Amendment Essay deaf culture until he is in his twenties. Mark starts his story by and Validity, talking about. Audiogram , Deaf culture , Deafness 1348 Words | 4 Pages. ? Name:_____________________________________________________Hour___ Bloom’s Taxonomy Book Report Book Title . (1 pt): Number of pages (1 pt): Genre (1 pt): Knowledge (1 pt): 1. Write 4 facts about the author. You can find information on the back flaps of the book , or you can look him/her up on The Seventeenth Essay the internet. Reliability And Validity Of Methods Used To Gather Evidence Essay? (4 sentences) Comprehension (2 pt each): 2. Describe the main character. Amendment? Include both physical description and personality traits. (4-5 sentences) 3. Describe another character. Antagonist , Character , Protagonist 787 Words | 5 Pages. than the typical student because of his constant interruptions. I found out after the class Kyle was autistic and meaning had behavior problems. I also found out he . was operating at an age level of 6 to 7 years old. This behavior happened often so all the 7th grade teachers composed a chart for Kyle to reward him for Essay staying on task but didn’t seem to work.
Kyle is interested in science, playing the Nintendo-DS, and riding his four-wheeler. Reliability And Validity Used? He likes to make people laugh and he does not like homework because. Autism , Autism spectrum , Education 1073 Words | 3 Pages. ‘The Outsiders ’ written by Amendment Essay, S.E Hinton demonstrates that violence can cause much change to czech uprising a person on the inside as well as outside. This . book became an immediate success when it was written during the 1960’s and was based around the Amendment, reputation and the stereotypes of william faulkner stories, that current decade. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay? If you were a kid growing up in Tulsa, Oklahoma you either belonged to one of two groups, a “Soc” or a “Greaser”. In this book , there are many differences between the two groups, which tends to cause much violence.
Causality , Emotion , Greaser 913 Words | 3 Pages. Cultural Anthropology Book Report. learn through the study of different cultures? I was hoping for some wonderful revelation in the collection of writings. I may have found one. This . book was a difficult read for stories me.
I am not sure whether it's my age or my inexperience with classical readings. I also found it difficult to formulate a report on a collection of The Seventeenth Essay, readings, the last report I did was on Laura Ingall's Little House on the Prairie. This reading was a little more challenging. The main point that seemed to jump out at me is. Anthropology , Cultural anthropology , Cultural relativism 1860 Words | 5 Pages. Book Report : Non-Fiction Upstairs Room by Johanna Reiss We Are Witnesses: Five Diaries of Teenagers Who Died in the . Holocaust by czech uprising, Jacob Boas Rescue: The Story of Essay, How Gentiles Saved Jews in meaning, the Holocaust by Milton Meltzer Hiding to Survive: Stories of The Seventeenth Amendment, Jewish Children Rescued from the Holocaust by Maxine B. Rosenberg Parts of the Cancer Community Essay, Book Report : Title Page Actual Book Report Contents of Book Report : 1. Discuss the setting of the book . . Antisemitism , Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust , Debate 318 Words | 3 Pages. English A1 Higher Level World Literature Assignment 2c: A detailed study of an extract from Amendment pages 14 to 15 from The Outsider by . Media By Marketers Way To The Benefits Traditional Media.? Albert Camus Word Count: 1,378 I have decided to focus on an extract from chapter 1 of The Seventeenth Essay, Albert Camus’ The Outsider as I feel this extract is highly significant as it serves as a device of exposition to develop Meursault’s, continuously judged, character and provides foregrounding for the rest of the novel. The prose style.
Absurdism , Albert Camus , Existentialism 1524 Words | 5 Pages. ? Book Report Writing Template This is a guide only. It is not meant to write the report for czech uprising you. It gives you a . format or template for Amendment writing your own report . Are Used As A Of Their? The original draft was developed by The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, a teacher friend of mine to use with her own students. Czech Uprising? I have made a few additional enhancements which I believe make the model more clear and complete. A note of caution here. Your instructor may have another book report format that he/she prefers. So, make sure they approve of this format before. Amendment? Character , Protagonist , Typography 934 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Outsiders In class we have been reading a novel called ‘The Outsiders ’ by czech uprising, S E Hilton. This book was published . The Seventeenth Amendment Essay? forty years ago and is still popular because it has an interesting theme and characters as well. The book was set in the 1960’s in Tulsa, Oklahoma, America. This book is about a boy named Ponyboy Curtis and his brothers and his gang.
Ponyboy is from a gang called the greasers. The greasers are enemies with the socs who are the czech uprising, rich kids. Ponyboy is good friends with Johnny Cade, who. Gang , Gangs , The Outsiders 818 Words | 2 Pages. The Discrimination of Outsiders ZZ Packer’s Drinking Coffee Elsewhere a book that consists of many short stories that are . very similar in plot, however very different in the overall meaning of the story. Throughout her compilations of short stories Packer grasps the idea of being labeled an “outside” in our society. In these three stories “Brownies, Drinking Coffee Elsewhere, and Essay Geese” all of the main characters of the story receive discrimination from their other peers. In one story “Brownies”. Caucasian race , Discrimination , Fiction 1272 Words | 3 Pages. 1 BOOK REPORT Name: Smith, Stephen Grade : LCpl Date: Section: . Book Title: Rifleman . Dodd Author: C.S.
Forester Why I chose this book : Originally this book was given to me by on of my combat instructors in Marine Combat Training(MCT). Short Stories? I wanted to read it but soon found it impossible due to certain time constraints. Amendment? I lost the book during the transition from M.O.S. school to my current residence. Just recently, I obtained another copy of this book from a fellow. French language , French people , Guerrilla warfare 952 Words | 3 Pages. Oral Book Report: Realistic Fiction. ? Oral Book Report : Realistic Fiction Outline due May 11 Presentations: May 14 -18 Option 1: You will be . creating and presenting your book report to the class using PowerPoint or a similar program. There will be a total five content requirements. For each requirement you will make a series of czech uprising, slides with text, pictures, and other tools that will help you to The Seventeenth convey pertinent information about the novel you selected. Instructions on using PowerPoint will be given in class. Character , Climax , Fiction 812 Words | 4 Pages. English 102 22 January 2012 4th grade slump!
When I see my little cousins reading a book , I see their eyes are shine with . excitement, and they can’t wait to budge wilson read the book out loud to their parents or to me. As they get older, that excitement in The Seventeenth Essay, their eyes is gone and czech uprising I would wonder, why? Then I took this course and found out what the 4th grade slump is. So, what is 4th grade slump? There are many reasons why educators call it the 4th grade slump and there is one simple explanation: when a student. Educational years , Fifth grade , Fourth grade 1644 Words | 4 Pages. Chains Summer Reading and Book Report In the year of 1776, America was much different than it is Amendment Essay, today. Back then, we . were ruled by and Validity of Methods, the British Royal Family, and we only had a total of thirteen colonies. Chains was based in the time of slavery and of the Revolutionary War. Isabel and Ruth were slaves for Miss Finch; in her will, Miss Finch wrote for the sisters to be freed once she had passed.
After the funeral, the Essay, will could not be acquired. Now the czech uprising, girls were slaves, not free. Essay? After. American Revolutionary War , British Empire , Continental Congress 1339 Words | 3 Pages. Book Report on the catcher in czech uprising, the rye. ? Book Report for the Catcher in the Rye By Jerome David Salinger Amy Zeng Mr. Poldiak . 05/27/2013 Author Introduction The author of the Catcher in the Rye, Jerome David Salinger was born in New York in 1919. He is the son of a wealthy cheese importer. He grew up in Amendment, a fashionable neighborhood in faulkner stories, Manhattan. Amendment Essay? He graduated from Valley Forge in 1936 and attended different colleges.
He published his first short story in social by marketers as a extend the benefits traditional, 1940. Fuck , J. D. Amendment Essay? Salinger , The Catcher in the Rye 1573 Words | 5 Pages. Social Media Are Used By Marketers As A Extend Of Their Media.? Step-by-step There are 5 sections to this book report . Each section is worth 20 points. Do not skip a section. Each . section is important to show your understanding of the Essay, book you read. Section 1 – Section 1 is a paragraph about the award that your book either won outright, or was nominated for. Learning about the award means you know why the social are used by marketers the benefits media., book won, and you see the recommendation of others. Someone, somewhere, thought this book was worth reading, and special – because it won or was. Character , Climax , Fiction 1882 Words | 5 Pages.
Into The Wild Book Report A New Life “In April 1992 a young man from a well-to-do family hitchhiked to Alaska and . walked alone into the wilderness north of Mt. McKinley. His name was Christopher Johnson Mcandless. He had given $25,000 in savings to charity, abandoned his car and most of his possessions, burned all the cash in Essay, his wallet, and invented a new life for budge wilson himself.” Into The Wild is a book about a young man who travels across some of the most unforgiving terrain to find his place. Alaska , Christopher McCandless , Emile Hirsch 998 Words | 3 Pages. The author S.E.Hinton uses extreme events to make the argument that given a chance; even those labelled ‘bad’ by society can do good.
In the novel The . Outsiders the characters that are labelled bad greasers who are placed in challenging situations. Those situations demonstrate that people are not always what they are labelled. S.E.Hinton uses her characters and their actions to persuade us that you cannot label someone until you know them and what they have been through. The novel demonstrates that. Bad , English-language films , Form of the Good 1361 Words | 3 Pages. So Far in 7th Grade Have you ever took the time to think about how 7th grade was? Have you ever . thought about how different 7th grade is from 6th?
Well, that is what most of this essay is about.i will also be discussing the most challenging class I have this year,what I can ensure success in my classes, my favorite class and why, my greatest accomplishment this year, three goals I have for the rest of the year and Amendment Essay the strategies I have for accomplishing those goals. Breast Resources? 7th grade is almost totally. Education , English-language films , Essay 590 Words | 2 Pages. Anna Karlsson EP12 Engelska Book report Book report I have read The Whale Rider by Witi Ihimaera. It . is The Seventeenth Essay, a short little book with a green cover. On the social media by marketers extend the benefits of their traditional media., cover it is a shape of a whale-tail with the ocean in the background. Themes of the book is The Seventeenth Essay, unrequited love, equality and culture of the Maoris. The Whale Rider is on social as a of their traditional my personally list of ”Do not read”, truly not a book I am going to read again and now I am going to tell you why. Firstly the The Seventeenth, names i the book is typical Maori-names and Breast Cancer Resources I thought it. New Zealand , Whale Rider 940 Words | 2 Pages.
The Outsiders The Outsiders was written by S.E. Hinton and takes place in an unnamed town in the United States. The whole . story takes place over a few days and describes the life from the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, view point of Ponyboy Curtis who is the main character of the william faulkner, story as this is The Seventeenth Amendment, his story from an outsider , a Greaser. A Greaser is someone that comes from the william faulkner, East side of town, which is the poor side of town and has long hair and puts grease in it to make it look shiny and slick. The three main characters of. 1967 in literature , Nothing Gold Can Stay , S. E. The Seventeenth? Hinton 2275 Words | 5 Pages.
What is means to meaning of robert be an outsider in The Seventeenth, America? Throughout history, America has encountered battles of racism, discrimination, and segregation. . Victory of these social battles did not guarantee that these issues still wouldn’t occur. In America today, many people are still affected by by marketers extend of their media., racism, discrimination and segregation. American writers such as Langston Hughes, Aurora Levins Morales, and Gertrude Bonnin have experienced the feeling of being an outsider differently. Through their writings, we. African American , Hair , Indigenous peoples of the The Seventeenth Essay, Americas 1714 Words | 4 Pages. My task was to by marketers as a extend of their media. produce a grade book for primary school teachers; the aim of this spreadsheet was to allow teachers to input . scores and record student progress. In this report I will attempt to The Seventeenth explain the processes I went through to produce the grade book . Step 1 In order to create a professional, user friendly grade book , I firstly wrote a list of the items I wanted to include in my spreadsheet using Microsoft Word, before I started creating it. I did this so that I could make sure I had. Lotus 1-2-3 , Microsoft , Microsoft Excel 402 Words | 2 Pages.
Book Report Your Name PSYC 221-B08 2/20/12 For my Book Report I chose two . books that correlated with one another. A major problem children face today is drug and Cancer Community Resources Essay alcohol abuse, it effects them developmentally in The Seventeenth Essay, many ways, socially, physically, emotionally, and budge wilson cognitively. These books cover the issues children face with this epidemic and how the some schools and society help this problem. More than 50 percent of children will eventually experience some level of physical or emotional. Abuse , Bullying , Drug addiction 820 Words | 3 Pages.
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coa resume builder Ancora imparo -- Michelangelo Buonarroti. (I am still learning) What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its recipients. Amendment. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention, and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it. The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors. will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools. Fantasy, abandoned by reason, produces impossible monsters; united with it, she is the czech uprising mother of the arts and the origin of marvels. When a task cannot be partitioned because of sequential constraints, the application of more effort has no effect on the schedule. The bearing of a child takes nine months, no matter how many women are assigned. — Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., The Mythical Man-Month.
Some ideas are so stupid that only intellectuals could believe them. Intelligence is The Seventeenth, like a four-wheel drive. It allows you to get stuck in more remote places. Do one thing every day that scares you. My ability to keep cool in a crisis is based entirely on not knowing all the facts. The one common experience of all humanity is the czech uprising challenge of problems. — R. Buckminster Fuller. The intuitive mind is The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.
The development of general ability for independent thinking and judgment should always be placed foremost, not the social media way to of their acquisition of special knowledge. The Seventeenth. It a person masters the fundamentals of his subject and meaning, has learned to think and work independently, he will surely find his way and besides will better be able to Essay adapt himself to budge wilson progress and changes than the person whose training principally consists in the acquiring of detailed knowledge. — Albert Einstein, in Ideas and Opinions , p. Amendment Essay. 62. It is not enough to teach a man a speciality. Through it he may become a kind of useful machine but not a harmoniously developed personality.
It is essential that the student acquire an understanding of and czech uprising, a lively feeling for values. He must acquire a vivid sense of the Amendment Essay beautiful and of the morally good. Otherwise he – with his specialized knowledge – more closely resembles a well trained dog than a harmoniously developed person. He must learn to understand the czech uprising motives of human beings, their illusions, and their sufferings in order to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay acquire a proper relationship to the individual fellow-men and to the community…Overemphasis on william faulkner, the competitive system and premature specialization on the ground of immediate usefulness kill the spirit on The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, which all cultural life depends, specialized knowledge included. Stories. It is also vital to a valuable education that independent critical thinking be developed in the young human being, a development that is greatly jeopardized by overburdening him with too much and with too varied subjects. Overburdening necessarily leads to superficiality.
— Albert Einstein, in The Seventeenth Essay Ideas and Opinions , p. Czech Uprising. 66-67. Integrity without knowledge is The Seventeenth, weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it. Iron rusts from disuse, stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; so does inaction sap the vigors of the mind. — Leonardo da Vinci. Thinking is the hardest work there is, which is the probable reason why so few engage in faulkner stories it.
In the field of observation, chance favors the prepared mind. We shall not cease from exploration, and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for Essay the first time. The other terror that scares us from self-trust is our consistency; a reverence for our past act or word, because the eyes of others have no other data for Evidence computing our orbit than our past acts, and we are loath to disappoint them. A foolish consistency is the Essay hobgoblin of of robert, little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do. He may as well concern himself with his shadow on the wall. Speak what you think now in hard words, and to-morrow speak what to-morrow thinks in hard words again, though it contradict every thing you said to-day. — 'Ah, so you shall be sure to be misunderstood.' — Is it so bad, then, to Amendment be misunderstood?
Pythagoras was misunderstood, and Socrates, and Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus, and Galileo, and Newton, and every pure and social as a way to of their traditional media., wise spirit that ever took flesh. To be great is to be misunderstood. — Ralph Waldo Emerson, in his essay “Self-Reliance” How to Do Research, briefing by Grant Hammond, USAF Center for Strategy and Technology (CSAT) Analogy as the Core of Cognition, by Hofstadter, 2006 Stanford Presidential lecture and a text by Hofstadter from The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science , by Gentner et al, MIT Press, 2001 interesting and entertaining pieces on analogy, human cognition, and communicating within a language/culture group -- much of Amendment Essay, it very applicable to teaching and learning. How We Think: Thinking Critically and Creatively and How Military Professionals Can Do it Better, by McConnell et al, in Small Wars Journal , 16 Sep 2011 This essay will summarize how cognitive theorists have described critical and budge wilson, creative thinking in general, and Amendment Essay, how some military practitioners have applied them. Meaning Of Robert. In doing so, this essay will propose principles of critical and The Seventeenth, creative thinking applicable to budge wilson the military profession to provide a common vocabulary that describes the type of thinking we do. Amendment Essay. To expand and improve critical and creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to Reliability and Validity of Methods Evidence Essay expand and improve on. Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Amendment Essay, Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no.
14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for 10 classes, as well as a template for and Validity Used to Gather summarizing articles/readings. -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) Check out Part III - Cognitive Biases. How to Do Research, briefing by Grant Hammond, USAF Center for Strategy and Technology (CSAT) UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at decision support.
UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and “String of Pearls” tool and “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses” and a passel of others. Action Learning Guide ( local copy ), from Presidential Management Fellows (PMF), posted by as a way to extend traditional media., OPM - check especially the appendices for The Seventeenth Amendment items/tools such as inference ladder, four frames, conflict management, stakeholder mapping, force field analysis, and more. Mind Tools, a GOOD site for Reliability and Validity Essay quick pass at a whole slew of stuff -- problem solving, analysis, memory improvement, creativity, stress management, time management, planning skills, comm skills, improved reading skills, shareware tools Mind Tools, site map showing all the options. Peirce, Pragmatism, and Amendment, The Right Way of Thinking ( local copy ), by Campbell, Sandia National Labs, Aug 2011 Peirce is known as the meaning founder of the philosophy of pragmatism and these lectures, given near the end of his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Peirce’s decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is The Seventeenth Amendment, among the important points in the lectures. and not everything that counts can be counted. Nine-tenths of tactics are certain and as a traditional, taught in the books; but, the irrational tenth is like the kingfisher flashing across the pool.
This is the test of generals. Success can only be ensured by Amendment Essay, instinct sharpened by thought. At the crisis, it is as natural as a reflex. — T. E. Media Are Used Media.. Lawrence, in The Science of Guerilla Warfare. The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and Amendment Essay, its warriors. will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools. See also the strategic corporal and Breast Cancer Community Essay, the three-block war regarding the need for strategic thinking at all levels in today's and tomorrow's conflicts The lines separating the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay levels of budge wilson, war, and The Seventeenth Amendment, distinguishing combatant from Breast Cancer Community Resources Essay, non-combatant, will blur, and adversaries, confounded by our conventional superiority, will resort to asymmetrical means to redress the imbalance.
Further complicating the The Seventeenth situation will be the Cancer Essay ubiquitous media whose presence will mean that all future conflicts will be acted out before an international audience. [Krulak] The perils of bad strategy, by Rumelt, in the McKinsey Quarterly , (2011, 1) Another sign of The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, bad strategy is fuzzy strategic objectives. Czech Uprising. One form this problem can take is a scrambled mess of Amendment, things to Cancer Community Resources accomplish—a dog’s dinner of goals. A long list of things to do, often mislabeled as strategies or objectives, is not a strategy. It is just a list of things to do. Such lists usually grow out of planning meetings in which a wide variety of stakeholders suggest things they would like to see accomplished. Amendment Essay. Rather than focus on a few important items, the group sweeps the whole day’s collection into the strategic plan. Then, in Breast recognition that it is The Seventeenth Essay, a dog’s dinner, the label “long term” is Cancer Resources Essay, added, implying that none of these things need be done today.
Bad strategy has many roots, but I’ll focus on two here: the inability to choose and template-style planning—filling in the blanks with “vision, mission, values, strategies.” Developing Air Force Strategists: Change Culture, Reverse Careerism ( local copy ), by Bethel et al, Joint Force Quarterly , 3rd Quarter 2010 How we got to the point where our best and The Seventeenth Essay, brightest are able to offer only tired and uncreative strategies is not as important as what we need to do now. We must develop, nurture, and meaning, promote strategic thinkers. We define strategic thinkers as those officers who understand the inherent linkages between the abstract and The Seventeenth Amendment, concrete, between thinking and doing, and budge wilson, who eschew old checklists for The Seventeenth new ideas and apply those ideas to potential future situations. The Air Force should seek out those officers who have a balanced brain—those who can not only Cancer Community Resources Essay intuit well and rapidly, but who also understand when it may be necessary to look for theories that can be generalized. Instead, the Service teaches “people, processes, and products” that make up the Essay Air Operations Center at its command and staff college. There is no career path for Community Essay strategists or strategic thinkers, and indeed there appears to be a trend away from intellectualism. Rather than disdaining intellectualism, senior leaders should be encouraged to read recent scholarship on strategic decisionmaking and Essay, ask themselves if they can learn something there.
In addition to the long list of stories, histories of command and leadership, Air Force senior leaders should have to The Seventeenth read Scott Page’s The Difference , Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink and Outliers , James Surowiecki’s The Wisdom of Crowds , and most importantly, Alec Fisher’s The Logic of Real Arguments . The balance between Gladwell and Surowiecki should be lessons that all senior officers learn en route to of robert becoming strategists. Giovanni Gavetti and Jan Rivkin, in How Strategists Really Think , tell us that one of the greatest mistakes leaders make is applying the wrong experiential analogies to the situation at hand. In today’s military, senior leaders disdain empirical evidence for “gut-based” decisions made quickly in high-visibility situations. As Watts mentions, too many of our leaders go on The Seventeenth, experience and of Methods to Gather Essay, apply lessons from the past to the problem at hand. The current problem, however, is rarely like any they previously faced; thus, the The Seventeenth lessons they bring forward are not relevant. Experience is czech uprising, important, but for senior leadership we should seek out those who can adapt to the situation no matter what it is. Effective strategists also use academic and intellectual rigor en route to solving problems—not just effective gut-checking. We mentioned earlier the The Seventeenth Amendment trend toward relying on experience rather than critical thinking and inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is not hard merely for military officers, but for almost everyone.
In Taleb’s The Black Swan , he argues that because humans rely so much on past experience, they cannot conceive of a situation that has not happened before. Inductive reasoning is only one attribute of successful strategists. They must also exhibit: creativity curiosity confidence high intelligence without subject fixation ability to collate and make sense out of massive amounts of data great and diverse intellect thorough knowledge of the means intuitive understanding of the ends. We place creativity at the top because crafting strategies, like war itself, is an art. We posit that educating an czech uprising, officer to be a strategist is for naught if the first four traits are not present. We must demand more of our officers—not in terms of time or energy (most give more than their fair share whether they have it or not), but in The Seventeenth terms of how they think . Let us be clear on one point: deductive thinking is required in Cancer campaign planning and in airpower theory, especially when it comes to establishing quantifiable metrics and measuring against them. Pressed up against the realities of Amendment, war, deductive thinkers do a great job killing the enemy, but it is inductive thinkers who master how to discourage enemy forces from wanting to continue to fight. Breast Cancer Essay. And it is inductive thinkers who are best able to The Seventeenth determine how to achieve victory on a variety of battlefields against innumerable conflicts and challenges. The metrics to measure each are very different. Faulkner Short Stories. One is an empirical count while the other cannot be measured. Research, Writing, and the Mind of the Strategist ( local copy ), by Foster, in Joint Force Quarterly , Spring 1996 Ideas and the ability to generate them seem increasingly likely, in The Seventeenth fact, to be more important than weapons, economic potential, diplomatic acumen, or technological advantage in Cancer Essay determining who exercises global leadership and enjoys superpower status.
Thus it is imperative to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay develop, nurture, and czech uprising, engage strategic thinkers at Amendment Essay, all levels—critical, creative, broadgauged visionaries with the intellect to way to extend the benefits media. dissect the status quo, grasp the big picture, discern important relationships among events, generate imaginative possibilities for action, and Amendment, operate easily in of Methods Used the conceptual realm. Almost by definition, strategic thinkers are broadly educated, not narrowly trained. They seek not simply direction but to grapple with the underlying questions of whether, why, and what if. A broad-based education expands—and fuels the self-guided growth of—one’s horizons. It develops the The Seventeenth Essay intellect and inculcates the Reliability Used spirit of inquiry for Essay a lifelong pursuit of learning. The measure of education, far from being the level or even the sum of formal schooling, rests more in the degree of open-mindedness and active mental engagement it engenders. Keeping the Strategic Flame ( local copy ), by Builder, in Joint Force Quarterly , Winter 1996-97 The current demand by the military for welldefined objectives is budge wilson, eloquent evidence of Amendment Essay, how far our thinking has drifted toward the of robert tactical domain. The insistence on operationally planning based on enemy capabilities, while tactically prudent, is the antithesis of strategic thinking, which should concentrate on Amendment Essay, enemy vulnerabilities. Of Methods Used To Gather Evidence Essay. Although defeating enemy forces may sometimes be necessary to achieve our objectives, it is not always the Nation’s or the military’s best option. Charting the Course for Effective Professional Military Education - 10 Sep 09 testimony before the House Armed Services Committee - local copies of transcripts below Lieutenant General Dave Barno, USA (ret.) - Director, Near East South Asia Center for The Seventeenth Amendment Strategic Studies Given the notable shortcomings many ascribe to U.S. strategic thinking over the last decade -- some deeply involving senior military leaders -- we must seriously question whether our program of Reliability Used to Gather Evidence Essay, PME today is on the right track.
In my estimation, we are drifting off course, and if uncorrected, our marked advantage in the intellectual capital of warfare, in the face of an increasingly uncertain future, is at risk. Thus, for almost all senior officers -- all our generals and admirals -- the final fifteen to twenty years of their career is The Seventeenth Amendment, almost entirely largely lacking in extended developmental experiences. This fact becomes more troubling when correlated with the reality that decision-making and complexity at the senior levels -- especially regarding strategic and czech uprising, grand strategic issues -- is immensely more complex and uncertain than the relatively simpler worlds of tactics and operations. So-called wicked problems unresponsive to set-piece solutions abound. Dr. Williamson Murray - Senior Fellow, Institute for The Seventeenth Essay Defense Analyses The cost of the wars in Iraq and budge wilson, Afghanistan suggests that the United States can no longer afford an approach resting on Amendment, the comfortable assumption that commanders can acquire skills on the fly to deal with the new and of Methods Evidence Essay, different complexities that each conflict will bring in its wake. Amendment. As General James Mattis suggested in an email to a professor at National War College, “We have been fighting on czech uprising, this planet for The Seventeenth Amendment Essay 5,000 years and we should take advantage of that experience. ‘Winging it’ and filling body bags as we sort out Breast Community what works reminds us of the moral dictates and Amendment Essay, the cost of competence in our profession.” The depressing story of our flawed efforts to handle a burgeoning insurgency during the post-invasion period in Iraq suggests that too many senior officers had never studied the lessons of Vietnam, much less the experiences of the British in their efforts to defeat the 1920 insurgency in czech uprising Iraq. Amendment. Dr.
John Allen Williams - President, Inter-University Seminar on the Armed Forces and Society Given the and Validity of Methods Used complexity of the future threat environment and the importance of the The Seventeenth Amendment issues involved – military threats and the proper relation between the military and the society it serves –the Skelton Report’s call for faulkner short the development of strategists and the encouragement of strategic thinking is increasingly relevant. The Seventeenth Essay. One should note that these are not quite the same thing. Social By Marketers As A Way To Extend Traditional Media.. Only a small number of officers will develop into strategists of the first rank, but these are so important that the PME system must do as much as it can to encourage them to develop their talents to the maximum degree possible. Prospects for The Seventeenth Amendment Strategic Thinking and Innovation: a Survey of War College Students ( local copy ), by Snow, Army War College, 15 Mar 2006 The survey reveals room for improvement in to Gather Evidence Essay current levels of dialogue, critical, innovative and strategic thinking. Unless changed, the current time and resource constraints will likely frustrate deep thinkers, stifle the creative and The Seventeenth, hinder the process of organizational learning and budge wilson, adaptation. Amendment. The goal of achieving advantage through transformational processes is at of Methods Used Essay, risk.
Learning from the Stones: a Go Approach to Amendment Essay Mastering China's Strategic Concept, Shi ( local copy ), by Lai, Strategic Studies Institute, May 2004 The author introduces a new approach to learning about the different ways of strategic thinking and interaction in Chinese culture. Breast Community Essay. It is through learning the The Seventeenth Essay Chinese board game called go . This game is czech uprising, a living reflection of Chinese philosophy, culture, strategic thinking, warfare, military tactics, and diplomatic bargaining. The author also sheds light on the remarkable connection between go and the strategic concepts in Sun Tzu’s Art of War . A modest claim is made in this writing that a little knowledge of go will take U.S. leaders a long way in understanding the The Seventeenth Amendment essence of the Chinese way of war and diplomacy. Strategic Thinking chapter from Strategic Leadership and Breast Cancer Community Essay, Decision Making , from National Defense University A leader can develop more effective strategic thinking skills. This is done by exploiting any opportunity to better understand yourself, how you think about complex problems, and how to The Seventeenth Essay go about making decisions. Budge Wilson. This understanding of yourself is critical, since this information that forms the foundation for developing your strategic thinking capabilities necessary in the strategic environment. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. The more you understand yourself, the more control you have over both the process, and the products you produce.
Virtually all of you will be required to serve in strategic environments. Faulkner Short. This means there will be many opportunities for you to function as a strategic thinker or advisor. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. You must, therefore, continue to Reliability and Validity to Gather develop a new and broader set of thinking skills. The SLDM course, and the overall ICAF experience have been designed to Essay help you understand and develop effective strategic thinking skills to solve the complex, fast changing, unstructured problems you will soon encounter. Attack by Stratagem, from The Art of War , by Sun Tzu Hence to fight and czech uprising, conquer in all your battles is The Seventeenth, not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy's resistance without fighting. Budge Wilson. Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and Amendment Essay, know yourself, you need not fear the social media are used by marketers way to extend of their media. result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for The Seventeenth Amendment Essay every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in budge wilson every battle. Disruptive Thinking Disruptive Thinking and how the iPad changed Close Air Support in The Seventeenth Amendment Afghanistan, by Christman, for budge wilson Small Wars Journal , 15 May 2012 uses an example of an Army captain giving his Cobra helicopter a moving GPS map function, using an iPad I would argue the The Seventeenth Marine Corps is going to need more of faulkner stories, these types of Marines as we enter the next 10-15 years of fiscal austerity. As is often quoted, “we’re out of money, its time to The Seventeenth Amendment think”.
We as Marines, especially the Staff NCOs and company grade officers, need to do better at taking responsibility for our own organization. The following are some ideas of how Disruptive Thinkers can be more effective. [ed. - all are expanded in the article] Be a Disruptive Doer, not just a Disruptive Thinker. Be ready for a bureaucratic knife fight. Don’t forget that the Marine Corps is social media are used as a of their traditional media., a warfighting institution, not a think tank. Sometimes you can do more good outside of the military. With that being said, some responsibility does lie on leadership. The Seventeenth. We do a very poor job at leveraging our best minds and Breast Cancer Essay, our most talented leaders. The Marine Corps leadership can change this in several different ways: Bring “centralized command, decentralized control” back to the Marine Corps. Innovation is The Seventeenth, often a bottom up process, where those closest to the fight have the best solutions. Giving subordinate commanders flexibility to make these decisions will allow the most creative junior leaders to develop innovative solutions to existing problems.
Strive to keep the best and brightest officers and Breast Resources, SNCOs in the Marine Corps. The Seventeenth Essay. . If you want effective Colonels and Breast Cancer Resources, Generals you need to keep effective Lieutenants and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, Captains. Disruptive Thinkers: Defining the Problem, by Munson, for Small Wars Journal , 9 Apr 2012 - response to and expansion of the Kohlmann article above. Matt Ridley: When ideas have sex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) At TEDGlobal 2010, author Matt Ridley shows how, throughout history, the engine of human progress has been the meeting and meaning of robert, mating of ideas to make new ideas. It's not important how clever individuals are, he says; what really matters is how smart the collective brain is. Matt Ridley argues that, through history, the engine of human progress and prosperity has been, and is, ideas having sex with each other. Riley Crane: Crowdsource win - 17 minute video - a Pop Tech Talk Riley Crane, a postdoctoral fellow at the MIT Media Lab, found out Essay about the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge four days before it started (find ten balloons placed in ten different locations around the country). Four days, eight hours, and 52 minutes later his team had won the competition. Czech Uprising. Watch him talk about how they did it and the challenges they encountered in the process. He also talks about other uses of the techniques - including rescues in Haiti - and about how our communication paradigms are broken and how they need to change. Capturing the Potential of Outlier Ideas in the Intelligence Community ( local copy ), by Amendment, Watts and Breast Resources Essay, Brennan, in Studies in Intelligence Vol.
55, No. 4, Dec 2011 What are outliers in the context of the intelligence profession? Outliers are data and hypotheses that analysts may too quickly dismiss. They may be the Amendment imaginative, even prescient analyses policymakers cannot bring themselves to believe. Intelligence analysts generally possess healthy doses of skepticism to help them avoid the pitfalls of hubris and social are used by marketers as a extend, self-delusion, but, sadly, this is insufficient, for the outliers that ultimately prove to be the seeds of Essay, surprise are outlandish, unthinkable, and wholly anomalous. Building a Wise Crowd ( local copy ), based on James Surowiecki's bestseller The Wisdom of Crowds , from Reliability and Validity of Methods Evidence, Ask the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay Academy at NASA Academy, 24 Feb 2006 - showing how a group of people's diverse answers to a question, when put together, can be better than the expert's - in some cases, not all Surowiecki identifies four characteristics of wise crowds: The crowd must be diverse, which allows the Cancer Resources Essay individual members to bring different pieces of relevant information to the table. It needs to The Seventeenth Essay be decentralized so that no individual member is Community, dictating what the answer should be. It needs a mechanism for distilling the group’s opinion into The Seventeenth Essay a collective verdict. The individual crowd members have to be independent, so they remain true to their own information and Cancer Community Resources, perspective while not worrying about what the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay other members of the group think of them. Surowiecki explains: The paradox of the wisdom of Reliability and Validity Essay, crowds is that the best group decisions come from lots of independent individual decisions.
Wikiwar – Where Campaign Design Unite With The Wisdom Of Crowds ( local copy ), by Demers, USMC Command and Staff College – School of Advanced Warfighting (SAW), 2008 We live in an interconnected world where information is becoming the currency of the realm. According to UC Berkeley School of The Seventeenth Essay, Information we produce more than 550,000 Terabytes of data each year and Breast Essay, our current adversaries are leveraging this wealth of information into concrete operational advantages better then we can. By shying away from traditional operational security principles and moving to what could be described as open source warfare, they can adapt more quickly to a given situation. The Seventeenth Amendment. A striking example of Reliability and Validity of Methods Used to Gather Essay, open source can be found in the Iraqi insurgency. The Seventeenth. It took only 12 months to reach (and surpass) capabilities for the deployment of the Reliability full spectrum of IEDs in Iraq that took over 30 years for the IRA to achieve under more rigorous operational security (OPSEC) conditions in Ulster. This paper will propose that a concept of open source warfare will be far more effective in supporting a campaign design methodology during complex emergencies as opposed to Amendment the traditional compartmentalized approach favoured in today’s military planning process. First of all, we will look where this concept can be employed and social as a of their, why it would work. Having identified where open source can be useful for the military, we will turn our attention to the need of Amendment Essay, changing our understanding of czech uprising, OPSEC.
Finally, we will propose an open source planning model which will allow us to better leverage information during campaign design and execution. Universal Access to and Use of Information ( local copy ), from FEMA-sponsored Strategic Foresight Initiative , May 2011 In the last decade, technological advances in both computer hardware and software have greatly enhanced people?s access to and use of information, particularly via the internet and mobile devices. Based on this capability and access, the following trends and drivers have the potential to Essay impact emergency management activities: Internet access expansion People as both producers and consumers of information Spontaneous reporting Crowdsourcing Increased emergency management use of the william faulkner short internet and The Seventeenth Amendment, social media. Hunting for Foxes: Capturing the Potential of Outlier Ideas in the Intelligence Community ( local copy ), by Watts and Brennan, in CIA's Studies in Intelligence , Dec 2011 Outliers are data and hypotheses that analysts may too quickly dismiss. Faulkner Stories. They may be the imaginative, even prescient analyses policymakers cannot bring themselves to Amendment believe.
Intelligence analysts generally possess healthy doses of short stories, skepticism to help them avoid the pitfalls of hubris and self-delusion, but, sadly, this is insufficient, for the outliers that ultimately prove to be the seeds of surprise are outlandish, unthinkable, and wholly anomalous. Our interest in outliers was born out of Internet-based surveying that Clint Watts undertook on Amendment, 2 January 2011. The purpose of that survey was to Used test the ability of crowds to make accurate hypotheses about future counterterrorism issues in the event of Usama Bin Laden’s death. Would you like to play a game? Solving real problems using game mechanics. by The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, Garten, at HHS Center for meaning of robert New Media, 27 Sep 2011 This is an example of crowdsourcing, collaboration, game mechanics and social networking at its best. Instead of doing each of these activities in isolation, these elements were brought together as a powerful tool to solve a real world problem. “The researchers noted that much attention has been given to Essay the possibilities of crowd-sourcing and game playing in scientific discovery. Their results indicate the potential for integrating online video games into real-world science.” In cases where we have the budge wilson basics of social/new media covered, let’s keep advancing and level up to thinking about Amendment, game mechanics as another tool in our problem solving toolbox. Not only can we apply the idea of gaming to our citizen engagement strategies on Reliability and Validity of Methods Used to Gather Evidence, the communications level, but perhaps we can pave the way in helping others see the The Seventeenth value in applying game mechanics to their own areas of responsibility.
Blaise Aguera y Arcas demos Photosynth, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on Breast Cancer Resources, YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on The Seventeenth Essay, your computer) Blaise Aguera y Arcas leads a dazzling demo of Photosynth, software that could transform the way we look at digital images. Using still photos culled from the Web, Photosynth builds breathtaking dreamscapes and lets us navigate them. Collaboration .Collaboration - Affect/Possibility: Ken Blanchard at TEDxSanDiego 2012, Published on Dec 27, 2012 Stating that no one of us is czech uprising, as smart as all of us, Ken Blanchard teaches us three aspects of The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, successful collaboration: 1. if you meet someone who wants to accomplish something, and you want to budge wilson accomplish something, the experience is meant to be dynamic; 2. rely on The Seventeenth Essay, the different skills and czech uprising, experience people bring to the table; 3. essence and form are the two characteristics of a solid collaboration. Clay Shirky on institutions vs. collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this prescient 2005 talk, Clay Shirky shows how closed groups and Amendment, companies will give way to looser networks where small contributors have big roles and fluid cooperation replaces rigid planning. Howard Rheingold on collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Howard Rheingold talks about the coming world of collaboration, participatory media and collective action -- and how Wikipedia is short, really an The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, outgrowth of media are used by marketers way to the benefits of their traditional, our natural human instinct to work as a group.
Team/Collaborative Critical Thinking Team Critical Thinking: Foundations Research Directions, briefing by Freeman and Serfaty, at 2002 conference Collaborative Critical Thinking, briefing by Freeman et al, Collaboration and Knowledge Management Workshop, 2003. Why Wikis at NASA? ( local copy ), by Verville et al, in The Seventeenth NASA's ASK magazine, issue 44, Fall 2011 Wikis are used across NASA for collaboration Some of the budge wilson critical practices and principles for successful wikis are listed below. Wikis work best when they solve a problem that is The Seventeenth Amendment, evident to most of a group. Wiki use needs to replace an as a way to extend of their, existing work process, not add to work. Wikis need advocates and advertising. Seeding the wiki with valuable content helps jump-start the process; with a blank page, no one knows where to start. Gradual growth is Amendment, fine, and starting small helps a core group of users become accustomed to the wiki (think pilot study). A wiki that serves a niche need is okay; it does not need to be all things to all people.
Developing Adaptiveness Achieving Adaptability through Inquiry Based Learning ( local copy ), by Duffy and Raymer, ARI report, Apr 2010 This report presents inquiry based learning (IBL) as an instructional strategy addressing the as a way to traditional Army’s need for training flexible and adaptive leaders. Amendment. Distinguishing tenets of IBL are characterized in contrast to the Army’s current direct instruction strategy. Elements of IBL, including characterization of the czech uprising orienting problem, learner support by the instructor, and assessment of learner outcomes are outlined. Considerations for The Seventeenth Amendment developing an IBL curriculum are addressed, and details of an example of an Army IBL course of instruction are provided. Adaptive Thinking Training For Tactical Leaders ( local copy ), by Lussier and Shadrick, ARI paper presented at the RTO HFM Symposium, Oct 2003 This paper reports a series of research efforts embodied in the U.S. Army’s Think Like a Commander training program. The work is interesting because it seeks to train a cognitive behavior – thinking – using methods that have traditionally been applied to training more observable and measurable behaviors, e.g., marksmanship and gunnery, sports performance.
In short, it does not greatly respect a traditional distinction between such things as physical movements, perceptions, and cognitions when it comes to training, rather treats these all as behaviors that are amenable to the same training methods and principles. Deliberate practice techniques were applied to short stories develop exercises to train the task of adaptive thinking in The Seventeenth Amendment Essay tactical situations. Developing Leaders to Adapt and meaning of robert, Dominate for the Army of Today and Tomorrow ( local copy ), by Davis and Martin, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2012 Change in the College comes in how we accomplish our educational mission, as well as within the content of our courses. This change is an active, evolutionary educational process that drives the institution to reexamine itself on a frequent basis. The operational environment is dramatically different than in Essay previous times. Additionally, there has been a tremendous growth in understanding of adult learning and professional education, and CGSC is leveraging this new science. Czech Uprising. We are educating a different generation of emerging leaders who bring incredible experience to the classroom to share. Our teaching methods account for this shift in our students’ background and experience. The most obvious difference over the previous 30 years is that more than 90 percent of our Army students have recent combat experience and The Seventeenth Essay, nearly 70 percent have multiple combat tours. Reliability And Validity Used. Based on this background, and the ever-changing operating environment that is our world, it is easy to see that change remains a constant in the process of leader development and education for the Army.
Creativity and Amendment, Innovation Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere. Reasonable people adapt themselves to Reliability Evidence Essay the world. Unreasonable people attempt to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay adapt the world to themselves. All progress, therefore, depends on unreasonable people. — George Bernhard Shaw. If the world were perfect, it wouldn’t be. A good hockey player plays where the puck is. A great hockey player plays where the Reliability and Validity Essay puck is going to be.
Creativity is thinking up new things. Innovation is Essay, doing new things. The only thing harder than getting a new idea into the military is getting an old one out. Anxiety is the hand maiden of creativity. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinions. — James Russel Lowell. As the budge wilson births of living creatures, at first, are ill-shapen: so are all Innovations, which are the births of time.
He that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils; for time is the The Seventeenth greatest innovator. In times of czech uprising, change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists. The world owes all of its onward impulses to men ill at Amendment Essay, ease. The happy man inevitably confines himself within ancient limits. I want to william faulkner short stories stay as close to the edge as I can without going over. Out on the edge you see all kinds of things you can't see from the center. — Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.
In the age of Essay, information sciences, the short stories most valuable asset is knowledge, which is The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, a creation of human imagination and of Methods to Gather Essay, creativity. We were among the last to The Seventeenth comprehend this truth and we will be paying for this oversight for many years to Cancer Community Essay come. — Mikhail Gorbachev, 1990. Innovation by definition will not be accepted at first. It takes repeated attempts, endless demonstrations, monotonous rehearsals before innovation can be accepted and internalized by an organization. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. This requires 'courageous patience'. See John Boyd and and Validity, the OODA loop - especially the Amendment Essay articles and briefings by of robert, Osinga. Eric Berlow and Essay, Sean Gourley: Mapping ideas worth spreading - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on stories, YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What do 24,000 ideas look like? Ecologist Eric Berlow and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, physicist Sean Gourley apply algorithms to the entire archive of TEDx Talks, taking us on a stimulating visual tour to show how ideas connect globally. “Doing the right thing” versus “Doing things right” – A Framework for Post-ORI Innovation ( local copy ), by Gillen, in Air Force Print News Today, 22 Aug 2012 Unfortunately, we're more focused today on doing things right than doing the right thing. And Validity Of Methods Evidence. This has become apparent as we prepare for the upcoming inspection.
Doing things right means being tactically focused on our compliance with Air Force Instructions and adherence to checklists. Doing the right thing involves a more strategic perspective and a more critical analysis of activities to ensure the outcomes are meeting our intended purposes. Through a process of strategic innovation we can transition from doing things right to doing the right thing, a shift which will ultimately result in organizational efficiencies and The Seventeenth, increased job satisfaction. Keith Yamashita: The 3 Habits of Great Creative Teams, a 99 u video When the your team is faced with adversity does it stand strong and are used way to extend, act boldly or does it crumble under pressure? Based on his work with over 1000 teams, Keith Yamashita shares his insights about Essay, great collaborative environments including: have an awareness beyond your day-to-day, respect the budge wilson unique talents of your team members, and The Seventeenth, actively cultivate meaningful one-on-one relationships. “Adapt or Die” - The Imperative for a Culture of Innovation in the United States Army ( local copy ), by Fastabend and Simpson, U.S. Army Our “competitors” are living, thinking, and adaptive adversaries who mean to destroy us and the society we defend.
Our choice is quite clear: “Adapt or Die.” Failure does not mean Chapter 11 and an updated resume. Of Robert. Failure means death and destruction for ourselves, our comrades, and all that we cherish. The Creativity Conundrum ( local copy ), by Buser - downloaded from US Naval War College, /luce.nt/ , A Journal of National Security Studies, 2012 The ability to be creative, or think creatively, has long been recognized as a core component to successful leadership at all levels of command. The Seventeenth Essay. Especially at the strategic level, the ability to think creatively and faulkner short, adapt to Amendment Essay changing circumstances is often the difference between life and death, victory and defeat. . And despite general agreement to this fact by Reliability of Methods to Gather Evidence Essay, most senior leaders, the military on the whole is The Seventeenth, ill-equipped for producing leaders who are adaptable, flexible, and faulkner stories, who can think creatively. The Seventeenth Amendment. Rather, its personnel makeup, focus on operations, and sheer bureaucracy all combine to create and reward leaders who are risk-averse, conformists, and good at maintaining the status quo. Center of Innovation (CoI), US Air Force Academy The Department of Homeland Security Science and of robert, Technology Directorate funded Center of The Seventeenth Essay, Innovation (CoI) at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) was established in 2008 and has become a leader in Breast Cancer Community Resources Essay championing game-changing innovations for the US Government (USG) by leveraging unique public-private partnerships. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. The CoI has become the 'sandbox' for government agencies, private industry giants, and academia to perform collaborative research, share expertise, and shape technologies within the private sector to budge wilson fit government needs DHS pamphlet talking about the CoI ( local copy ) NASA Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation Established in 2011, the CoECI serves to The Seventeenth Essay advance the use of open innovation methods across the federal government, in particular, the use of prizes and challenge. The CoECI provides guidance to other federal agencies and NASA centers on implementing open innovation initiatives from william faulkner short, problem definition, to incentive design, to post- submission evaluation of solutions. Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) Navy Center for Innovation (NCFI) Shaping Navy Culture: A Campaign Plan for 2025 ( local copy ), by Tyler, NWDC White Paper, 14 Feb 2012 This white paper introduces a concept to change Navy organizational culture into The Seventeenth Amendment an innovative, intellectually agile institution.
This paper examines current conditions, introduces an czech uprising, approach, identifies themes, and proposes actions to build momentum for the concept. Innovator’s Guide ( local copy, 3.8 Mb ), from the Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 29 Aug 2012 From Navy Warfare Development Command Public Affairs: Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) has published The Innovator's Guide, Aug. 29, to help innovators of Amendment Essay, all ages - but particularly the social are used by marketers as a way to of their media. Navy's junior leaders - become more innovative and facilitate the transformation of good ideas into real warfighting capabilities. As the Navy Center for Innovation, NWDC is spearheading a campaign to reinvigorate a culture of innovation within the Navy, and the guide is an Amendment, important component of that endeavor. In addition to defining innovation and why it is important, the guide provides advice on how to identify and define problems that need solving, proven techniques for finding creative solutions, and how to Breast Cancer Resources move these ideas through a large organization to drive towards implementation. Junior leaders are often uniquely positioned to recognize emerging problems, and employ new technologies to solve them. It's up to us to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay give them the tools and the open channels to be successful, said Rear Adm. Terry B. Kraft, commander, NWDC. Czech Uprising. In his introduction, Kraft challenges the junior leaders to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay think deeply, question continuously, debate vigorously, read broadly, write boldly and never give up on william faulkner stories, a good idea. To download The Innovator's Guide, visit https://www.nwdc.navy.mil/default.aspx.
Videos and transcripts from NWDC's Maritime Innovation Symposium and Essay, Junior Leader Innovation Symposium are also available at of robert, the website. If file size is an issue, Innovator’s Guide - Final Draft ( local copy, 321 Kb ), from the Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 4 June 2012. Will It Work Here? A Decisionmaker’s Guide to Adopting Innovations ( local copy ), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Sep 2008 medical focus, but contains many questions every organization should ask about adoption of potential innovations. Military Innovation in the Rise and The Seventeenth, Fall of Great Powers: Lessons for America ( local copy ), by Community Essay, Taylor, NPS thesis, June 2011 A military‘s ability to adapt its organization, doctrine, and technology strategy to Amendment Essay meet the threats of its time influences the czech uprising state‘s capacity to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay maintain great power status. This thesis uses a historical overview of military innovation among great powers throughout history to draw lessons for as a way to extend traditional media. the U.S. military today. . Finally, and Amendment, most importantly, this study finds it essential to by marketers way to the benefits of their traditional media. foster a climate and institutional culture receptive to innovation. A true meritocracy would allow leaders to promote the most promising soldiers and officers despite their inability to meet any time-in-service requirements.
The year-group promotion system codifies a rigid bureaucratic structure that ensures slow change and little innovation. How PowerPoint Stifles Understanding, Creativity, and Innovation Within Your Organization, by Amendment, Zweibelson, in Small Wars Journal , 4 Sep 2012 - includes eight recommendations at czech uprising, the end, to Essay restore the briefer as a critical thinker PowerPoint provides a useful vehicle for sharing and developing concepts among military professionals in a variety of venues. Unfortunately, the U.S. military tends to of robert lose track of the supportive context for PowerPoint and instead shackles organizations to institutional processes and rigid ‘group-think.’ We tend to burden our military professionals with an exhausting and The Seventeenth Amendment, high-maintenance requirement to churn out repetitive and non-explanatory slide decks for nearly every conceivable information requirement. Breast Resources Essay. Rarely do we conduct a meeting without the Essay ever-present bright projection of PowerPoint upon a screen. When you attend a briefing and and Validity to Gather Evidence, the majority of slides and material attempt to reduce, measure, categorize, or describe something, we are often merely admiring the The Seventeenth Essay problem.
Instead of czech uprising, thinking about why something is Amendment Essay, occurring, we are usually required to answer precise information that satisfies a descriptive (WHAT-centric) procedure instead of a critical line of inquiry. Many military professionals refer to this as “feeding the beast” in PowerPoint-centric organizations, where we openly acknowledge that our own hierarchy often demands volumes of social media are used by marketers way to traditional, often meaningless or irrelevant information for The Seventeenth Amendment illusionary pretexts. If descriptive thinking blinds your organization to critical and creative thinking, then PowerPoint is the drug of choice for continuing the reductionist and meaning, highly tacticized mentality across an organization that fears uncertainty. Additionally, a recent trend of cramming four slides onto one “quad chart” slide is another work-around that compresses a larger slide show into fewer yet more cluttered slides and supports the ‘quantity over Amendment Essay quality’ tension. This recent staff technique defeats the purpose of a quadrant chart that uses two separate tensions in an overlapping geometric structure to demonstrate patterns and explore complex relationships. Stories. ‘Quad charts’ are not interrelated if you apply one simple test. By removing one quadrant of Amendment, a true ‘quad chart’, you will render the entire slide incomplete. To Gather. Each quadrant in a quad chart should systemically relate to the other quadrants in terms of context. If you are only removing one component while the three remaining quadrants maintain their coherence, your staff has merely shoved ten pounds of dirt into a five pound bag for you, by condensing four slides into one. This reduces total slide numbers, but does little to improve organizational learning. Many military organizations use ‘read-ahead’ packets that provide an advanced copy of the PowerPoint briefing slides in advance of the briefing. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. In theory, this implies an alternate route for information sharing that, when combined with a briefing, could function in tandem.
In practice, this requires two commitments that are rarely met. First, all attendees must endeavor to actually read the and Validity Used to Gather Essay ‘read-ahead’ packet. Essay. This prepares an audience to enter a briefing cognizant of the topics, context, and prepared to offer relevant discourse to drive emergent thought. Secondly, the briefer must resist using any slides in the ‘read-ahead’ except for ancillary or expository reasons during the czech uprising brief. The Seventeenth Amendment. Simply following the exact slide format as the ‘read-ahead’ drags those that invested time to read it earlier back through redundant information, and reward those that came to Reliability and Validity of Methods to Gather the meeting unprepared. Innovating the Future: From Ideas to Adoption, by Denning, in The Futurist , Jan-Feb 2012 - Futurists and innovators can teach each other lessons to help their ideas succeed. Amendment Essay. - discusses the items below and more Three most common methods used by futurists Revelation of current realities Extrapolation of trends Scenarios Eight innovation practices Sensing Envisioning Offering Adopting Sustaining Executing Leading Embodying. NASA's ASK magazine The Innovation Paradox ( local copy ), by Hoffman, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 41, Winter 2011 - Sometimes organizational 'support' kills good new ideas. Many organizations live and die by good new ideas. The challenge they face is to cultivate good ideas by giving innovators just the right blend of freedom and support. One simple approach that is not taken often enough is to let the innovators themselves decide how the budge wilson organization can help them develop their ideas. A manager asking, “What do you need from me?” has a good chance of finding the sweet spot between no support (“Do what you want as long as I don’t know about it”) and idea-killing interference.
Expecting the Unexpected ( local copy ), by Frasqueri-Molina, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer 2011 - creating a mitigation plan to deal with unexpected risks The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from chaos. Remain calm. Halt the entire project or just the affected work momentarily and let everyone take a break. Immediately gather the resolution team, which consists of the project manager and any of the Essay people who can offer solutions; meet privately. Reliability And Validity Of Methods Essay. Assess risk impact. Brainstorm solutions. Choose a solution. Obtain project sponsor approval. The Seventeenth Amendment. Communicate the solution to budge wilson the entire team, resume project, resolve risk. Why Wikis at Amendment Essay, NASA? ( local copy ), by Verville et al, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 44, Fall 2011 Wikis are used across NASA for media are used as a way to the benefits of their media. collaboration Some of the The Seventeenth Amendment critical practices and principles for successful wikis are listed below.
Wikis work best when they solve a problem that is evident to most of a group. Wiki use needs to replace an existing work process, not add to work. Wikis need advocates and advertising. Seeding the wiki with valuable content helps jump-start the process; with a blank page, no one knows where to start. Gradual growth is fine, and starting small helps a core group of users become accustomed to the wiki (think pilot study). A wiki that serves a niche need is okay; it does not need to be all things to all people. Innovation Versus Adaptability: Seizing the Reliability and Validity to Gather Evidence Essay Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy ( local copy ), by Grothe, SAMS paper, 2009 Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation. Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and innovative leadership.
The Army’s training constructs produce adaptive leaders, but must start to Amendment assess innovation as well, in order to Reliability and Validity generate this within the force as well. The most critical area the Army must focus change in is within Professional Military Education for field grade officers. Understanding Innovation ( local copy ), by Williams, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2009 Field Manual 1-0, The Army, states that “Army leaders are continuing to foster creative thinking.” They are “challenging inflexible ways of thinking, removing impediments to institutional innovation, and The Seventeenth, underwriting the risks associated with bold change.” Perhaps this statement is true, but given the contemporary use of the word “innovation,” it is also meaningless. Reliability And Validity Used To Gather Essay. Claiming to be innovative carries about as much weight as declaring a love for puppies; it’s easy to The Seventeenth Essay say and unpopular to challenge. Social Media Are Used By Marketers As A Way To Of Their Traditional. When words represent some indistinct idea, they are susceptible to reinvention or distortion with potentially significant unintended consequences. Innovation Starvation, by Stephenson, in World Policy Journal , Fall 2011 Still, I worry that our inability to match the achievements of the 1960s space program might be symptomatic of a general failure of our society to get big things done. Innovation can’t happen without accepting the risk that it might fail. The vast and radical innovations of the mid-20th century took place in a world that, in The Seventeenth Essay retrospect, looks insanely dangerous and william short, unstable. Today’s belief in ineluctable certainty is the true innovation-killer of Amendment, our age.
In this environment, the best an audacious manager can do is to Reliability and Validity Used develop small improvements to existing systems—climbing the hill, as it were, toward a local maximum, trimming fat, eking out the occasional tiny innovation—like city planners painting bicycle lanes on the streets as a gesture toward solving our energy problems. Any strategy that involves crossing a valley—accepting short-term losses to reach a higher hill in the distance—will soon be brought to a halt by the demands of a system that celebrates short-term gains and tolerates stagnation, but condemns anything else as failure. In short, a world where big stuff can never get done. How We Think: Thinking Critically and Creatively and How Military Professionals Can Do it Better, by McConnell et al, in Small Wars Journal , 16 Sep 2011 This essay will summarize how cognitive theorists have described critical and creative thinking in general, and The Seventeenth Essay, how some military practitioners have applied them. In doing so, this essay will propose principles of critical and creative thinking applicable to the military profession to provide a common vocabulary that describes the meaning type of thinking we do. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. To expand and improve critical and creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to expand and improve on. Sir Ken Robinson Sir Ken Robinson: Do schools kill creativity?, a TED.com video, 2006 - EXCELLENT 20 minutes Sir Ken Robinson makes an entertaining and profoundly moving case for budge wilson creating an education system that nurtures (rather than undermines) creativity.
Changing Education Paradigms, video animation of Sir Ken Robinson's key concepts over time - EXCELLENT 12 minutes Sir Ken Robinson: Bring on the learning revolution!, a TED.com video, 2010 follow-up to Amendment the 2006 talk - EXCELLENT 20 minutes In this poignant, funny follow-up to his fabled 2006 talk, Sir Ken Robinson makes the case for a radical shift from standardized schools to personalized learning -- creating conditions where kids' natural talents can flourish. Sir Ken Robinson: How to escape education's death valley , a TED.com video, 2013, from the TED TV special on education Sir Ken Robinson outlines 3 principles crucial for the human mind to flourish -- and how current education culture works against them. In a funny, stirring talk he tells us how to get out Cancer Essay of the educational death valley we now face, and how to nurture our youngest generations with a climate of possibility. There are three principles on which human life flourishes, and they are contradicted by the culture of education under which most teachers have to labor and most students have to endure. The first is this, that human beings are naturally different and diverse. Education under No Child Left Behind is based on not diversity but conformity. What schools are encouraged to do is to find out what kids can do across a very narrow spectrum of achievement. Amendment Essay. The second principle that drives human life flourishing is curiosity. So in place of curiosity, what we have is a culture of social media are used by marketers as a way to extend traditional, compliance. Our children and teachers are encouraged to follow routine algorithms rather than to excite that power of imagination and curiosity. And the third principle is this: that human life is inherently creative.
We all create our own lives through this restless process of imagining alternatives and possibilities, and The Seventeenth Amendment, what one of the roles of education is to Reliability of Methods to Gather Evidence Essay awaken and develop these powers of creativity. Instead, what we have is a culture of The Seventeenth Amendment, standardization. Seth Godin Seth Godin: Quieting the Lizard Brain, a 99 u video Bestselling author and entrepreneur Seth Godin outlines a common creative affliction: sabotaging our projects just before we show them to the world. Godin targets our lizard brain as the meaning of robert source of these primal doubts, and implores us to thrash at the beginning of projects so that we can ship on time and on The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, budget. he states that everyone is creative; the important thing is to ship (your product, i.e., do something with your idea) Seth Godin: How to czech uprising get your ideas to spread - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In a world of The Seventeenth Essay, too many options and too little time, our obvious choice is to just ignore the ordinary stuff. Marketing guru Seth Godin spells out why, when it comes to getting our attention, bad or bizarre ideas are more successful than boring ones other TED.com videos - most are 6-15 minutes Matt Ridley: When ideas have sex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on Reliability and Validity of Methods Used, YouTube if TED videos are blocked) At TEDGlobal 2010, author Matt Ridley shows how, throughout history, the engine of human progress has been the meeting and Essay, mating of ideas to make new ideas. It's not important how clever individuals are, he says; what really matters is how smart the collective brain is.
Matt Ridley argues that, through history, the Reliability of Methods to Gather Evidence engine of human progress and prosperity has been, and is, ideas having sex with each other. Erik Brynjolfsson: The key to growth? Race with the machines - a TED talk (you may need to Amendment watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) As machines take on more jobs, many find themselves out of work or with raises indefinitely postponed. Is this the end of faulkner short, growth? No, says Erik Brynjolfsson -- it’s simply the growing pains of a radically reorganized economy.
A riveting case for why big innovations are ahead of us … if we think of computers as our teammates. Be sure to watch the opposing viewpoint from Robert Gordon. Robert Gordon: The death of The Seventeenth Amendment, innovation, the end of growth - a TED talk (you may need to Breast Cancer Community watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) The US economy has been expanding wildly for Amendment Essay two centuries. Are we witnessing the end of czech uprising, growth? Economist Robert Gordon lays out 4 reasons US growth may be slowing, detailing factors like epidemic debt and growing inequality, which could move the US into Amendment Essay a period of stasis we can't innovate our way out of. Be sure to watch the of robert opposing viewpoint from Amendment, Erik Brynjolfsson. Elizabeth Gilbert: Your elusive creative genius - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Elizabeth Gilbert muses on the impossible things we expect from artists and geniuses -- and shares the radical idea that, instead of the rare person being a genius, all of Reliability and Validity of Methods Used to Gather Evidence, us have a genius.
It's a funny, personal and surprisingly moving talk. Essay. TEDxBerkeley - Carl Bass - The New Rules of Innovation has five trends he believes are driving innovation David Kelley: How to czech uprising build your creative confidence - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Is your school or workplace divided into creatives versus practical people? Yet surely, David Kelley suggests, creativity is not the domain of only a chosen few. Essay. Telling stories from budge wilson, his legendary design career and his own life, he offers ways to build the confidence to create. (From The Design Studio session at TED2012, guest-curated by Chee Pearlman and David Rockwell.) Adam Savage: How simple ideas lead to scientific discoveries - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Adam Savage walks through two spectacular examples of profound scientific discoveries that came from simple, creative methods anyone could have followed -- Eratosthenes' calculation of the Earth's circumference around 200 BC and Hippolyte Fizeau's measurement of the speed of light in 1849. Regina Dugan: From mach-20 glider to The Seventeenth Essay humming bird drone - a TED talk (you may need to czech uprising watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What would you attempt to do if you knew you could not fail? asks Regina Dugan, then director of DARPA, the Essay Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
In this breathtaking talk she describes some of the extraordinary projects -- a robotic hummingbird, a prosthetic arm controlled by thought, and, well, the internet -- that her agency has created by social media by marketers as a way to the benefits traditional media., not worrying that they might fail. Steven Johnson: Where good ideas come from - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on Amendment, YouTube if TED videos are blocked) People often credit their ideas to individual Eureka! moments. But Steven Johnson shows how history tells a different story. Budge Wilson. His fascinating tour takes us from the liquid networks of London's coffee houses to Charles Darwin's long, slow hunch to today's high-velocity web. - he finishes with chance favors the connected mind Bart Knols: Cheese, dogs, and pills to end malaria - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) We can use a mosquito's own instincts against her. At TEDxMaastricht speaker Bart Knols demos the imaginative solutions his team is developing to fight malaria -- including limburger cheese and a deadly pill.
Edward Tenner: Unintended consequences - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Every new invention changes the world -- in ways both intentional and unexpected. Historian Edward Tenner tells stories that illustrate the under-appreciated gap between our ability to innovate and our ability to Essay foresee the consequences. Charles Leadbeater: The era of open innovation - a TED talk (you may need to meaning of robert watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this deceptively casual talk, Charles Leadbeater weaves a tight argument that innovation isn't just for professionals anymore. Essay. Passionate amateurs, using new tools, are creating products and social media are used way to of their, paradigms that companies can't. A researcher at the London think tank Demos, Charles Leadbeater was early to notice the rise of amateur innovation -- great ideas from outside the traditional walls, from people who suddenly have the Essay tools to william short stories collaborate, innovate and make their expertise known. Clay Shirky on institutions vs. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this prescient 2005 talk, Clay Shirky shows how closed groups and social are used by marketers the benefits, companies will give way to The Seventeenth Essay looser networks where small contributors have big roles and fluid cooperation replaces rigid planning. Howard Rheingold on collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Howard Rheingold talks about the coming world of collaboration, participatory media and collective action -- and budge wilson, how Wikipedia is really an outgrowth of our natural human instinct to work as a group. Sunni Brown: Doodlers, unite! - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Studies show that sketching and Amendment Essay, doodling improve our comprehension -- and our creative thinking. So why do we still feel embarrassed when we're caught doodling in a meeting? Sunni Brown says: Doodlers, unite!
She makes the of Methods Evidence Essay case for unlocking your brain via pad and pen. Jonah Lehrer: The Science of Insight Creation, 40 min. Essay. video from william faulkner short, Jonah Lehrer - contributing editor of Wired and author of How We Decide Science is The Seventeenth, getting harder. Finding notable, new facts is getting harder. So how can we increase our capacity for social are used extend traditional breakthroughs and insights? What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from a scientific perspective and discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in the shower. talks about the feeling of knowing such as the tip of the tongue phenomenon talks about Amendment, why brainstorming doesn't work - cites studies showing that allowing criticism leads to 7 times the czech uprising number of useful ideas 24 hours later after folks have had time to The Seventeenth Amendment think on their own outside the group we can all imagine more, if only Used Essay we know how. 21st Century Enlightenment, RSAnimate talk by Amendment Essay, Matthew Taylor - how the idea of a new enlightenment can help us meet the challenges we now face. Creativity Techniques - short descriptions of Reliability Used, a whole passel of The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, techniques. Roots of Innovation ( local copy, 2.7 Mb ), eJournal USA , State Department, Nov 2009 ( lower resolution, 800 Kb ) what is it? which cultures foster it? the global geography of meaning, innovation how do complementary skills help? secrets of collaboration 2009 innovation index by country ranking.
Predicting Military Innovation, by Amendment Essay, Isaacson et al, RAND, 1999 Although military technology is of robert, increasingly available and affordable, not all states have the capacity to improve military effectiveness by acquiring hardware. Integrative difficulties — in Amendment command structures, doctrine and tactics, training, and support — are common in the developing world, and many states will have to and Validity of Methods Used Essay find some level of innovation to overcome such difficulties if they are to use military technologies effectively. This annotated briefing documents a research effort aimed at understanding and Amendment Essay, predicting how militaries may improve their battlefield effectiveness. The briefing first analyzes military innovation conceptually and then formulates a framework for predicting the likelihood of meaning, innovative success. The research synthesizes a broad literature on Amendment, innovation and provides a useful tool for assessing future military developments.
Brain and of robert, Creativity Institute, University of Southern California The mission of the Amendment Brain and Creativity Institute is to are used extend the benefits of their gather new knowledge about the human emotions, decision-making, memory, and communication, from a neurological perspective, and to apply this knowledge to the solution of problems in the biomedical and sociocultural arenas. From Stone to Silicon: A Brief Survey of Innovation, by Husick, Foreign Policy Research Institute, Oct 2008 - top 25 innovations of Amendment, all time. Toward More Innovative Program Management ( local copy ), by Perino, in Defense Acquisition Review Journal, Feb-Mar 2005 - results of research into Used Evidence Essay the science and psychology of The Seventeenth Essay, innovation - using MBTI and FourSight assessment tools - includes formula for MBTI Creativity Index. Stimulating Innovation ( local copy ), by william faulkner short stories, Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Science and The Seventeenth, Technology Innovation ( local copy ), by Kostoff, Office of Naval Research - compares literature-based and workshop-based approaches for stimulating innovation. Communication, Management Benchmark Study ( local copy ), Dept of Energy -- includes chapters on networking, alliances, organizational culture, and innovation Innovation, especially organizational, short chapter, covers a lot Creativity, how to cultivate, short chapter, covers a lot.
Creativity Web, resources for creativity and innovation 10 Kick Starts to Your Creativity Creativity Basics. Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity, National Academies Press, 2003 - addresses issues such as what makes people creative and how creative people work Leadership That Gets Results, by Daniel Goleman, in Harvard Business Review , - describes six leadership styles: Coercive, Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, Pacesetting and Coaching. - Should emotional intelligence play a role in the workplace? -- some questions to stimulate discussion Emotional Intelligence Resource List ( local copy ) EQ.org directory of internet Emotional Intelligence sites. EQ Emotional Intelligence tests online - mixed quality, try several and glean tidbits from the narratives. Jonah Lehrer: The Science of budge wilson, Insight Creation, 40 min. video from Jonah Lehrer - contributing editor of Wired and author of Essay, How We Decide Science is getting harder. Finding notable, new facts is getting harder. So how can we increase our capacity for breakthroughs and insights? What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from a scientific perspective and discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in the shower. talks about the as a way to feeling of knowing such as the tip of the Amendment tongue phenomenon talks about why brainstorming doesn't work - cites studies showing that allowing criticism leads to 7 times the number of useful ideas 24 hours later after folks have had time to think on their own outside the group we can all imagine more, if only we know how. The Idea Center, with IdeaFisher software, commercial brainstorming tool, with modules for Breast Cancer Community Essay strategic planning, speeches/presentations, conflict resolution, and creative writing Memory Skills Joshua Foer: Feats of memory anyone can do - a TED talk (you may need to The Seventeenth Essay watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) There are people who can quickly memorize lists of thousands of numbers, the order of all the cards in a deck (or ten!), and much more.
Science writer Joshua Foer describes the technique -- called the memory palace -- and shows off its most remarkable feature: anyone can learn how to use it, including him. Changing Minds in czech uprising the Army: Why It’s So Difficult and What To Do About It ( local copy ), by Amendment, Gerras and Wong, U.S. Budge Wilson. Army War College, June 2013 The following pages discuss why it is The Seventeenth Essay, so hard for Army senior leaders to change their minds. We do this by first introducing the concept of frames of reference and then discuss how neuroscience sheds some light on why changing one’s mind is not so easy. We then examine the role of organizational variables on this process. William Faulkner. Finally, we propose how strategic leaders might apply this knowledge to enhance the The Seventeenth Essay likelihood that as the environment evolves, they are able to actually change their minds. In large hierarchical organizations such as the Army, consistency of social media., thought is the norm, and not the exception. No leader wants to appear as vacillating or be accused of hemming and Amendment Essay, hawing on key issues. Yet history abounds with negative examples of leaders failing to Cancer Community Essay change their minds despite new evidence or fresh information. Thinking in a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational, by Keim, in Wired online journal, Apr 2012 A series of experiments on The Seventeenth, more than 300 people from the U.S. and Korea found that thinking in a second language reduced deep-seated, misleading biases that unduly influence how risks and william short stories, benefits are perceived. The researchers believe a second language provides a useful cognitive distance from automatic processes, promoting analytical thought and The Seventeenth Essay, reducing unthinking, emotional reaction.
Deadly Mind Traps, by Wise, Psychology Today , Jan 2012 Simple cognitive errors can have disastrous consequences—unless you know how to of Methods Evidence watch out for them. [The article has specific examples of each of the errors below.] Redlining. Anytime we plan a mission that requires us to set a safety parameter, there's a risk that in the heat of the moment we'll be tempted to overstep it. The Domino Effect. In stressful situations, you see a failure in the working memory, which is involved in inhibiting impulses, says Sian Beilock, a psychology professor at the University of Chicago. People lose the ability to think about the long-term consequences of their actions. Situational Blindness. Full situational awareness requires incorporating outside information into a model of Essay, your environment, and william short stories, using that model to predict how the situation might change. Amendment. If all you're doing is following the line of the GPS, and it turns out to be wrong, you'll be completely clueless about what to do next. Double or Nothing.
Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky first pointed out back in 1979, we tend to avoid risk when contemplating potential gains but seek risk to avoid losses. For instance, if you offer people a choice between a certain loss of $1,000 and a 50-50 chance of meaning of robert, losing $2,500, the majority will opt for The Seventeenth the riskier option, to avoid a definite financial hit. Bending the Map. Such errors of overconfidence are due to a phenomenon psychologists call confirmation bias . When trying to solve a problem or troubleshoot a problem, we get fixated on a specific option or hypothesis, explains Kring, and ignore contradictory evidence and budge wilson, other information that could help us make a better decision. Heuristics and Biases in Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by Williams, in Military Review , Sep-Oct 2010 Fortunately, some have come to see the The Seventeenth Essay shortcomings of the classical MDMP process. Of Robert. It is illsuited for Essay the analysis of problems exhibiting high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. When combining hindsight bias and retrievability biases, we potentially fail to guard against an event popularized euphemistically as a black swan . Instead of the usual striving toward a “best practices” methodology, which is also full of potential heuristic biases, reflective practice calls for “valuing the czech uprising processes that challenge assimilative knowledge (i.e. continuous truth seeking) and by Essay, embracing the inevitable conflict associated with truth seeking.” Ben Goldacre: Battling bad science, a talk from budge wilson, TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the Amendment TED.com version won't run on czech uprising, your computer) Every day there are news reports of new health advice, but how can you know if they're right? Doctor and epidemiologist Ben Goldacre shows us, at high speed, the ways evidence can be distorted, from the blindingly obvious nutrition claims to the very subtle tricks of the pharmaceutical industry. Curing Analytic Pathologies: Pathways to Amendment Essay Improved Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Cooper, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence, Dec 2005 The Analytic Pathologies framework yields four insights that are crucial both to accurate diagnosis and to developing effective remedies.
First, the framework enables analysts to identify individual analytic impediments and determine their sources. Second, it prompts analysts to detect the systemic pathologies that result from closely-coupled networks and to are used extend traditional media. find the linkages among the individual impediments. Third, it demonstrates that each of these networks, and Amendment Essay, thus each systemic pathology, usually spans multiple levels within the Reliability of Methods to Gather Evidence hierarchy of the Intelligence Community. Fourth, the framework highlights the need to Amendment Essay treat both the systemic pathologies and the individual impediments by focusing effective remedial measures on the right target and at the appropriate level. -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) Check out Part III - Cognitive Biases.
Countering Terrorism: Integration of Practice and Theory ( local copy ), overview of conference at FBI Academy, Feb 2002 from Appendix 8: Psychology of Bias These investigators found that there is a general bias, based on both innate predispositions and experience, in animals and humans, to give greater weight to Breast Community Resources Essay negative events or attributes . This is evident in The Seventeenth Amendment Essay four ways: (a) negative potency (negative entities are stronger than the equivalent positive entities), (b) steeper negative gradients (the negativity of negative events grows more rapidly with approach to budge wilson them in Essay space or time than does the positivity of positive events), (c) negativity dominance (combinations of negative and positive entities yield evaluations that are more negative than the budge wilson algebraic sum of individual subjective evaluations would predict), and. (d) negative differentiation (negative entities are more varied, yield more complex conceptual representations, and engage a wider response repertoire). The authors review this taxonomy, with emphasis on negativity dominance, including literary, historical, religious, and cultural sources, as well as the psychological literatures on The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, learning, attention, impression formation, contagion, moral judgment, development, and memory. They suggest that one feature of negative events that make them dominant is meaning, that negative entities are more “contagious” than positive entities. Tali Sharot: The optimism bias - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Are we born to be optimistic, rather than realistic?
Tali Sharot shares new research that suggests our brains are wired to look on The Seventeenth, the bright side -- and how that can be both dangerous and beneficial. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently. This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and Breast Cancer Resources, our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Cancer Community Essay Nobel in Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Sensemaking David Moore Sensemaking: A Structure for an Intelligence Revolution ( local copy ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC), March 2011 Mindfulness, wicked problems, paradigm shifts, intuitive thinking, validation, intelligence rigor, limitations, and more Sensemaking, whereby intelligence professionals would work with executive decisionmakers to The Seventeenth explain data that are “sparse, noisy, and Reliability of Methods to Gather Evidence Essay, uncertain,” requires an interpreter and experienced champion to bring about a practicable understanding and acceptance of the concept among intelligence practitioners. David Moore has accomplished that feat. Further, he, along with collaborators in chapters 5 and 7, demonstrate how sensemaking can be accomplished as a collaborative enterprise.
Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no. 14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for The Seventeenth Amendment 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. Failure Being Wrong - Why They Work This was the pivotal insight of the Scientific Revolution: that the advancement of knowledge depends on current theories collapsing in the face of social media are used by marketers extend media., new insights and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, discoveries. In this model of progress, errors do not lead us away from the truth. Meaning. Instead, they edge us incrementally toward it. — Kathryn Schulz, in Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Essay, Error. Leaders can let you fail and yet not let you be a failure. --- General Stanley McChrystal.
Science is always wrong. It never solves a problem without creating 10 more. --- George Bernard Shaw. Only those who will risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go. The chief trick to budge wilson making good mistakes is The Seventeenth Essay, not to hide them — especially not from yourself. Instead of turning away in denial when you make a mistake, you should become a connoisseur of your own mistakes, turning them over in your mind as if they were works of art, which in Breast Community a way they are. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. … The trick is to take advantage of the particular details of the mess you’ve made, so that your next attempt will be informed by it and not just another blind stab in the dark. — Daniel Dennett, in social by marketers as a extend the benefits traditional media. Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking.
Kathryn Schulz: On being wrong - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most of us will do anything to avoid being wrong. But what if we're wrong about that? Wrongologist Kathryn Schulz makes a compelling case for not just admitting but embracing our fallibility. Tim Harford: Trial, error and The Seventeenth Essay, the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the are used by marketers as a of their media. successful ones: they were built through trial and The Seventeenth Amendment, error. In this sparkling talk from are used as a the benefits media., TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and start making better mistakes. Adapt: Why success always starts with failure, video by Tim Harford (book by the same title is on the Air Force Chief of Staff's 2012 Reading List) Tim's Principles of Failure: #1 - Be willing to fail . a lot.
#2 - Fail on a survivable scale. Eddie Obeng: Smart failure for a fast-changing world - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) The world is Amendment Essay, changing much more rapidly than most people realize, says business educator Eddie Obeng -- and creative output cannot keep up. In this spirited talk, he highlights three important changes we should understand for better productivity, and calls for a stronger culture of czech uprising, “smart failure. Seth Godin on The Seventeenth Amendment, Failing Until You Succeed, video of an interview for entrepreneur.com taking risks, challenging status quo, starting a business. Ignorance - a valuable resource Thoroughly conscious ignorance is the media way to extend of their traditional prelude to every real advance in science. --- James Clerk Maxwell. In an honest search for The Seventeenth Amendment knowledge, you quite often have to abide by ignorance for an indefinite period. Stuart Firestein: The pursuit of ignorance - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on czech uprising, YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What does real scientific work look like? As neuroscientist Stuart Firestein jokes: It looks a lot less like the Amendment scientific method and a lot more like farting around . in the dark.
In this witty talk, Firestein gets to the heart of of robert, science as it is really practiced and suggests that we should value what we don't know -- or high-quality ignorance -- just as much as what we know. Red Teams, Red Teaming, Red Team Thinking. University of Foreign Military and Amendment, Cultural Studies (UFMCS) The University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies (UFMCS) at Fort Leavenworth is an Army-directed education, research, and training initiative for Army organizations, joint organizations, and other government agencies. Resources. Red Teaming is a structured, iterative process, executed by highly trained, educated, and practiced team members that provides commanders an Amendment, independent capability to fully explore alternatives to plans, operations, concepts, organizations, and capabilities in the context of the operational environment and from our partners’ and adversaries’ perspectives. UFMCS educates Red Team Leaders, Members, and Practitioners; researches best practices for czech uprising Red Teaming tactics, techniques, and procedures; and develops a reach-back capability to provide commanders and staffs alternative perspectives. Graduates of Leader and Member courses receive an additional skill identifier (ASI). UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from The Seventeenth Essay, real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others. Budge Wilson. UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook ( local copy ) Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for The Seventeenth Amendment people and organizations to create, to do new things, to and Validity Used be innovative. These are processes or rules that can be put in place to encourage people to be free, creative, and get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless. For things to really change, structural elements need to The Seventeenth change, too.
Otherwise change is short-lived. Liberating structures are the forms that make it easy for people to be generative together and make a significant impact with their creativity. UFMCS Group Think Mitigation Guide ( local copy ) Our education involves more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. William Faulkner Short Stories. We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and best practices from several sources and disciplines to create an The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, education and practical application method that we find to be the best safeguard against individual and Breast Cancer Community, organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in cognition, and groupthink. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the The Seventeenth Amendment Red Team Handbook), v. 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at decision support. UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Much of the material directly applies to Essay critical thinking and becoming better at it. Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and The Seventeenth Essay, “String of Breast Cancer Community Resources, Pearls” tool and “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses” and a passel of others. Seeing Red: Creating a Red-Team Capability for The Seventeenth the Blue Force ( local copy ), by Fontenot, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2005 - includes list of Red Team best practices, and a list of why Red Teams sometimes fail. Critical Thinking You want to have a mind that’s open enough to accept radical new ideas, but not so open that your brains fall out.
— Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine. Minds are like parachutes. They only function when they are open. Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand. Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted. Trying to get people to reason in a way that is not natural for them. is like trying to by marketers way to extend the benefits of their teach a pig to The Seventeenth Essay sing. You don't accomplish anything and you annoy the meaning pig. — E. Jeffrey Conklin William Weil.
Men believe what they prefer. If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts. But if he will be content to Amendment Essay begin with doubts he shall end in certainties. My story is proud. Czech Uprising. The entry of truth with chalk to mark those minds which are capable to lodge and harbour it. For myself, I found that I was fitted for nothing so well as for the study of The Seventeenth, truth; as having a Mind nimble and versatile enough to social media are used by marketers as a the benefits of their catch the Resemblances of Things (which is the chief point) and at The Seventeenth, the same time steady enough to fix and distinguish their Subtler Differences; as being gifted by Nature with Desire to seek, patience to Doubt, fondness to Meditate, slowness to assert, readiness to consider, carefulness to Reliability dispose and set in order; and as being a man that neither affects what is new nor admires what is old, and Essay, that hates every kind of Imposture. So I thought my Nature had a kind of familiarity and Relationship with Truth. — Francis Bacon, On the Interpretation of Nature , 1603. See red team thinking , especially the UFMCS Red Team Handbook.
Improve Your Critical Thinking, resources at Coping.us - includes summaries/lists of many methods and theories Overview of Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Model of Problem Solving Watch out for Common Fallacies Online Resources for Reliability of Methods to Gather Improving Critical Thinking. A Way to The Seventeenth Teach Critical Thinking Skills so Learners Will Continue Using Them in Operations ( local copy ), by Griffin and McClary, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2015 However, despite both instructors and budge wilson, students enjoying the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay critical thinking classes, many graduates were failing to think critically where it mattered most—on the job. The first key is to establish an Reliability and Validity to Gather Evidence Essay, effective talent management program at the earliest possible opportunity, preferably from the start. Until an organization gets talent management right, with a high degree of person-job and person-organization fit, it will have very limited success with its other functions. The Seventeenth Essay. The second key to teaching critical thinking skills is to ensure the organizational climate values critical and innovative thinking. Building upon, and made possible by, a talent management program, an organization demonstrates its commitment to these values by czech uprising, expecting and rewarding critical thinking and innovation. Two Faces of The Seventeenth Amendment, Critical Thinking for william the Reflective Military Practitioner ( local copy ), by Paparone, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2014 Critical thinking has become quite the catchphrase. Yet, there is little published in military circles demonstrating a philosophical examination of what critical thinking means; hence, my intent here is to The Seventeenth start that conversation.1 My argument calls upon two faces of critical thinking—a metaphor that conveys a dualistic approach toward a more reflective military practice. Education for Critical Thinking ( local copy ), by Williams, in Military Review , Jan-Feb 2013 A better strategy for the Army’s PME is to social as a extend media. adopt an educational philosophy that focuses less on knowledge and content and more on The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, the ability to question and argue. Critical thinking means the ability to construct and defend an argument using reason, applying intellectual standards of epistemic responsibility, and recognizing and countering logical fallacies as we see them in william faulkner others and ourselves.
If we pay attention to our doctrine, this shift in The Seventeenth Amendment thinking about professional education is a strategic imperative. Of Robert. We now accept as common knowledge that military operations defy rules, calling them instead “human endeavors, characterized by the continuous, mutual adaptation of give and take, moves, and Amendment, countermoves among all participants.” We agree that war is about identifying and solving ill-defined problems where experts can and budge wilson, do disagree on The Seventeenth Amendment, the range of solutions. The problem is that we have a PME system that relies on an educational approach in which instructors are guides for each new class to rediscover the same hackneyed truths as their predecessors. Mission command requires that we do more than allow for minor heresies. It demands that we develop “heretics”—leaders capable of challenging convention to create imaginative solutions regardless of the william faulkner short stories operational environment. Essay. An inquiry-based educational approach is the best way to develop these “heretics” because it is budge wilson, about questioning, and good questioners unequivocally make better thinkers. Army Leadership Development and Leadership ( local copy ), by The Seventeenth Essay, Hinds and Steele, in Breast Community Resources Essay Military Review , Jan-Feb 2012 Colonels, lieutenant colonels, and chief warrant fives were also surveyed about what skills were lacking for recent [PME] graduates. The most common response was “appropriate critical thinking and problem solving skills.”
Developing Creative and Critical Thinkers ( local copy ), by Allen and Gerras, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2009 This article presents a definition of The Seventeenth Amendment, strategic thinking and then focuses on the two key antecedents of strategic thinking—creative and critical thinking—and presents the Army War College approach to educating students in these skills. . Given these challenges and obstacles, how do we make Army leaders better at creative and critical thinking? First, we must teach leaders the knowledge, skills, and terminology associated with thinking competencies. These are acquirable intellectual skills. Of Robert. As suggested earlier, the best way to teach thinking skills to Amendment Army leaders is to provide context-dependent skill development. Critical Thinking and the Development of Innovative Problem Solvers ( local copy ), by Drew, Naval War College, 14 Feb 2005 Integrating critical thinking into officer development requires the shifting of Cancer Community, knowledge focused classes to self-study, teaching and using argument/concept mapping to reveal student’s reasoning, and using the Universal Intellectual Standards as the basis of feedback on their reasoning. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and The Seventeenth Amendment, help them become aware of Reliability of Methods Used to Gather Evidence Essay, biases and behavior that prevent them from real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others. UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook ( local copy ) Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for people and organizations to create, to The Seventeenth do new things, to be innovative. These are processes or rules that can be put in place to czech uprising encourage people to be free, creative, and Essay, get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless. For things to really change, structural elements need to budge wilson change, too. Otherwise change is short-lived. Liberating structures are the The Seventeenth Amendment forms that make it easy for people to william be generative together and make a significant impact with their creativity.
UFMCS Group Think Mitigation Guide ( local copy ) Our education involves more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and best practices from Amendment, several sources and william stories, disciplines to create an education and practical application method that we find to be the best safeguard against individual and organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in cognition, and groupthink. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the of robert Red Team Handbook), v. 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. Essay. We believe that good decision processes are essential to budge wilson good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in Essay divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at decision support. UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Much of the material directly applies to critical thinking and becoming better at it. Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for as a extend traditional overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and “String of Pearls” tool and “Analysis of The Seventeenth Essay, Competing Hypotheses” and a passel of others. Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no.
14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and budge wilson, intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. Critical Thinking issue of Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin ( local copy ), July-September 2006 This issue of MIPB focuses on the integration of critical thinking and scientific inquiry throughout the military intelligence curricula. Essay. It is our contention that critical thinking and problem solving skills are best taught in learning environments that encourage students to consistently engage in the implementation of the scientific method. Meaning. To do this, instructors come to see themselves less as the Amendment Essay source of knowledge and more as facilitators of learning. Social By Marketers As A Extend The Benefits Of Their Media.. Although most courses within USAIC include practical exercises, many continue to include hours of The Seventeenth, lecture, followed by objective tests. Unfortunately, most students do not long retain much of what they have memorized.
Conversely, retention increases dramatically when they use what they have learned to budge wilson conceptualize and to Amendment Essay solve problems. Therefore, critical thinking can be integrated into budge wilson the curriculum by adjusting teaching styles so that students are challenged to reflect on The Seventeenth, concrete learning experiences (a lecture, a film, a field trip), ask questions, pose hypotheses, and test those hypotheses against reality. When students are encouraged to of Methods Used Essay use the The Seventeenth scientific method on a regular basis, they become actively engaged in william faulkner stories critical thinking; and as a result, they will become more sophisticated and The Seventeenth Essay, effective decisionmakers. Team/Collaborative Critical Thinking Team Critical Thinking: Foundations Research Directions, briefing by Freeman and Serfaty, at 2002 conference Collaborative Critical Thinking, briefing by czech uprising, Freeman et al, Collaboration and Knowledge Management Workshop, 2003. Integrating Critical Thinking in the Curriculum of the Command and General Staff College ( local copy ), by Doyle, CGSC, 2008 The Command and General Staff College endeavors to instill critical thinking as a skill practiced by its graduates. To this end the college has introduced the concept of The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, critical thinking as a class within the czech uprising core curriculum. Students must take a “critical thinking test” both before and after the block of core instruction, and numerous graphic training aids line the classroom walls in an attempt to reinforce these ideas. Amendment. However, it remains questionable whether or not the concepts of critical thought, that are taught by the school, have made their way into the course work and class structure within the college.
This thesis will contend that to create critical thinkers CGSC must incorporate the tenets of critical thinking throughout its curriculum and course design. Grading rubrics for papers and tests, exam questions written to steer answers in a certain “correct” direction all to a degree contradict the tenets of critical thought, yet exist within the course of study. Ideally, CGSC can stand as a seminal experience in the development of officers. An experience akin to that found in civilian graduate level education can be attained, but it will require a cultural revolution within the faculty to transition from a model based on training to a model based on education. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Heuer, 1999, for CIA -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) [from the introduction] Dick Heuer's writings make three fundamental points about the cognitive challenges intelligence analysts face: The mind is way to extend, poorly wired to deal effectively with both inherent uncertainty (the natural fog surrounding complex, indeterminate intelligence issues) and induced uncertainty (the man-made fog fabricated by denial and deception operations). Even increased awareness of cognitive and The Seventeenth, other unmotivated biases, such as the tendency to see information confirming an already-held judgment more vividly than one sees disconfirming information, does little by itself to help analysts deal effectively with uncertainty. Czech Uprising. Tools and techniques that gear the analyst's mind to Essay apply higher levels of critical thinking can substantially improve analysis on complex issues on which information is incomplete, ambiguous, and often deliberately distorted.
Key examples of social media are used by marketers extend the benefits traditional, such intellectual devices include techniques for structuring information, challenging assumptions, and exploring alternative interpretations. Curing Analytic Pathologies: Pathways to The Seventeenth Improved Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Cooper, CIA Center for the Study of stories, Intelligence, Dec 2005 The Analytic Pathologies framework yields four insights that are crucial both to accurate diagnosis and to developing effective remedies. First, the framework enables analysts to identify individual analytic impediments and determine their sources. Second, it prompts analysts to detect the Essay systemic pathologies that result from closely-coupled networks and to find the budge wilson linkages among the Essay individual impediments. Third, it demonstrates that each of these networks, and thus each systemic pathology, usually spans multiple levels within the hierarchy of the Intelligence Community. Fourth, the framework highlights the need to treat both the systemic pathologies and the individual impediments by focusing effective remedial measures on the right target and at the appropriate level.
Thinking and Writing: Cognitive Science and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Sinclair, CIA Center for Breast Cancer Resources Essay the Study of Intelligence, Feb 2010 revision of 1984 monograph We are, in Amendment fact, better at generating problems than at solving them. Rarely can we say unequivocally that we have solved a problem, particularly if it is a hard one. Resources Essay. Rather we keep plugging away at it heuristically. Often enough we manage to satisfice—to achieve a “best-possible” solution so that we can take up something else. The problem has not gone away and we do not really delude ourselves that it has. But being realists (i.e., heuristic individuals to the core), we accept the results and live with them—recognizing that sometime we may find ourselves returning to the problem once more. As I have noted, this is a sloppy way of doing business, but we sell ourselves short if we do not acknowledge its strengths. It deals as well as anything yet developed with the fact, to use Jerome Bruner’s words, that our “ability to The Seventeenth deal with knowledge is hugely exceeded by the potential knowledge contained in man’s environment.”
A Mini-Guide for Teaching Critical Thinking, by Bean and Markham, Ira C. Eaker College for Professional Development (ECPD), 2008 This guide is designed to provide general information, strategies and a step-by-step process on Critical Thinking, two lesson plans which can be helpful in effectively teaching Critical Thinking, a case study which lends itself to thinking critically to Reliability and Validity to Gather Essay come to Amendment a desirable resolution, and lastly, some recommended reading resources for providing a foundation to and assisting instructors in the classroom and with student consultation. A Tradecraft Primer: Structured Analytic Techniques for budge wilson Improving Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), posted by CIA, March 2009 This primer highlights structured analytic techniques—some widely used in the private sector and academia, some unique to The Seventeenth Essay the intelligence profession. It is not a comprehensive overview of faulkner short stories, how intelligence officers conduct analysis. Rather, the primer highlights how structured analytic techniques can help one challenge judgments, identify mental mindsets, stimulate creativity, and manage uncertainty. In short, incorporating regular use of techniques such as these can enable one to The Seventeenth structure thinking for meaning wrestling with difficult questions. CIA Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes ( local copy ) - CIA has made this edition  of the compendium available to the public to help shed light on how the Directorate of Intelligence meets the daily challenges of providing timely, accurate, and rigorous analysis to intelligence consumers Critical Thinking: Plugging (or Moving) a Hole in Essay Our Swiss Cheese ( local copy ), by Johns, Assistant U.S. Czech Uprising. Attorney, 2009 Relying largely on the military’s design, testing and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, implementation, this paper proposes Critical Thinking (CT) training to augment current Recognition Primed Decisionmaking training (RPD).
CT training reduces normal human decision error in individual and group processes. Are Used By Marketers As A. Individual CT can reduce or, in a specific case, close a hole in The Seventeenth Amendment Essay the Swiss Cheese model. In a group, CT can also move the hole out of Breast Cancer Resources Essay, alignment. Combining CT training with Decision Support System improvements has reduced decision error in The Seventeenth Amendment the military as shown by tests with active duty warfighters in Cancer Community battlefield simulations. Critical Reasoning for Beginners, by the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Oxford - videos, audios, and The Seventeenth, slides (can play the audio while viewing the slides, and avoid downloading 600+ Mb videos) In this six-week course delivered by Marianne Talbot, you will learn all about arguments, how to identify and evaluate them, and how not to mistake bad arguments for good. Critical Thinking - tools to test/measure The Critical Thinking Rubric, Critical Thinking Project, Washington State University - assesses skill at each step of the budge wilson problem solving process, including ability of individual to Amendment identify and consider influence by william faulkner stories, the context of the issue Seven dimensions to The Seventeenth Amendment be assessed: Identifies and summarizes the problem/question at issue (and/or the source's position). Identifies and presents the STUDENT'S OWN hypothesis, perspective and position as it is important to the analysis of the issue. Identifies and meaning, considers OTHER salient perspectives and positions that are important to the analysis. Identifies and The Seventeenth Amendment, assesses the key assumptions . Czech Uprising. Identifies and The Seventeenth, assesses the quality of faulkner, supporting data/evidence and provides additional data/evidence related to The Seventeenth Amendment the issue. Identifies and considers the influence of the context on the issue. [they list some sample contexts to consider] Identifies and assesses conclusions, implications and consequences . Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric, by Facione and Facione California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) Test of Every Day Reasoning (TER) CRITO ( local copy ), a step-by-step method for creating a critical analysis essay, courtesy of Reliability and Validity to Gather Evidence, Dr.
David K. Johnson, Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts C - State a C onclusion or claim R - State R easons or evidence meant to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay convince the reader . Meaning. I - Test the I nference, or argument T - Test the T ruth of the R O - Construct the The Seventeenth Essay strongest imaginable O bjections, and respond to budge wilson them. Active Learning Strategies to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay Promote Critical Thinking, by Walker, William Paterson University - a good summary of educational references regarding critical thinking. CriticalThinking.org - with 35 Dimensions of Cancer Community, Critical Thought, GOOD series of Essay, short articles on affective and cognitive strategies, incl such items as listening critically. Evaluating Critical Thinking Skills ( local copy ), from U.S. Naval Academy's Center for Teaching and Learning -- criteria-based evaluation guide. Manual of Job-Related Thinking Skills ( local copy ), Department of Homeland Security - including deductive reasoning, reasoning with sets, inductive reasoning about real-world events, and statistical reasoning - includes quizzes throughout. How Critical Thinking Shapes the Military Decision Making Process ( local copy ), by short stories, Usry, Naval War College, 2004 A lack of Combatant Commander (COCOM) critical thinking in the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) is a causal factor in military failure at the operational level. However, critical thinking can improve the Amendment MDMP of the meaning COCOM.
This paper analyzes the effects of critical thinking on the combatant commander’s decision making process by: defining critical thinking; illustrating its impact on intuitive and analytical decisions; demonstrating barriers to critical thinking and proposing practical ways to The Seventeenth Amendment use critical thinking in the MDMP. Army officers are increasingly required to operate in situations they have not previously encountered and for william which they have not been trained. In these situations, the ability to critically think through a problem, rather than apply previously learned solutions and procedures, is crucial to Amendment Army success. This effort began in 2000, with the development of a theoretical model of critical thinking and and Validity to Gather Evidence, the identification of eight high pay-off critical thinking skills for Army Battle Command. Critical Thinking Training for Army Schoolhouse and Distance Learning ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, August 2003 - High Pay-off Skills to deal with the uncertain - includes a diagram of Conceptual Model of Critical Thinking and expansion on the following High Pay-off Critical Thinking Skills for Army Battle Command Seek a clear statement of the problem. Recognize main point in Amendment Essay a message. Visualize plans to see if they achieve goals. Construct a plausible story that ties all incidents together. (. uncovering relationships, exploring alternative explanations of the czech uprising information and keeping an open mind to detecting patterns) Recognize fallibility and bias in own opinion. Generalize from specific instances to broader classes. Adopt multiple perspectives in interpreting events.
Determine when to seek more information. A Three-Part Theory of The Seventeenth, Critical Thinking: Dialogue, Mental Models, and czech uprising, Reliability ( local copy ) This chapter can only scratch the surface in trying to respond to these challenges. It is a very brief abridgment of Cohen, Salas, Riedel (2001), which provides more depth and detail, but is The Seventeenth, still only a start. The research had two main goals: First, to draw a map that links disparate regions of the critical thinking field, and second, to use the map to navigate toward a more insightful theory of critical thinking, which will support the development more effective methods for improving it in Army battlefield command teams. Budge Wilson. The essence of The Seventeenth Essay, our theory is william short, that critical thinking skill is exemplified by asking questions about alternative possibilities in order to achieve some objective . Asking and answering questions is a skill of Essay, dialogue . Alternative possibilities are represented by mental models . A process of questioning mental models is adopted because of its reliability for social media as a way to extend traditional achieving the purposes of the participants within the available time. Adaptive Thinking Training For Tactical Leaders ( local copy ), by Lussier and Shadrick, U.S. The Seventeenth Essay. Army Research Institute, 2004 ARI newsletters Training Small Unit Leader Adaptive Thinking Skills: Lessons Learned from Combat Training Center Exercises ( local copy ) Common Thinking and Judgment Problems Observed in Small Unit Leaders Difficulty reacting to novel situations – unable or slow to “think on your feet” Overly reactive. Difficulty in thinking like the enemy Focused on making quick decisions before fully analyzing the situation Inadequate monitoring of the situation or responding to of robert cues in the environment Difficulty translating orders from higher echelons into actions Tunnel vision Overly focused on distracters; not on the big picture Difficulty shifting roles (e.g., combat to mediation within the Amendment Essay same mission) Limited cultural awareness and necessary communication skills (specifically in dealing with civilians) Critical Thinking as Dialogue: a New Approach to social media by marketers as a way to the benefits traditional media. Training Critical Thinking ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, October 2004 (whole issue (3 Mb)) Critical Thinking Training for Army Schoolhouse and Distance Learning ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, August 2003 - High Pay-off Skills to deal with the uncertain - includes a diagram of Conceptual Model of Critical Thinking and expansion on the High Pay-off Critical Thinking Skills for Army Battle Command Training Adaptive Leaders ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, May 2003 - train a performance - a thinking performance - using the Think Like a Commander vignettes to improve ability to identify critical information Tacit Knowledge for Amendment Essay Military Leadership ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - Tacit knowledge scores, a better predictor of leadership effectiveness Training Critical Thinking Skills for Battle Command: How to faulkner stories Think, Not What to Think ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - Improve critical thinking to The Seventeenth Essay improve battle command tactical performance Training and Assessment of Decision-Making Skills in Virtual Environments ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - This research showed a linkage between decision-making and situation awareness
James Garrett Shaylyn Romney Garrett - Teaching Critical Thinking in Breast Resources Essay the Middle East, a TEDxDeadSea (independently organized TED event) video They are committed educators whose work in Jordan has focused on promoting critical and creative thinking. Their curriculum, called “Brain Camp,” is an educational intervention that focuses on building eight critical thinking skills with the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay aim of equipping the rising generation of Jordanians to become creative and effective problem solvers. Center for Critical Thinking, aka Critical Thinking Community includes a library of short articles ranging from Socratic teaching to budge wilson assessing thinking skills Other resources include the following Valuable Intellectual Traits. Rudyard Kipling, from The Elephant's Child in Just So Stories I keep six honest serving-men. (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and The Seventeenth Amendment, When. And How and Where and Who. [ed. - answering those six questions is often a good place to begin - and meaning of robert, why is usually the one that pushes your writing past the knowledge level and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, demonstrates/reveals your insights]
Occam's Razor, published 1328 (also spelled Ockham) also known as the Law of Parsimony or Principle of Economy or Principle of Simplicity Principle from William of Occam (logician and Franciscan friar, c. 1285-1350 or 1280-1349) -- stating that given multiple theories to explain a set of observations the simplest explanation is to be preferred Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate or non sunt multiplicanda entia praeter necessitatem - Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily. Never multiply explanations or make them more complicated than necessary. An explanation should be as simple and direct as possible Einstein's version -- make things as simple as possible - but no simpler modern variation -- Keep It Simple Stupid (KISS) Sherlock Holmes I have already explained to you that what is out of the common is usually a guide rather than a hindrance. In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to way to extend the benefits of their traditional media. be able to The Seventeenth Essay reason backward. That is a very useful accomplishment, and a very easy one, but people do not practise it much. Budge Wilson. In the everyday affairs of life it is more useful to reason forward, and so the other comes to be neglected.
There are fifty who can reason synthetically for Amendment one who can reason analytically. [in A Study in Scarlet , 1887] How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable , must be the meaning of robert truth? [in The Sign of Four , 1890] That process, said I, starts upon the supposition that when you have eliminated all which is The Seventeenth, impossible, then whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth. It may well be that several explanations remain, in which case one tries test after test until one or other of them has a convincing amount of support. And Validity Of Methods Used Evidence. [in The Case Book of The Seventeenth, Sherlock Holmes , 1927] It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Meaning Of Robert. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay suit facts. [in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes , 1892, A Scandal in Bohemia] I ought to know by czech uprising, this time that when a fact appears to be opposed to a long train of deductions, it invariably proves to be capable of bearing some other interpretation. [in A Study in Scarlet , 1887] Data! Data!
Data! he cried impatiently. I can't make bricks without clay. [in The Adventure of the Copper Beeches , 1892] Maria Konnikova - The Scientific Method of the Mind - an RSA video Maria Konnikova reveals how Sherlock Holmes can teach us to optimise not only The Seventeenth Amendment our own everyday existence, but our broader contributions to society and czech uprising, the lives of those around us. Improving Leadership through Better Decision Making: Fostering Critical Thinking, an Air University research paper Appendix A discusses the Amendment Essay Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal - which is composed of a series of five tests inference test - gauges ones’ ability to discern the Cancer degree of The Seventeenth Essay, truth or falsity of inferences drawn from the data that you are given recognition of assumptions test - samples the ability to recognize unstated assumptions in statements deduction test - samples the ability to stories reason properly when given a statement of premise; to recognize the relation of implication between propositions interpretation test - samples the ability to weigh evidence and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, make valid generalizations evaluation of czech uprising, arguments test - samples the ability to The Seventeenth Amendment distinguish strong and budge wilson, relevant arguments from ones which are weak or irrelevant Critical Thinking I, lesson plan at SAMS, Leavenworth ( local copy ) Critical Thinking II, lesson plan at SAMS, Leavenworth ( local copy ) Logic Tutor, by Green - FREE online tutorial system on logic. Think Critically about What You Find on the Web Evaluating Internet Resources, by U. The Seventeenth. Albany Libraries Thinking Critically about Web Resources, from UCLA Library ICYouSee Guide to Critical Thinking About What You See on the Web, from Ithaca College Library Testing the Surf: Criteria for Evaluating Internet Information Resources, by czech uprising, Alastair Smith, posted by U. of Houston Markham Nolan: How to separate fact and The Seventeenth Amendment, fiction online, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to czech uprising watch it on Essay, YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) By the end of this talk, there will be 864 more hours of Breast Essay, video on The Seventeenth, YouTube and 2.5 million more photos on of Methods, Facebook and The Seventeenth, Instagram. So how do we sort through the deluge?
At the TEDSalon in London, Markham Nolan shares the investigative techniques he and his team use to verify information in real-time, to let you know if that Statue of Liberty image has been doctored or if that video leaked from Syria is legitimate. Science and Reason You want to of robert have a mind that’s open enough to Essay accept radical new ideas, but not so open that your brains fall out. — Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine. Even for the physicist the description in of robert plain language will be a criterion of the degree of understanding that has been reached. — Werner Karl Heisenberg. This was the pivotal insight of the Scientific Revolution: that the advancement of knowledge depends on current theories collapsing in the face of new insights and discoveries.
In this model of progress, errors do no lead us away from the truth. The Seventeenth Essay. Instead they edge us incrementally toward it. — Kathryn Schulz, Being Wrong: Adventures in way to of their media. the Margin of Error. How Science Works ( local copy ), by Goodstein, in Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Second Edition , Federal Judicial Center, 2000 - compares Francis Bacon’s Scientific Method, Karl Popper’s Falsification Theory, Thomas Kuhn’s Paradigm Shifts, and The Seventeenth, more. Steps of the social media as a way to extend of their media. scientific method (from CDC site) Name the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay problem or question Form an educated guess (hypothesis) of the cause of the problem and make predictions based upon the hypothesis Test your hypothesis by meaning, doing an experiment or study (with proper controls) Check and interpret your results Report your results to the scientific community. Baloney Detection Kit, by Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine ten questions for assessing believability. Scientific Method Man, article in Wired , Sep 2004 - discussing verifier approach to problem solution, as used by Gordon Rugg With the verifier approach, Rugg begins by asking experts to draw a mental map of their field.
From there, he stitches together many maps to The Seventeenth Amendment form an atlas of the universe of knowledge on the subject. You look for an area of overlap that doesn't contain much detail, he says. If it turns out czech uprising there's an adjoining area which everyone thinks is Amendment, someone else's territory, then that's a potential gap. His approach is built on the observation, noted as far back as the 1970s, that experts tend to cut to the chase. In their zeal to Cancer Community get to The Seventeenth Amendment an answer, they make many little mistakes. (A recent study of work published in Nature and British Medical Journal , for example, found that 11 percent of short stories, papers had serious statistical errors.) Experts unknowingly fudge logic to square data with their hypotheses. Or they develop blind spots after years of working in isolation. They lose their ability to take a broader view. Amendment. If all this is Reliability and Validity of Methods Used Evidence, true, he says, think of how much big science is The Seventeenth Amendment, based on flawed intuition. The verifier method boils down to seven steps: 1) amass knowledge of a discipline through interviews and reading; 2) determine whether critical expertise has yet to be applied in the field; 3) look for william faulkner stories bias and Amendment, mistakenly held assumptions in social media way to extend the benefits media. the research; 4) analyze jargon to uncover differing definitions of key terms; 5) check for classic mistakes using human-error tools; 6) follow the errors as they ripple through underlying assumptions; 7) suggest new avenues for research that emerge from steps one through six.
For more AFSO21 guidance/handbooks/tools/reference/etc. Essay. go to czech uprising the AF Portal and do a search for AFSO21. AFSO21 adopts 8-step problem solving model, by Todd, 14th Flying Training Wing Commander's Action Group, 10 Mar 2008 Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century, or AFSO21, has adopted a new 8-Step Problem Solving Model to achieve continuous process improvement. Amendment Essay. This model is based on budge wilson, the OODA Loop and Amendment Essay, will make it easier for Air Force members to eliminate waste in the workplace. Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century - Playbook, May 2008 - over 300 pages of tools for improvement, including the 8-step problem solving process The eight steps are expanded starting on page B-1 (pdf page 15) (1) Clarify and Validate the Problem (Observe) (2) Break Down the Problem and Identify Performance Gaps (Observe) (3) Set Improvement Targets (Orient) (4) Determine Root Causes (Orient) (5) Develop Countermeasures (Decide) (6) See Countermeasures Through (Act) (7) Confirm Results and Process (Act) USAF 8-Step Problem Solving Process template (AFD-090716-101.pdf) with expanded sub-steps and reference to additional tools. Process and Design Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is Breast Cancer, nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to The Seventeenth take away.
— Antoine de Saint-Exupry. Performance Improvement Guide (PIG), US Coast Guard ( local copy ) The PIG is an idea source of tools, processes, and models. William Faulkner Short. Organizational Performance Consultants (OPCs) and Amendment, the latest Commandant’s Performance Excellence Criteria (CPEC) Guidebook are also valuable leadership and management resources. Design: Thinking not Process, by william short stories, McCauley, Small Wars Journal , 15 Oct 2011 Senior officers capable of critical and creative thinking are needed more than ever to plan and The Seventeenth Amendment, conduct operations in strategic and operational environments that offer ever-changing uncertainties in increasingly complex conditions. Officers who have a broad body of knowledge gained through experience and extensive study and Reliability Evidence Essay, capable of identifying and evaluating potential military response options within the context of Amendment Essay, a grand strategy are necessary to achieve the william stories goals of the Amendment nation.
The development of such officers requires a shift in Cancer Community Essay their extensive focus from the operational and Essay, tactical environments to the strategic environment. This is a tremendous undertaking given that by far one spends the czech uprising majority of one‘s career at those lower levels of war and The Seventeenth Essay, promotion to senior ranks relies upon meaning excellence in The Seventeenth tactical thinking and execution. The aim of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, is to educate strategically minded officers with the ability to view military affairs in the broadest context. Resources. This essay posits that integrating design as a process within JOPP is a shortsighted attempt to legislate thinking whereas the more appropriate option would be to develop officers capable of design thinking. To develop senior officers who possess the requisite worldview, critical and creative thinking must underpin the concept of design. Senior officers must understand the Amendment role constraints play within design and how the strategic environment is affected. Two accepted approaches in design thinking, analysis/synthesis and william faulkner short stories, conjecture/analysis, could provide senior officers with the unique perspectives necessary for planning at all levels of war. In addition, the unique skills that specific personality types possess that make strategic-thinking and design thinking more inherently natural must be recognized and promoted.
Strategically minded thinkers possess the The Seventeenth Amendment ability to think critically and creatively. To think critically, one needs the ability to break concepts or objects into simpler parts and understand the relationship and organization of the czech uprising parts relative to the whole. To think creatively, one needs the ability to rearrange the components or ideas into a new whole; in other words, to produce something through imaginative skill. Although some critical and creative thinkers are naturally gifted, given enough time almost anyone can develop these necessary skills. Unfortunately, for the majority of senior military leaders, time is something that is not in The Seventeenth Essay vast supply. In fact, given the relatively short duration of and Validity Evidence Essay, time that senior officers spend operating in the strategic environment and the even shorter periods they serve in any one position, it is a natural desire to attempt to develop a checklist or shortcut that will guide these officers through the The Seventeenth Essay wicked problems rife within complex environments. The Master Planner interview in the August 2010 issue of Wired Magazine with Fred Brooks, author of The Mythical Man-Month [focused on writing computer code] and The Design of Design Great design does not come from great process; it comes from great designers. The critical thing about the design process is to identify your scarcest resource. Budge Wilson. You have to The Seventeenth Amendment make sure your whole team understands what scarce resource you're optimizing. You build a quick prototype and get it in front of users to see what they do with it.
You will always be surprised. Edwin Land, inventor of the Polaroid camera, once said that his method of design was to start with a vision of stories, what you want and then, one by one, remove the technical obstacles until you have it. . I once argued that every member of Essay, a team should be able to see the code of every other member, but it turns out that encapsulation works much better. Problem Solving The one common experience of all humanity is the social by marketers as a way to extend media. challenge of problems. — R. Buckminster Fuller. I am enthusiastic over humanity's extraordinary and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, sometimes very timely ingenuities. If you are in a shipwreck and czech uprising, all the boats are gone, a piano top buoyant enough to keep you afloat may come along and make a fortuitous life preserver.
This is not to say, though, that the best way to design a life preserver is in the form of a piano top. I think we are clinging to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay a great many piano tops in accepting yesterday's fortuitous contrivings as constituting the only means for Community Resources Essay solving a given problem. — R. Amendment. Buckminster Fuller. If I had an hour to budge wilson solve a problem and The Seventeenth, my life depended on the solution, I would spend the first 55 minutes determining the proper question to ask, for once I know the proper question, I could solve the problem in faulkner less than five minutes. Intellectuals solve problems; geniuses prevent them. We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small.
There is always an The Seventeenth Amendment, easy solution to every human problem—neat, plausible, and Breast Community, wrong. If a problem has no solution, it may not be a problem, but a fact - not to be solved, but to be coped with over time. Problem-Based Learning: Instructor Characteristics, Competencies, and Amendment Essay, Professional Development ( local copy ), by Cianciolo et al, for U.S. Army Research Institute (ARI), Research Report 1936, Jan 2011 Preparing Soldiers to learn from problem-solving experiences requires that Army instructional practices become more responsive to Reliability of Methods Used individual student need, better attuned to operational requirements, and more representative of social learning contexts. The Seventeenth. To help instructors achieve this goal, the principles for stories facilitating problem-based learning must be investigated and their implications for The Seventeenth Amendment Essay professional development explicated. In this research, the instructor characteristics and competencies required to implement problem-based learning were explored. Techniques for instructor professional development in civilian and military contexts then were examined to of robert identify best practices. Why We Can't Solve Big Problems, by Pontin, in MIT Technology Review , vol. 115, no.
6 - Nov 2012 Since Apollo 17's flight in 1972, no humans have been back to the moon, or gone anywhere beyond low Earth orbit. Amendment Essay. No one has traveled faster than the short stories crew of Apollo 10. (Since the last flight of the Essay supersonic Concorde in 2003, civilian travel has become slower.) Blithe optimism about technology's powers has evaporated, too, as big problems that people had imagined technology would solve, such as hunger, poverty, malaria, climate change, cancer, and william faulkner short, the diseases of old age, have come to seem intractably hard. It's not true that we can't solve big problems through technology; we can. We must. But all these elements must be present: political leaders and the public must care to solve a problem, our institutions must support its solution, it must really be a technological problem, and we must understand it. Storytelling as an Instructional Method: Definitions and The Seventeenth, Research Questions ( local copy ), by Andrews et al, sponsored by AFRL, published in The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning , Fall 2009 - deals with problem-based instruction, scenario-based instruction, case-based instruction, and narrative-based instruction.
AFSO21 adopts 8-step problem solving model, by Todd, 14th Flying Training Wing Commander's Action Group, 10 Mar 2008 Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century, or AFSO21, has adopted a new 8-Step Problem Solving Model to achieve continuous process improvement. This model is based on the OODA Loop and will make it easier for Air Force members to are used by marketers the benefits of their eliminate waste in the workplace. see AFSO21 section for The Seventeenth 8-step problem solving process and Breast Cancer Community Resources Essay, other tools. Process explained, narrative format, from handout at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Six steps Objective finding Fact finding Problem finding Idea finding Solution finding Acceptance finding. Traditional Six-Step Problem Solving Process Identify and The Seventeenth Essay, Select the Problem Analyze the Problem Generate Potential Solutions Select and Plan the Solution Implement the of robert Solution Evaluate the Solution. Planning Primer, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 23 pages -- includes discussion of problem-solving process ( local copy ) Planning Manual, U.S. Amendment. Army Corps of Reliability Used to Gather, Engineers, 321 pages -- includes discussion of The Seventeenth, problem-solving process ( local copy ) Six-Step Problem Solving Process, as used by of robert, Army Corps of Engineers Identifying problems and opportunities Inventorying and The Seventeenth Amendment, forecasting conditions Formulating alternative plans Evaluating alternative plans Comparing alternative plans Selecting a plan.
Techniques for Effective Decision Making, by budge wilson, Mind Tools Brainstorming - Generating Options Critical Path Analysis - Planning and Scheduling Complex Tasks Decision Trees - Powerful Quantitative Analysis of Decision Impact Force Field Analysis - Analysis of all Pressures For and The Seventeenth, Against Change PMI - A Powerful Enhancement to Pros and Cons SWOT Analysis - Analysing your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Wicked Problems Some problems are so complex that you have to be highly intelligent and well informed just to be undecided about them. — Laurence J. Peter. Battle Command: An Approach to Wickedness ( local copy ), by McHenry, School of Advanced Military Studies, May 2009 There are two broad approaches to meaning of robert addressing ill-structured problems. First, a problem-focused approach which prioritizes a robust knowledge of the environment from which the problem has emerged. Second, a solution-focused approach that emphasizes the power of proposing solutions as the vehicle to gain understanding of the The Seventeenth Essay ill-structured problem. Czech Uprising. By providing a robust explanation of The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, ill-structured problems, it can then be shown that existing Army doctrine proves adequate to address and faulkner stories, resolve complex operational problems. Command at the Edge of Chaos ( local copy ), by Schwartz, Naval War College, 28 May 2007 Traditional hierarchical military staff organizations at The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, the operational level of command remain suited for executing status quo and slowly evolving military operations focused on simple problems. However, these same hierarchies are rendered ineffective when faced with complex or wicked problems—an increasingly common occurrence.
Replacing traditional staff structures with flat, self-organizing networks at the operational level of command and war will allow commanders to efficiently synchronize vast resources and more effectively attack rapidly evolving, complex and wicked problems. The cost to the commander is a requirement to cede control to the network while retaining command thereof. This paper looks at the limitations of hierarchical organizations, the advantages of leveraging self-organizing networks in a contemporary military context, and how such networks should be created and commanded. Finally, the paper provides recommendations to operational commanders concerning when and how to to Gather Essay employ self-organizing networks within operational level staffs. How to Think : Wicked Problems, Reflections from Dr Jack, Combined Arms Center Blog, 11 Nov 2008 The term “wicked problems” was coined by Horst Rittel and The Seventeenth, Melvin Webber in 1973 to describe problems in planning that defy analytical methods for william faulkner solutions includes Rittle and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, Webber's 10 criteria for defining a wicked problem - with a brief description of each There are a number of key implications from the concept of “wicked problems.” One issue is that there must be constant framing and reframing of a wicked problem to identify the czech uprising second and third order effects of a plan or operation.
A great plan may be only treating a symptom and not the underlying causes of the problem – potentially making the The Seventeenth situation worse. Constant reframing and assessment are necessary to meaning identify this throughout planning and operations. Another issue with “wicked problems” is that there are frequently multiple problems and issues within a problem set. The tendency to identify a problem as a familiar and simple problem – looking for simple cause and effect relationship – may mask multiple problems and lead to wrong solutions. Wicked problem, entry in Amendment Essay Wikipedia - includes descriptions of several strategies to cope witih wicked problems, and Breast, includes the following list of characteristics (from Ritchey, referring to Rittel and Webber) There is no definitive formulation of The Seventeenth Essay, a wicked problem (defining wicked problems is Reliability and Validity Used to Gather, itself a wicked problem).
Wicked problems have no stopping rule. Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but better or worse. There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to The Seventeenth Essay a wicked problem. Every solution to a wicked problem is a one-shot operation; because there is no opportunity to learn by trial and error, every attempt counts significantly. Of Methods Evidence Essay. Wicked problems do not have an enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of Amendment, permissible operations that may be incorporated into meaning of robert the plan. Every wicked problem is essentially unique. Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another problem. The existence of a discrepancy representing a wicked problem can be explained in The Seventeenth Essay numerous ways. The choice of explanation determines the nature of the problem's resolution. The planner has no right to be wrong (planners are liable for the consequences of the actions they generate). Sandia research team studies best way to solve wicked problems ( local copy ), Sandia National Labs, 29 Nov 2007 Wicked problems are complex problems that change when you apply a solution.
What’s the best way to solve a wicked problem — by working in a large group sharing ideas via the intranet or as individuals? That’s the question George S. Davidson and meaning, his research team at Sandia National Laboratories attempted to resolve this summer. . The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. “We were amazed at the length and quality of the responses, both from the Breast Community people working as a group and Amendment, those working individually,” Dornburg says. “People were very engaged, often writing long, detailed responses.” She adds that what was most interesting is that the Reliability of Methods Used quality of ideas from the people responding as individuals was “significantly better across all three quality ratings.” Dornburg says the finding that individuals are more successful than groups in computer-mediated brainstorming suggests a time- and cost-saving potential for companies. The Seventeenth Amendment. Generally, when electronic group brainstorming is budge wilson, compared to Essay face-to-face brainstorming, it is touted as having the advantages of shorter meetings, increased participation by remote team members, better documentation via electronic recording, and czech uprising, cash savings. But the Sandia research suggests that people working to solve problems on Amendment, their own might involve less time and, thus less expenses, than electronic group brainstorming. While individuals working alone nominally faired better in this study, Davidson says, the Cancer Community research also indicates that group on-line brainstorming can be effective when ideas are needed from large numbers of people. Pakistan’s FATA – A Wicked Problem ( local copy ), by McMahon, U.S. Army War College, 17 Mar 2009 - explores a wicked problem through the lens of the 10 characteristics of a wicked problem (from Rittel and Webber) There is No Definitive Way to Frame a Wicked Problem. Amendment Essay. We Cannot Understand a Wicked Problem without Proposing a Solution. Wicked Problems Have No Stopping Rule. Solutions to Wicked Problems are not True-or-False, but Good-or-Bad.
There Is No Immediate and No Ultimate Test of a Solution to a Wicked Problem. Every solution to meaning of robert a Wicked Problem is Amendment Essay, a “One-Shot Operation.” Wicked Problems Do Not Have an Exhaustible Set of Definable Solutions. Every Wicked Problem is Essentially Unique. Every Wicked Problem is a Symptom of Another Problem. The Cause of a Wicked Problem can be Explained in Numerous Ways. What Are Wicked Problems? ( local copy ), from Ask the Academy at Cancer Resources, NASA Academy, 8 Feb 2006 What is a wicked problem? Conklin draws his definition from the The Seventeenth Essay work of the late urban planner Horst Rittel, who coined the term over thirty years ago: You don't understand the problem until you have developed a solution.
Wicked problems have no stopping rule. You simply run out of time or money. Solutions to wicked problems are not right or wrong. They are better, worse, good enough, or not good enough. Every wicked problem is budge wilson, essentially unique and novel. Every solution to a wicked problem is a one-shot operation. Wicked problems have no given alternative solutions. Amendment Essay. So where does that leave the czech uprising project manager?
The short answer — what Conklin calls the Holy Grail of effective collaboration — lies in creating shared understanding about the Essay problem, and shared commitment to the possible solutions. Decision Making and Analysis When you get to the fork in the road, take it. Short term thinking drives out long term strategy, every time. — Nobel Prize-winning economist Herbert Simon. See also tactical decision games contrasting intuitive and czech uprising, analytic approaches. See also combat leadership , including key historical decisions. U.S. Army War College Strategic Decision Making Paradigms: A Primer for Senior Leaders ( local copy ), by Allen and Coates and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, Woods, U.S. Army War College, 2010 Decision-making frameworks for budge wilson policy levels are important for strategic leaders to appreciate how they can best influence decisions in their external environment. Amendment Essay. This article’s purpose is to present some models or frameworks for Breast Resources Essay understanding how strategic leaders can make decisions as well as recognizing how to influence decisions that affect their organizations or institutions.
The following models presented in The Seventeenth this article are drawn from the social psychology, organizational behavior, sociology, and public administration literature. Models discussed: Rational Decision Making Model The Behavioral Model (Bounded Rationality) Bargaining Model Participative Decision Making Model Incremental Model Punctuated Equilibrium Theory Polis Model Garbage Can Model (Multiple or Three Streams Model) Strategic Decision Making Paradigms: A Primer for Senior Leaders ( local copy ), by Allen and Coates, U.S. Army War College, July 2009 'Strategic decisions entail “ill-structured,” “messy” or “wicked problems” that do not have quick, easy solutions.' How to Make a High-Stakes Decision, by of robert, Gallo, on Harvard Business Review Blog Network, 11 May 2011. 21st Century Small Unit Leaders: Developing the Ultimate Smart Power Weapon ( local copy ), by Gideons, paper at Joint Forces Staff College, Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS), 17 June 2011 Globalization and the information age have created an environment in which small unit leaders have operational and strategic importance. The demands of the Irregular Warfare require small unit leaders within the General Purpose Forces to be more culturally aware; intellectually adaptable; seasoned in their decision-making requiring fundamental changes in the way they are educated, trained, and gain experience. This paper will first address how individuals make decisions by comparing and contrasting analytical and The Seventeenth Amendment, intuitive decision-making. Second, it will address the strengths and budge wilson, weaknesses in current training and educational paradigms via an Essay, analysis of the Systems Approach to by marketers as a way to extend the benefits of their traditional media. Training. Third will be a proposal for the inclusion of new initiatives for developing small unit leader intuition and Essay, adaptability in IW.
Following this are recommendations for william short inculcating critical thinking and decision-making skills in small unit leaders by The Seventeenth Essay, adopting methods of instruction found in Outcomes Based Training and czech uprising, Education and Adaptive Leaders Methodology as well as the experiential based learning that immersive training environments provide. Maria Konnikova - The Scientific Method of the Mind - an The Seventeenth Essay, RSA video Maria Konnikova reveals how Sherlock Holmes can teach us to optimise not only our own everyday existence, but our broader contributions to society and the lives of those around us. TED.com videos - most are 6-15 minutes Dan Gilbert: Why we make bad decisions - a TED talk (you may need to and Validity Evidence Essay watch it on Essay, YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Dan Gilbert presents research and Community Resources, data from his exploration of happiness -- sharing some surprising tests and experiments that you can also try on yourself. Watch through to the end for a sparkling QA with some familiar TED faces. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on Amendment Essay, YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and meaning, finds a surprising link among the successful ones: they were built through trial and error. In this sparkling talk from Essay, TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and Reliability and Validity of Methods Used to Gather Evidence, start making better mistakes. Margaret Heffernan: Dare to Amendment disagree - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most people instinctively avoid conflict, but as Margaret Heffernan shows us, good disagreement is william faulkner stories, central to progress. She illustrates (sometimes counterintuitively) how the best partners aren’t echo chambers -- and how great research teams, relationships and businesses allow people to deeply disagree.
The former CEO of Amendment, five businesses, Margaret Heffernan explores the all-too-human thought patterns -- like conflict avoidance and selective blindness -- that lead managers and organizations astray. Sheena Iyengar on the art of choosing - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Sheena Iyengar studies how we make choices -- and meaning of robert, how we feel about the choices we make. At TEDGlobal, she talks about both trivial choices (Coke v. Pepsi) and profound ones, and shares her groundbreaking research that has uncovered some surprising attitudes about Amendment Essay, our decisions. Kathryn Schulz: On being wrong - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most of us will do anything to budge wilson avoid being wrong. But what if we're wrong about that? Wrongologist Kathryn Schulz makes a compelling case for Amendment not just admitting but embracing our fallibility. Malcolm Gladwell on What we can learn from spaghetti sauce - a TED talk (you may need to czech uprising watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Tipping Point author Malcolm Gladwell gets inside the food industry's pursuit of the The Seventeenth Essay perfect spaghetti sauce -- and faulkner, makes a larger argument about the nature of choice and Amendment Essay, happiness. Noreena Hertz: How to use experts - and when not to - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on Breast Community Resources, YouTube if TED videos are blocked) We make important decisions every day -- and we often rely on experts to help us decide. Amendment Essay. But, says economist Noreena Hertz, relying too much on experts can be limiting and even dangerous.
She calls for us to start democratizing expertise -- to listen not only to surgeons and budge wilson, CEOs, but also to shop staff. Barry Schwartz on The Seventeenth Amendment, the paradox of choice - a TED talk (you may need to social media way to traditional watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Psychologist Barry Schwartz takes aim at a central tenet of western societies: freedom of choice. In Schwartz's estimation, choice has made us not freer but more paralyzed, not happier but more dissatisfied. Barry Schwartz: Using our practical wisdom - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on The Seventeenth, YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In an intimate talk, Barry Schwartz dives into the question How do we do the right thing? With help from collaborator Kenneth Sharpe, he shares stories that illustrate the difference between following the rules and truly choosing wisely. Eric Berlow: How complexity leads to simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution. Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an overwhelming infographic on U.S. strategy in Afghanistan to a few elementary points. George Whitesides: Toward a science of simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to budge wilson watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Simplicity: We know it when we see it -- but what is it, exactly?
In this funny, philosophical talk, George Whitesides chisels out an answer. James Geary, metaphorically speaking - a TED talk (you may need to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Aphorism enthusiast and meaning, author James Geary waxes on a fascinating fixture of human language: the metaphor. Friend of scribes from Aristotle to Elvis, metaphor can subtly influence the decisions we make, Geary says. Dan Ariely asks, Are we in control of our own decisions? - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Behavioral economist Dan Ariely, the author of Predictably Irrational, uses classic visual illusions and his own counterintuitive (and sometimes shocking) research findings to Amendment Essay show how we're not as rational as we think when we make decisions. Dan Ariely: Beware conflicts of interest - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this short talk, psychologist Dan Ariely tells two personal stories that explore scientific conflict of interest: How the pursuit of knowledge and czech uprising, insight can be affected, consciously or not, by shortsighted personal goals.
When we're thinking about the big questions, he reminds us, let's be aware of our all-too-human brains. Renata Saleci video on The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, (the tyranny of) Choice In this RSAnimate, Professor Renata Salecl explores the budge wilson paralysing anxiety and dissatisfaction surrounding limitless choice. Does the freedom to be the architects of our own lives actually hinder rather than help us? Does our preoccupation with choosing and consuming actually obstruct social change? Jonah Lehrer - The Decisive Moment, video of Essay, 30 min. lecture, plus 15 minutes QA, given at the RSA Jonah Lehrer draws on the latest tools of neuroscience to ask, how does the mind make decisions? And how can we make those decisions better?
Improving Analysis: Dealing with Information Processing Errors ( local copy ), by Rodgers, Warfighter Interface Division, Cognitive Systems Branch, AFRL, Nov 2006 Although humans restrict information in a variety of ways, the focus here is on three specific forms that affect human information processing: (a) the of Methods Essay tendency to see patterns where none exist, (b) the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay tendency to meaning of robert seek confirmatory evidence, and (c) the use of preconceived biases. Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman presented three heuristics, i.e., factors or conditions that humans use to aid decisionmaking: representativeness, availability, and anchoring. The Seventeenth Essay. They serve to simplify decisionmaking, making it more efficient; but use of these heuristics also can result in inaccurate decisions. Analysis Paralysis: A Case of Terminological Inexactitude ( local copy ), by faulkner short, Roberts, Defense ATL , Jan-Feb 2010 In the remainder of this article, I will examine three problematic conditions that are often attributed to analysis paralysis. These are depicted in the figure on the right as overlapping circles, symbolic of the fact that one condition can feed off of another. The Seventeenth. In the spirit of social as a extend traditional, Churchill, I have also concocted somewhat grandiose but descriptive labels for Amendment the three conditions: Analysis Process Paralysis, Risk Uncertainty Paralysis, and faulkner short stories, Decision Precision Paralysis. Critical Thinking: Plugging (or Moving) a Hole in Our Swiss Cheese ( local copy ), by The Seventeenth Amendment, Johns, Assistant U.S. Budge Wilson. Attorney, 2009 Relying largely on the military’s design, testing and implementation, this paper proposes Critical Thinking (CT) training to augment current Recognition Primed Decisionmaking training (RPD). CT training reduces normal human decision error in Amendment Essay individual and group processes. Individual CT can reduce or, in a specific case, close a hole in the Swiss Cheese model.
In a group, CT can also move the hole out of william short, alignment. Combining CT training with Decision Support System improvements has reduced decision error in The Seventeenth Amendment Essay the military as shown by tests with active duty warfighters in battlefield simulations. From Tactical Planning to Operational Design ( local copy ), by Davison, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2008 The three military decision-making models reflect a parallel progression in the evolution of systems thinking. Initially, rational military decisionmaking supported solving well-structured problems such as those found in Breast Community a mechanistic system. Decision-making primed by recognition subsequently evolved to address problems occurring in natural settings with which the decision-maker had experience.
An intuitive decision-making process then emerged to Amendment Essay cope with those situations for which decision-makers had no previous experience. Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) Model The Recogition-Primed Decision Model: an Alternative to the MDMP for GWOT ( local copy ), by Bushey and Reliability and Validity of Methods Used to Gather Evidence Essay, Forsyth, in Amendment Essay Field Artillery , Jan-Feb 2006 The Recogition-Primed Decision Model ( local copy ), by william faulkner stories, Ross et al, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2004 Klein, S. Wolf, Laura G. Militellio, and Carolyn E.Zsambok show that skilled decisionmakers usually generate a good COA [course of action] on their first try. J.G. Johnson and M. Raab replicated this finding, extending it to show that when skilled decisionmakers abandon their initial COA in favor of a later one, the subsequent COA’s quality is significantly lower than the first one. Decision Making and the Levels of War ( local copy ), by Killion, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2000 Recognition-Primed Decision Strategies: First-Year Interim Report ( local copy ), by Klein and Crandall, ARI Research Note 90-91, 1990. Heuristics and Biases in Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by Williams, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2010 The Army values MDMP as the The Seventeenth sanctioned approach for solving problems and making decisions.
This stolid template is comforting; we are familiar with it. However, what do we do when our enemy does not conform to our assumptions embedded in the process? We discovered early in Cancer Essay Iraq that our opponents fought differently than we expected. Fortunately, some have come to see the shortcomings of the classical MDMP process. It is illsuited for the analysis of problems exhibiting high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. The Seventeenth Amendment. The Army’s nascent answer, called “Design,” looks promising. As outlined in the new version of FM 5-0, Operations Process, Chapter 3, Design is defined as “a methodology for applying critical and creative thinking to understand, visualize, and describe complex, ill-structured problems and czech uprising, develop approaches to solve them.” Instead of a universal process to solve all types of problems (MDMP), the Design approach acknowledges that military commanders must first appreciate the situation and recognize that any solution will be unique. With Design, the most important task is The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, framing a problem and then reframing it when conditions change. Of Robert. In this article, we will survey three important heuristics to military decision making: availability, representativeness, and anchoring. When combining hindsight bias and retrievability biases, we potentially fail to Essay guard against an event popularized euphemistically as a black swan . Instead of the budge wilson usual striving toward a “best practices” methodology, which is also full of potential heuristic biases, reflective practice calls for The Seventeenth Essay “valuing the processes that challenge assimilative knowledge (i.e. Social Of Their Media.. continuous truth seeking) and by embracing the inevitable conflict associated with truth seeking.”
Battle-Wise: Gaining Advantage in Networked Warfare ( local copy ), by Gompert et al, Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, Jan 2005 Battle-Wise: Seeking Time-Information Superiority in Networked Warfare ( local copy ), by Gompert et al, Center for Amendment Essay Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, July 2006 Chapter One - From Firepower to Information Power to Brainpower Chapter Two - Cognitive Demands of Networked Warfare Chapter Four - Defeating Networked Adversaries Chapter Five - Integrating Intuition and meaning, Reasoning in Essay Action Chapter Six - From Networking Power to Cognitive Power. Net Assessment: A Practical Guide, by Bracken, in Parameters , Spring 2006 Net assessment is one of the principal frameworks for analyzing the national security strategy of the United States. It has been used by the Department of Defense for czech uprising many years. Understanding net assessment—what it is and what it can do—is important for The Seventeenth Amendment two reasons. First, it has general application to budge wilson many military issues.
Military planners always need to be on the lookout for approaches that can help them do their jobs better. Net assessment should be in that tool kit. Shaping the The Seventeenth Amendment Next One Hundred Years: New Methods for Quantitative, Long-Term Policy Analysis, by faulkner stories, Lempert, Popper, and Bankes; RAND report, 2003 A sophisticated reader ought to view with great skepticism the prospect of answering questions about the long-term future. The checkered history of Amendment Essay, predicting the future — from the famous declarations that humans would never fly to the Limits to Growth study to stories claims about the “New Economy” — has dissuaded policymakers from The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, considering the effects of their decisions more than a few months or years ahead. However, today’s choices will significantly influence the course of the twenty-first century. Of Robert. New analytic methods, enabled by modern computers, may transform our ability to reason systematically about the long term. The Seventeenth Amendment. This report reviews traditional methods of grappling with the morrow, from narratives to scenario analysis, which fail to address the multiplicity of plausible long-term futures. The authors demonstrate a quantitative approach to long-term policy analysis (LTPA). Robust decision methods enable decisionmakers to examine a vast range of plausible futures and design near-term, often adaptive, strategies to be robust across them. Of Robert. Reframing the question “What will the long-term future bring?” as “How can we choose actions today that will be consistent with our long-term interests?” these methods provide powerful analytic support to humans’ innate capacity for “what-if-ing.” Theory of Amendment, Effectiveness Measurement ( local copy ), by Bullock, AFIT dissertation, Sep 2006 Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of stories, deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy.
Currently, however, there is no formal foundation for formulating effectiveness measures. This research presents a new framework for The Seventeenth Amendment Essay effectiveness measurement from both a theoretical and faulkner short, practical view. The Seventeenth Essay. . Finally, the pragmatic nature of the budge wilson approach is illustrated by The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, measuring the effectiveness of a notional, security force response strategy in a scenario involving a terrorist attack on a United States Air Force base. Cultural Differences Cultural Factors in Complex Decision Making, by Strohschneider, in Online Readings in Psychology and Culture , Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA, 2002 Decision Making in Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures, by Gss, in Online Readings in Psychology and Culture , Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA, 2002. Custer in Cyberspace ( local copy ), by Gompert and Kugler, Defense Horizons number 51, Feb 2006 One of the consequences of the by marketers way to the benefits of their media. network revolution and corresponding distribution of authority is that many more persons up and down the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay ranks will be making combat decisions than compared to the days of centralized command and control. Power is migrating from Breast Cancer Community Resources, headquarters “to the Essay edge.” Therefore, it is essential to foster battle-wisdom not just for senior officers but also for the junior officers and noncommissioned officers leading units in the field. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking . New York: Little, Brown, 2005 Book review of media way to traditional, Gladwell's Blink ( local copy ), by Norton, in Amendment Naval War College Review , Winter 2006. Future Warfare and the Decline of Human Decisionmaking, by czech uprising, Adams, in Parameters , Winter 2001 In short, the military systems (including weapons) now on the horizon will be too fast, too small, too numerous, and will create an environment too complex for humans to direct.
Furthermore, the proliferation of information-based systems will produce a data overload that will make it difficult or impossible for humans to directly intervene in decisionmaking. Amendment Essay. This is not a consideration for the remote science-fiction future. Weapons and other military systems already under development will function at increasingly higher levels of complexity and responsibility--and increasingly without meaningful human intervention. Extending Naturalistic Decision Making to Complex Organizations: A Dynamic Model of Situated Cognition, by Shattuck and Miller, Naval Postgraduate School, 2006 Naturalistic decision making (NDM) has become established as a methodological and theoretical perspective. It describes how practitioners actually make decisions in complex domains. However, NDM theories tend to of Methods Evidence Essay focus on the human agents in The Seventeenth Amendment Essay the system. We extend the NDM perspective to include the technological agents in complex systems and introduce the dynamic model of czech uprising, situated cognition. A Literature Review of Analytical and Naturalistic Decision Making ( local copy ), by Zsambok, Beach, and Klein, for Naval Command, Control and The Seventeenth Essay, Ocean Surveillance Center, Dec 1992 - examines many decision models/strategies.
Experts, expertise, and experience ( local copy ), course module from NOAA What do experts do so well that others don't? Recognize patterns Detect anomalies Keep the big picture (situation awareness) Understand the way things work Observe opportunities, able to improvise Relate past, present, and future events Pick up on stories, very subtle differences Address their own limitations What is an expert? Novice - Lives in the moment. Can’t recognize complex relationships. The Seventeenth Essay. Produces limited options. Routine Expert - Great at everyday stuff, strong procedural knowledge. Runs into trouble when problems are ill-structured or novel. Adaptive Expert - Has a deep comprehension of conceptual structure of the problem domain. 25 hours of well done simulations can achieve the same effect as 2 years of experience (or much more) NASA's ASK Talks with Dr. Meaning Of Robert. Gary Klein - use of storytelling, even internally, to improve decision making and problem solving and development/use of expertise.
Military Decisionmaking Process (MDMP) Implications of Modern Decision Science for Military Decision-Support Systems, by Amendment Essay, Davis, Kulick, and Egner, RAND, 2005 Military Decision-Making Process (MDMP) ( local copy ), chapter 5 of FM 101-5 Staff Organization and Operations Is It Time to Abandon the Military Decisionmaking Process ( local copy ), by McLamb, in Military Review , Mar-Apr 2002 US Army Decisionmaking: Past, Present, and Future ( local copy ), by Breast Cancer Community Resources, Paparone, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2001 How Critical Thinking Shapes the Essay Military Decision Making Process ( local copy ), by Usry, Naval War College, 2004 A lack of Combatant Commander (COCOM) critical thinking in of robert the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) is a causal factor in Amendment Essay military failure at czech uprising, the operational level. However, critical thinking can improve the MDMP of the COCOM. Amendment Essay. This paper analyzes the effects of faulkner, critical thinking on Amendment, the combatant commander’s decision making process by: defining critical thinking; illustrating its impact on intuitive and budge wilson, analytical decisions; demonstrating barriers to critical thinking and proposing practical ways to use critical thinking in the MDMP. The Seventeenth Essay. Descriptive Models of william short stories, Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by Amendment Essay, Klein et al, ARI Research Note 90-93, 1990. Combined Forces Command-Afghanistan Management Decision Model ( local copy ), DoD IG, July 2005 Considering the request for assistance and the proposed application of the MDM, the DoD IG Team created a “universal” model that can be used to assess the capability and budge wilson, capacity of Essay, any organization founded on democratic principles and the “Rule of Law.” For the purposes of this model, the definition of “organization” includes the full spectrum of organizational structures—from a nation-state to any type of Community, government-, military-, or business-related entity.
Consequently, the DoD IG Team built the attached model and identified the high-level elements common to most organizations that should be considered to establish a viable, stable, and selfsustaining institution. This document, therefore, includes the Management Decision Model, instructions on how to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay use the model, and a comprehensive description of the various elements embedded in the model’s architecture. Applying Dialectic to Acquisition Strategy ( local copy ), by Peeler, in Acquisition Review Quarterly , Spring 1997 - includes discussion of Kant's Hierarchy of Reason Hegel's Dialectic Karl Popper Simultaneous Antitheses. General Robert E. Lee and Modern Decision Theory, by Gilster, in AU Review , Mar-Apr 1972, including discussion of of robert, battle of The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, Chancellorsville, and brief discussion of budge wilson, Lanchester Equations Bayes’ Theorem Von Neumann-Morgenstern Utility Theorem. Decision Sciences Institute (DSI), multidisciplinary international association dedicated to advancing knowledge and improving instruction in all business and related disciplines. Are You a Good Decision Maker? ( local copy ), from SBA -- includes Ten Steps to Amendment Wise Decision-Making and Common Decision-Making Mistakes The Human Side of Decision Making ( local copy ), from FAA -- brief examination of the human traits that interfere with decision-making.
Ladder of Inference ( local copy ), from NIH - a model that describes an individual's mental process of observing situations, drawing conclusions and taking action War in social by marketers of their media. the Pits: Marine-Futures Traders Wargame ( local copy ), NDU Strategic Forum 61, by West Marine generals and colonels vs futures traders in decisionmaking wargame The traders' OODA loop, executed at much higher speed, is ISAA: Information, Sort by Priority, Act, Assess Virtual Stress ( local copy ), in Marines Online , senior Marines vs futures traders in decision making wargame. The Collapse of The Seventeenth Amendment, Decisionmaking and Used to Gather Evidence, Organizational Structure on Storm King Mountain ( local copy ), by Putnam, USDA Forest Service, 1995 Numerous studies show no matter how many factors are important, the human mind normally can handle only Amendment about seven factors (e.g., seven-digit telephone numbers). People are not always aware of which factors dominate their decision process. Although we say “safety first,” this doesn’t mean it’s necessarily first in czech uprising actual decisions. Also, people are seldom aware of the few factors they actually are processing so tend to be overconfident in The Seventeenth their decisionmaking ability. Studies also show that our linear thinking tends to underestimate hazards, particularly if the hazard is increasing at a logarithmic or exponential rate as can happen on the fireline.
An example would be estimating rates of czech uprising, fire spread. A computer would give the better decision in a heartbeat. People would tend to underestimate the rate of spread and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, have difficulty deciding on Cancer Community, an appropriate course of action. And so it is important to The Seventeenth Essay understand the social are used by marketers as a traditional limits of how we process information and common types of errors that can occur. Revisiting the Abilene Paradox - Is Management of The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, Agreement Still an Issue?, by Deiss - brief discussion of the mismanagement of agreement, where nobody in a group wants to do an activity, but the group does it because each member thinks all the others want to do it.
Intuition: an Imperative of Command ( local copy ), by Reliability and Validity Used to Gather Essay, Rogers, in Military Review - examines relevance of intuition to decision making in the context of warfighting on the modern battlefield. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is more appropriate for Essay the vast majority of budge wilson, typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is Essay, a desirable trait Note 18. Intuitive decisionmaking more appropriate for the vast majority of tactical/operational decisions: A 1989 study by Gary A. Essay. Klein (based on 1985 observations) estimated that decision makers in a variety of The Seventeenth Amendment, disciplines use intuitive methods 87 percent of the time and analytical methods 13 percent of the time. Evidence now suggests that this study was actually biased in favor of analysis . More recent studies estimate the breakdown at more nearly 95 percent intuitive to 5 percent analytical.
G. A. Klein, Recognition-Primed Decisions in of Methods to Gather Essay William B. Rouse (ed.), Advances in Man-Machine System Research (Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1989); G. L. Kaempf, S. Wolf, M. L. Thordsen, and Essay, G. Klein, Decision Making in the Aegis Combat Information Center (Fairborn, OH: Klein Associates, 1992); R. Pascual and S. Henderson, Evidence of budge wilson, Naturalistic Decision Making in Command and Control in C. Zsambok and G. Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making , forthcoming publication (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates); Kathleen Louise Mosier, Decision Making in the Air Transport Flight Deck: Process and Product , unpublished dissertation (Berkeley, CA: University of The Seventeenth Essay, California, 1990). Decision Making Theory ( local copy ), Naval Doctrine Publication 6, Naval Command and Control The intuitive approach is clearly more appropriate for the fluid, rapidly changing environment of combat, when time and uncertainty are critical factors. Naturalistic Decision Making ( local copy ), an attempt to understand how humans actually make decisions in czech uprising complex real-world settings, by Klein and Klinger, 4 pages, in Human Systems IAC Gateway , vol XI, nbr 3 -- article contrasts naturalistic with recognition-primed decision (RPD) model. A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by The Seventeenth, Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) - includes discussion of Eisenhower's decision regarding Operation Market Garden - see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory - Command Decisions, collection of social media are used by marketers of their traditional media., essays on Essay, the key decisions by both sides in both theaters of Reliability Used to Gather Evidence Essay, WW II. Some Commercial Tools Influence Net Modeling tools from SAIC, combining subjective with objective Definitive Software, with tools re: scenarios, risk analysis, decision-making Decisioneering software, with tools for optimizing decisions in complex situations Reason!Able, software for organizing thoughts, analyzing arguments, and building decision skills Rationale ™ , argument mapping software. Decision-Making, by Kent, in AU Review , May-June 1971 - addressing the problems and use of analysis More On Decision-Making, by Blythe, in AU Review , Jan-Feb 1972 - follow-on and The Seventeenth Essay, response to Reliability and Validity to Gather Evidence Essay above article. Gaming and Decision Theory Coevolution: Studying the The Seventeenth Dynamics of Competition, and Used Evidence, Gauss: Scenario Translation ( local copy ), by McDonald, of SAIC, at Project Albert International Workshop 5, posted by USMC Warfighting Lab - includes out-thinking, out-doing, reflexive control, OODA loop, recursive anticipation, co-adaptation, adaptive mental model, and more.
Game Theory.net, a resource for educators and students of game theory Stability Modeling and Game-Theoretic Considerations, Los Alamos National Labs ( local copy ) Decision-Theory for Crisis Management, Final Report, ARPA ( local copy ) A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Essay, Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) -- see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory. Paradox of Choice Sheena Iyengar on the art of choosing - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Sheena Iyengar studies how we make choices -- and how we feel about the choices we make. At TEDGlobal, she talks about budge wilson, both trivial choices (Coke v. Pepsi) and Essay, profound ones, and shares her groundbreaking research that has uncovered some surprising attitudes about our decisions. Barry Schwartz on the paradox of choice - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Psychologist Barry Schwartz takes aim at a central tenet of western societies: freedom of choice. In Schwartz's estimation, choice has made us not freer but more paralyzed, not happier but more dissatisfied. Renata Salecl - The Paradox of czech uprising, Choice - an RSA video Fusing sociology, psychoanalysis and philosophy, Professor Renata Salecl shows that individual choice is rarely based on a simple rational decision with a predictable outcome. Baba Shiv: Sometimes it's good to give up the driver's seat - a TED talk (you may need to The Seventeenth Amendment watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Over the years, research has shown a counterintuitive fact about human nature: That sometimes, having too much choice makes us less happy. This may even be true when it comes to medical treatment. Baba Shiv shares a fascinating study that measures why choice opens the door to doubt, and suggests that ceding control -- especially on life-or-death decisions -- may be the budge wilson best thing for us. Game Theory .net - a resource for educators and students of game theory - with online interactive materials, syllabi, etc. Courses at Sloan School of Management, available online as part of MIT OpenCourseWare Project - includes syllabi and course materials includes Game Theory for The Seventeenth Essay Managers.
Game Theory, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Risk intelligence: How to live with uncertainty, RSA video by Evans Risk intelligence expert Dylan Evans outlines a powerful form of thinking; one where the same intuition seen in the best poker players can be effectively transferred to budge wilson business, politics and everyday life. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of The Seventeenth, experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to budge wilson colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently. This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is more appropriate for the vast majority of typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is a desirable trait Improving CIA Analytic Performance: Strategic Warning ( local copy ), by Amendment Essay, Davis, occasional paper for CIA's Improving CIA Analytic Performance: Strategic Warning - includes discussion of Substantive Uncertainty and Strategic Warning and Analytic Tradecraft for Managing Substantive Uncertainty and Averting Strategic Surprise through Alternative Analysis
Expecting the Unexpected ( local copy ), by Frasqueri-Molina, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer 2011 - creating a mitigation plan to deal with unexpected risks The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from social extend of their traditional media., chaos. The Seventeenth Essay. Remain calm. Halt the entire project or just the affected work momentarily and let everyone take a break. Of Robert. Immediately gather the resolution team, which consists of the project manager and any of the people who can offer solutions; meet privately. Assess risk impact. Brainstorm solutions. Choose a solution. Obtain project sponsor approval.
Communicate the solution to the entire team, resume project, resolve risk. A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) - includes discussion of Eisenhower's decision regarding Operation Market Garden - see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory - Complex vs. Complicated Eric Berlow: Simplifying complexity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. Amendment. He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution. Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an overwhelming infographic on U.S. strategy in short Afghanistan to a few elementary points. Systemic Operational Design: Learning and Adapting in Complex Missions ( local copy ), by Essay, de Czege, Military Review , Jan-Feb 2009 Nearly all missions this century will be complex, and the kind of thinking we have called “operational art” is often now required at of robert, battalion level. Fundamentally, operational art requires balancing design and planning while remaining open to learning and adapting quickly to change. Design is Amendment Essay, not a new idea. Command has always entailed responsibility for designing operations while penetrating complexity and framing problems that planners have to budge wilson solve.
Individual ability to learn effectively, adapt rapidly and appropriately, and to solve problems has always been self-evidently valuable to commanders. Yet, collectively, a command’s overall quality of Essay, design, learning, and adaptation is what determines results. Military leaders may value individual creativity, critical thinking, continuous learning, and adaptability in their staffs and subordinate commanders, but individual traits do not necessarily add up to social media are used extend the benefits of their collective abilities needed for the best outcomes. Complicated versus complex systems. Merely complicated systems are composed of numerous parts and structures, all logically separable from their environment. The Seventeenth Amendment. An example would be the system for deploying units on czech uprising, a time table for an operation like D-day. Such a schedule could be accurately analyzed in The Seventeenth the abstract. Complex systems are made up of dynamic, interactive, and adaptive elements that cannot be separated from interaction with their environments.
The significant elements of complex systems are human beings and their relationships. An example would be the action-reaction interplay of the various actors in cooperation and contention on D-day. Analysis could never predict the relationships that were the most important part of the flow of events. Where merely complicated systems require mostly deduction and analysis (formal logic of breaking into parts), complexity requires inductive and abductive reasoning for Reliability of Methods Used to Gather Evidence diagnostics and synthesis (the informal logic of making new wholes of parts). Because the elements of complex systems we care most about are human ones, making sense of relationships requires hypothetical synthesis in the form of maps or narratives. Amendment. Such maps and narratives evolve as informal products that reflect a dimly perceived truth at a moment of understanding in Breast Community time. To make the best sense of human relationships, interactions, trends, and propensities, military commands have to adopt a habitually skeptical approach to such non-deductive conclusions. Such habituation implies a new intellectual culture that balances design and planning while evincing an appreciation for Amendment Essay the dynamic flow of human factors and a bias toward perpetual learning and adapting. Adding to the Toolkit: Three Conceptual Tradeoffs ( local copy ), by Austin, SAMS paper, AY10 This monograph shows how understanding three conceptual tradeoffs of complex versus complicated, complexity at large-scale versus fine-scale, and exploration of potential problems versus exploitation of known solutions can help the meaning of robert military practitioner better learn, anticipate and Essay, adapt to difficult problems.
It does so by defining the three conceptual tradeoffs and then applying them to Operation Iraqi Freedom for the United States in czech uprising 2003 and the Israeli incursion into Southern Lebanon by the Israeli Defense Forces in 2006. The Seventeenth. These difficult operations involved conventional, guerilla, counterinsurgency and irregular operations that provide two relevant examples to help the military practitioner better prepare for 21st century operations. Being a complicated or complex problem does not imply that one is easier or harder to manage than the other. Cancer Resources. They are just different. Essay. Complicated problems are problems that can be reduced and then reassembled into a whole based solely on their parts. They are understandable, controllable and more predictable than complex problems. Organizations do best with complicated problems when they focus on internal efficiency and optimization. Complex problems are not as predictable due to meaning interdependencies and feedback. Organizations that learn, evolve, and adapt with distributed command and control manage them best. The Seventeenth. Although the czech uprising ends may be the same, the ways and means to solve complex versus complicated problems are different. To help understand how organizations orient towards complex problems, the scientist William Ross Ashby created a useful concept called the Law of Requisite Variety.
It states that a problem can only Amendment be controlled if the variety of the budge wilson controller matches the variety of the situation to Amendment be controlled. Put another way, the czech uprising complexity of a task must be matched by the complexity of a system trying to perform the The Seventeenth task effectively. Much as hierarchically controlled organizations are able to focus on efficiency and optimization, the more distributed the command and control of an organization, the less efficient it becomes, despite its potential ability to budge wilson manage more complexity. Hierarchical and distributed command and control systems therefore involve important tradeoffs, each bringing its own unique strengths and weaknesses. TED videos Eric Berlow: Simplifying complexity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to Amendment Essay a better, simpler solution.
Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an overwhelming infographic on U.S. strategy in Afghanistan to a few elementary points. George Whitesides: Toward a science of simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Simplicity: We know it when we see it -- but what is it, exactly? In this funny, philosophical talk, George Whitesides chisels out an answer. Of Robert. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to Essay watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the successful ones: they were built through trial and error. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to meaning embrace our randomness and Amendment, start making better mistakes.
The Decision-Making Process for Complex Situations in a Complex Environment, by Benner and Benner, First chapter in Burstein, F. and Holsapple, C.W. (Eds). Handbook on Decision Support Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag (2008) While all decisions are a guess about the future, as complexity builds upon complexity decision-makers must increasingly rely on their intuition and judgment. This chapter explores the decision-making process for complex situations in a complex environment (complex adaptive messes) in terms of: laying the groundwork for decision-making, understanding and exploring complex situations, discussing human additive factors, preparing for the decision process and mechanisms for influencing complex situations. Laying the groundwork introduces the concepts of emergence, the butterfly effect, the tipping point, feedback loops and power laws. Social Media As A Traditional Media.. Mechanisms for influencing complex situations include structural adaptation, boundary management, absorption, optimum complexity, simplification, sense and respond, amplification, and seeding. The authors forward that decision-makers may be able to construct a strategy that guides problem resolution through a sequence of decisions and actions leading toward an The Seventeenth Amendment, acceptable solution. Leading Complex Projects in the DoD ( local copy ), by Meier, in budge wilson Defense AT L , May-June 2013 [AT L = Acquisition, Technology Logistics] There is a quote from Albert Einstein that is very relevant to complex projects: “Any intelligent fool can make things bigger and more complex. . It takes a touch of genius—and a lot of courage—to move in the opposite direction.” In many cases, it is organizations, agencies, and The Seventeenth Amendment, senior committees that make projects bigger and budge wilson, more complex than they need to be. My hope is that this article will provide leaders of complex projects with the The Seventeenth data and the courage to reduce complexity and deliver complex projects within scope, cost, and meaning, schedule. Leadership and Systems Thinking ( local copy ), by Essay, Reed, in Defense AT L , May-June 2006 [AT L = Acquisition, Technology Logistics] The Department of Defense is meaning of robert, a large and complex social system with many interrelated parts. As with any system of Amendment, this type, when changes are made to one part, many others are affected in budge wilson a cascading and often unpredictable manner.
Thus, organizational decisions are fraught with second- and third-order effects that result in unintended consequences. “Fire and forget” approaches are rarely sufficient and The Seventeenth Amendment, are sometimes downright harmful. Peter Senge submits, in The Fifth Discipline , that systems thinking provides just the Community type of The Seventeenth, discipline and toolset needed to encourage the seeing of “interrelationships rather than things, for william short seeing patterns of change rather than static ‘snapshots.’” Senge argues that this shift of mind is necessary to The Seventeenth Essay deal with the complexities of dynamic social systems. Peirce, Pragmatism, and The Right Way of media as a way to extend of their, Thinking ( local copy ), by Campbell, Sandia National Labs, Aug 2011 Peirce is known as the founder of the philosophy of pragmatism and these lectures, given near the end of his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Peirce’s decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is among the important points in the lectures. Adaptive Peircean Decision Aid Project Summary Assessments ( local copy ), by Senglaub, Sandia National Laboratories, Dec 2006 Abstract - This effort's objective was to Essay identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain.
The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to budge wilson support hypothesis generation, Mill’s canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment / domain to assess predictions from the The Seventeenth reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of media are used by marketers way to extend the benefits media., its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and Amendment, demonstration of and Validity Used to Gather Evidence, utility provided for a number of ancillary queries. Figure 1 [on PDF page 5] shows a decision making paradigm The reasoning engine is based on C.S. Peirce’s model of scientific inquiry. This philosophical construct provides the foundation for how we as humans reason about situations new to us. This model consists of three reasoning capabilities; Abduction, deduction and induction. A crude way of looking at this suite of logic is abduction provides plausible hypotheses to explain an Amendment, observation, deduction provides a basis for selecting from that set of hypotheses, and induction is the means to validate the hypothesis selected. Bringing Intelligence About: Practitioners Reflect on Best Practices ( local copy ), ed. by Swenson, Joint Military Intelligence College, 2003 Reasoning: The ability to reason is social media as a way to of their media., what permits humans to process information and formulate explanations, to The Seventeenth Amendment assign meaning to observed phenomena.
It is by reasoning that analysts transform information into intelligence, in faulkner short stories these three ways: 1. Induction: Inductive reasoning combines separate fragments of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. For example, using induction, a child learns to associate the color red with heat and heat with pain, and then to generalize these associations to new situations. Rigorous induction depends upon demonstrating the validity of causal relationships between observed phenomena, not merely associating them with each other. 2. Deduction: Deductive reasoning applies general rules to specific problems to Amendment Essay arrive at conclusions. Analysts begin with a set of rules and use them as a basis for interpreting information. For example, an analyst who follows the nuclear weapons program of a country might notice that a characteristic series of events preceded the last nuclear weapons test. Upon seeing evidence that those same events are occurring again, the czech uprising analyst might deduce that a second nuclear test is imminent. However, this conclusion would be made cautiously, since deduction works best in closed systems such as mathematics, making it of limited use in forecasting human behavior. 3. Abduction: Abductive reasoning describes the thought process that accompanies “insight” or intuition. When the The Seventeenth Essay information does not match that expected, the analyst asks “why?,” thereby generating novel hypotheses to are used by marketers way to the benefits traditional media. explain given evidence that does not readily suggest a familiar explanation.
For example, given two shipping manifests, one showing oranges and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, lemons being shipped from Venezuela to Florida, and media the benefits media., the other showing carnations being shipped from Delaware to Colombia, abductive reasoning is what enables the analyst to Amendment Essay take an analytic leap and ask, “Why is citrus fruit being sent to the worldwide capital of Evidence Essay, citrus farming, while carnations are being sent to the world’s primary exporter of that product? What is really going on here?” Thus, abduction relies on the analyst’s preparation and experience to suggest possible explanations that must then be tested. Abduction generates new research questions rather than solutions. Manual of Job-Related Thinking Skills ( local copy ), Department of Amendment, Homeland Security - including deductive reasoning, reasoning with sets, inductive reasoning about real-world events, and statistical reasoning - includes quizzes throughout. Statistics and Trace Evidence: The Tyranny of Numbers ( local copy ), by Houck, in czech uprising Forensic Science Communications , FBI - discusses induction and deduction and The Seventeenth Amendment, their application in establishing evidence - see especially the section How Do We Know All Ravens Are Black? quick definitions at Reliability Used to Gather, an NIH site listing desired job skills Deductive Reasoning - Able to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers, including deciding whether an answer makes sense. Inductive Reasoning - Able to combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to Essay problems, to form general rules or conclusions. Breast Cancer. This includes coming up with a logical explanation for why seemingly unrelated events occur together.
Janusian Thinking and Acting ( local copy ), by Paparone and Crupi, in Military Review , Jan-Feb 2002 The authors maintain that the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay current U.S. approach to meaning military operations-strategic, operational, and tactical-is too linear for today's contemporary operating environment. They argue that future warfighters must move beyond linear thought and action to a realm of thinking and acting that recognizes and accepts paired yet opposite ideas and actions Instead of Amendment Essay, ruling out alternative hypotheses, Janusian thinking calls on us to embrace contradictions as naturally occurring phenomena. When we create insights for meaning thinking and Essay, acting from the Janusian framework, we achieve remarkable explanatory power over the nature of human information processing. The seats of reason? An imaging study of Reliability, deductive and inductive reasoning, by Goel et al, Dept of Psychology, York U., North York, Ontario, CA -- abstract posted by National Library of Medicine. We carried out a neuroimaging study to test the The Seventeenth Essay neurophysiological predictions made by meaning, different cognitive models of reasoning. Ten normal volunteers performed deductive and inductive reasoning tasks while their regional cerebral blood flow pattern was recorded using [15O]H2O PET imaging. Essay. In the control condition subjects semantically comprehended sets of three sentences. In the deductive reasoning condition subjects determined whether the of Methods third sentence was entailed by the first two sentences.
In the inductive reasoning condition subjects reported whether the third sentence was plausible given the first two sentences. The deduction condition resulted in The Seventeenth Amendment Essay activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 45, 47). The induction condition resulted in czech uprising activation of a large area comprised of the Essay left medial frontal gyrus, the left cingulate gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 24, 32). Induction was distinguished from deduction by the involvement of the social media by marketers way to traditional medial aspect of the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 8, 9). These results are consistent with cognitive models of reasoning that postulate different mechanisms for inductive and deductive reasoning and view deduction as a formal rule-based process. PMID: 9175134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Deductive Logic, by St. George Stock, posted by Project Gutenberg. Counterfactual Reasoning Counterfactual Reasoning: A Basic Guide for Analysts, Strategists, and Decision Makers ( local copy ), by The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, Hendrickson, The Proteus Monograph Series , Oct 2008 Counterfactual reasoning is the process of evaluating conditional claims about alternate possibilities and their consequences (i.e., “What If” statements). These alternatives can be either past possibilities (e.g., “If the meaning of robert United States had not abolished the The Seventeenth Iraqi army in 2003, then the Iraqi insurgency would have been significantly smaller in 2005”) or future possibilities (e.g., “If Iran had nuclear weapons, then it would provide this technology to Hezbollah”). Counterfactuals are essential to intelligence analysis because they are implicit in all strategic assessments.
Counterfactual claims are widespread among our national security analysts, strategists, and czech uprising, decision makers. Amendment Essay. Unfortunately, this is not widely recognized. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive model of counterfactual reasoning to which anyone may turn if they do become aware of the ubiquitous nature of counterfactuals within intelligence and national security. Instead, there are several fragmented approaches in media are used by marketers way to extend the benefits media. philosophy, logic, history, political science, and psychology. To make matters worse, none of these approaches has been applied to the unique challenges of intelligence and security. In response, this work seeks to demonstrate both the structure and The Seventeenth Amendment, the significance of counterfactual reasoning. It offers not only the first complete system of counterfactual reasoning (of which this author is aware), but the social by marketers extend traditional first one specifically designed to address the domain of intelligence analysis and national security. Furthermore, this work proposes three major claims about the place of counterfactual reasoning in analysis and strategy. Therefore, this work is The Seventeenth Essay, not only intended to serve as an education in counterfactual reasoning, but also as an social by marketers as a way to the benefits traditional, exhortation to counterfactual reasoning. First Major Proposal (The Strategic Presumption of Counterfactuals): All strategies (and analyses of them) are grounded in a series of counterfactual claims about alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them.
Second Major Proposal (The Systematic Potential of Amendment Essay, Counterfactuals): Major extant methods for budge wilson assessing alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them may be viewed as ultimately not distinct, but as aspects of a single process—counterfactual reasoning. Third Major Proposal (The Structural Priority of Counterfactuals): All assessment of Essay, alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them should ultimately be conditional (as it is in counterfactual reasoning). Thinking, Fast and Slow , by Kahneman, 2011 Book review of social by marketers as a the benefits of their traditional, Thinking, Fast and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, Slow , by extend the benefits of their traditional media., Kahneman ( local copy ), review by Babetski, in CIA Studies in Intelligence Vol. 56, No. The Seventeenth Amendment. 2 Kahneman, who won the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics for his work with Tversky on prospect theory, also highlights the best work of of robert, other researchers throughout the book.
Thinking, Fast and Slow introduces no revolutionary new material, but it is a masterpiece because of the way Kahneman weaves existing research together. System 1, or fast thinking, operates automatically and Amendment, quickly with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control. System 2, or slow thinking, allocates attention to the mental activities that demand effort, such as complex computations and conscious, reasoned choices about what to think and what to do. Kahneman focuses much of the book on the interactions of budge wilson, System 1 and System 2 and the problems inherent in those interactions. The Seventeenth Essay. Both systems are “on” when we are awake. System 1 runs automatically and effortlessly but System 2 idles, because using it requires effort and is tiring. System 1 generates impressions and feelings, which become the source of System 2’s explicit beliefs and deliberate choices. System 1, when it encounters something it cannot quickly understand and did not expect (in other words, a surprise), enlists System 2 to make sense of the anomaly. The alerted System 2 takes charge, overriding System 1’s automatic reactions. System 2 always has the last word when it chooses to assert it. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently.
This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the czech uprising world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in The Seventeenth Amendment Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Integrating Fast and Slow Cognitive Processes ( local copy ), by media as a way to extend media., Kennedy and The Seventeenth, Bugajska, for the Naval Research Laboratory, 2010 Human reactions appear to be controlled by two separate types of mental processes: one fast, automatic, and budge wilson, unconscious and the other slow, deliberate, and conscious. With the attention in the literature focused on The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, the taxonomy of the two processes, there is little discussion of how they interact. In this paper, we focus on modeling the slower process's ability to william stories inhibit the fast process. We present computational cognitive models in which different strategies allow a human to consciously inhibit an undesirable fast response. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking . New York: Little, Brown, 2005 Book review of Gladwell's Blink ( local copy ), by Norton, in Naval War College Review , Winter 2006. Intuition The intuitive mind is The Seventeenth, a sacred gift and Breast Cancer Essay, the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and The Seventeenth Essay, has forgotten the gift.
See tactical decision games on the Simuations page, contrasting intuitive and budge wilson, analytic approaches. See also - Recognition-Primed Decision Model - references in the Decision-Making section above. How We Decide ( local copy ), by Schmitt, in The Seventeenth Essay Designing TDGs: A Tactical Decision. Games Workbook , Marine Corps University, 26 Apr 1996 Not surprisingly, the william research revealed that proficient decision makers rarely make decisions by concurrent option comparison. The Seventeenth Essay. Instead they use their intuition to recognize the faulkner stories essence of a given situation and to The Seventeenth Essay tell them what appropriate action to take.
In fact, separate studies by meaning of robert, Dr. Gary Klein and others conclude that decision makers in a variety of fields use the analytical apaproach to The Seventeenth Amendment decision making less than 10 percent of the czech uprising time and employ intuitive techniques over 90 percent of the time. Custer in Cyberspace ( local copy ), by Gompert and Kugler, Defense Horizons number 51, Feb 2006 When conditions are complex and Amendment, dynamic, time is short, and critical information is available, the budge wilson key to making good decisions is to Amendment Essay blend intuition with reasoning—more specifically, reliable intuition with timely reasoning . From The Personal Relevance of Great Campaigns - by budge wilson, Bird, 22 Feb 2001, Command and General Staff Officer's Course Carl Von Clausewitz explains that events in warfare are surrounded by uncertainty, and that there are few universal truths. Because of this, leaders must sort through this “fog” to Amendment find the william short truth, often a daunting endeavor that’s permeated by chance. Essay. The commander must sift through this information and decide what pieces are relevant and require action. Clausewitz specifically refers to the capability of the mind to budge wilson discriminate information allowing quick, correct decisions. The Seventeenth. He describes this ability as coup d’oeil, “the quick recognition of a truth that the Reliability of Methods Used Evidence Essay mind would ordinarily miss or would perceive only Amendment after long study and budge wilson, reflection .” 2 Napoleon faced such a scenario in The Seventeenth Amendment the battles of Jena-Auerstadt.
With limited information, he turned an entire field army in short place to seek decisive battle with the Prussians and won the day. [ 2 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War , ed. and trans. by Michael Howard and Amendment Essay, Peter Paret, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), p. 100-102. Budge Wilson. ] Intuition: an The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, Imperative of Command ( local copy ), by meaning of robert, Rogers, in Military Review - examines relevance of intuition to decision making in The Seventeenth Amendment Essay the context of warfighting on the modern battlefield. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is faulkner stories, more appropriate for The Seventeenth Amendment the vast majority of meaning, typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and Essay, creativity is are used way to extend the benefits of their media., a desirable trait Note 18. Intuitive decisionmaking more appropriate for the vast majority of tactical/operational decisions: A 1989 study by Gary A. Klein (based on 1985 observations) estimated that decision makers in a variety of disciplines use intuitive methods 87 percent of the time and analytical methods 13 percent of the time. Evidence now suggests that this study was actually biased in The Seventeenth Amendment favor of analysis . More recent studies estimate the breakdown at more nearly 95 percent intuitive to 5 percent analytical.
G. A. Klein, Recognition-Primed Decisions in William B. Rouse (ed.), Advances in Man-Machine System Research (Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1989); G. L. William Faulkner Short Stories. Kaempf, S. Wolf, M. L. Thordsen, and G. Klein, Decision Making in the Aegis Combat Information Center (Fairborn, OH: Klein Associates, 1992); R. Pascual and S. Henderson, Evidence of Naturalistic Decision Making in The Seventeenth Command and Control in C. Zsambok and G. Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making , forthcoming publication (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates); Kathleen Louise Mosier, Decision Making in Breast Community Resources Essay the Air Transport Flight Deck: Process and Product , unpublished dissertation (Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1990). Decision Making Theory ( local copy ), Naval Doctrine Publication 6, Naval Command and Control The intuitive approach is The Seventeenth, clearly more appropriate for the fluid, rapidly changing environment of combat, when time and budge wilson, uncertainty are critical factors. War in the Pits: Marine-Futures Traders Wargame ( local copy ), NDU Strategic Forum 61, by The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, West Marine generals and colonels vs futures traders in decisionmaking wargame The traders' OODA loop, executed at much higher speed, is ISAA: Information, Sort by Priority, Act, Assess Virtual Stress ( local copy ), in czech uprising Marines Online , senior Marines vs futures traders in decision making wargame. Intuitive people worse at The Seventeenth, detecting lies, by czech uprising, Young, NewScientist.com, 18 Mar 2002 People who think of themselves as being intuitive make worse lie detectors than those who do not trust in a gut instinct, according to new research. The Seventeenth Amendment. One possible explanation is that intuitives in budge wilson fact rely on common misconceptions about how to spot a liar, he says. Situation Awareness, Situational Awareness To see, to hear, means nothing. To recognize (or not to recognize) means everything. Individual Situation Awareness ( local copy ), course module from NOAA Situation Awareness Definition (from Mica Endsley, 1988) Level 1 - Perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of space Level 2 - Comprehension of their meaning Level 3 - Projection of their status in the near future. Situation Awareness Demons: the Enemies of Situation Awareness ( local copy ), course module from NOAA Discusses the eight demons laid out by Amendment Essay, Endsley et al, in Designing for Situation Awareness Attentional Tunneling Requisite Memory Trap Workload, Anxiety, Fatigue, and Other Stressors (WAFOS) Data Overload Misplaced Salience Complexity Creep Errant Mental Models Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome. Ye Olde Brain, and media are used by marketers way to extend of their media., Its Workings The destiny of every human being is The Seventeenth Essay, decided by what goes on inside his skull when confronted with what goes on outside his skull. I know you think you understand what you thought I said but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant.
Daniel Amen - Change your brain, change your life, a TEDx talk Change your Brain, Change your Life. Revelations based on social media by marketers way to extend the benefits media., studying 63,000 brain images across 90 countries over The Seventeenth Essay 20 years. How Brain imaging can change paradigms and our understanding of and Validity of Methods Used to Gather Evidence, healthy life, no matter where we live. Steve Ramirez and Xu Liu: A mouse. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. A laser beam. Budge Wilson. A manipulated memory - a TED talk (you may need to Essay watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Can we edit the stories content of our memories? It’s a sci-fi-tinged question that Steve Ramirez and Xu Liu are asking in their lab at Amendment, MIT.
Essentially, the pair shoot a laser beam into the brain of czech uprising, a living mouse to activate and manipulate its memory. In this unexpectedly amusing talk they share not only how, but -- more importantly -- why they do this. Essay. (Filmed at TEDxBoston.) From Bench to czech uprising Bunker: How a 1960s discovery in neuroscience spawned a military project, by Bardin, in The Chronicle of Higher Education , 9 July 2012 The man has a machine strapped to his head, an array of electrodes called an The Seventeenth Amendment, electroencephalogram, or EEG, which is recording his brain activity as each image skips by. It then sends the brain-activity data wirelessly to a large computer. The computer has learned what the man's brain activity looks like when he sees one of the czech uprising visual targets, and, based on that information, it quickly reshuffles the images. When the man sorts back through the hundreds of Essay, images—most without structures, but some with—almost all the ones with buildings in them pop to the front of the pack. His brain and the computer have done good work. Reliability Used To Gather. That display was a demonstration of Essay, a new technology being developed through a collaboration between the faulkner short Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the military's research arm, and a private company called Neuromatters, which was founded by a team led by the Columbia University bioengineer Paul Sajda. The hope is The Seventeenth Essay, that, in the near future, military analysts might use the technology to czech uprising eliminate worthless images in seconds, speeding up their review of Essay, satellite images by meaning of robert, orders of magnitude. By the looks of it, it's working. Paolo Cardini: Forget multitasking, try monotasking, a talk from The Seventeenth Amendment, TED.com - if TED site is blocked, you may be able to watch it on YouTube or one of the other sites People aren’t just cooking anymore -- they’re cooking, texting, talking on the phone, watching YouTube and uploading photos of the awesome meal they just made.
Designer Paolo Cardini questions the efficiency of our multitasking world and makes the case for -- gasp -- monotasking. Amy Cuddy: Your body language shapes who you are, a talk from TED.com - if TED site is blocked, you may be able to faulkner short stories watch it on YouTube or one of the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay other sites Body language affects how others see us, but it may also change how we see ourselves. Social psychologist Amy Cuddy shows how “power posing” -- standing in a posture of Breast Community Essay, confidence, even when we don’t feel confident -- can affect testosterone and cortisol levels in the brain, and might even have an impact on our chances for success. Amy Cuddy’s research on body language reveals that we can change other people’s perceptions — and even our own body chemistry — simply by changing body positions. New TED Book: Brain Power, by Tiffany Shlain - announcement includes an overview video Discusses items such as the fact that a child's brain has 10 times as many connections as the entire internet. Iain McGilchrist: The divided brain - a Best of the Web talk featured by TED Psychiatrist Iain McGilchrist describes the real differences between the left and right halves of the human brain. It's not simply emotion on The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, the right, reason on the left, but something far more complex and interesting.
A Best of the Web talk from RSA Animate. Scott Fraser: Why eyewitnesses get it wrong, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the Breast Cancer Community Essay TED.com version won't run on your computer) Scott Fraser studies how humans remember crimes -- and Amendment, bear witness to them. In this powerful talk, which focuses on a deadly shooting at sunset, he suggests that even close-up eyewitnesses to a crime can create memories they could not have seen. Why? Because the brain abhors a vacuum. Tan Le: A headset that reads your brainwaves, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to william short watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Tan Le's astonishing new computer interface reads its user's brainwaves, making it possible to control virtual objects, and even physical electronics, with mere thoughts (and a little concentration). The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. She demos the meaning headset, and talks about The Seventeenth Essay, its far-reaching applications. Rebecca Saxe: How we read each other's minds, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on Resources Essay, your computer) Sensing the motives and feelings of others is a natural talent for humans. But how do we do it? Here, Rebecca Saxe shares fascinating lab work that uncovers how the brain thinks about other peoples' thoughts -- and The Seventeenth Essay, judges their actions.
Kwabena Boahen on a computer that works like the brain, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on of robert, YouTube if the The Seventeenth Amendment TED.com version won't run on your computer) Researcher Kwabena Boahen is looking for meaning of robert ways to mimic the brain's supercomputing powers in Amendment Essay silicon -- because the budge wilson messy, redundant processes inside our heads actually make for a small, light, superfast computer. Diane Benscoter on how cults rewire the brain, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the Essay TED.com version won't run on your computer) Diane Benscoter spent five years as a Moonie. Budge Wilson. She shares an Essay, insider's perspective on the mind of a cult member, and proposes a new way to think about czech uprising, today's most troubling conflicts and extremist movements. talks about viral memetic infections and compromised emotional immune systems Al Seckel says our brains are mis-wired, a talk from The Seventeenth, TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the czech uprising TED.com version won't run on your computer) Al Seckel, a cognitive neuroscientist, explores the The Seventeenth perceptual illusions that fool our brains. Loads of eye tricks help him prove that not only are we easily fooled, we kind of like it. Steven Pinker on language and thought, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to czech uprising watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) In an exclusive preview of Amendment, his book The Stuff of Thought, Steven Pinker looks at language and Breast Community Resources Essay, how it expresses what goes on The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, in our minds -- and how the words we choose communicate much more than we realize.
Keith Barry does brain magic, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) First, Keith Barry shows us how our brains can fool our bodies -- in of robert a trick that works via podcast too. Then he involves the The Seventeenth audience in and Validity of Methods to Gather Evidence some jaw-dropping (and even a bit dangerous) feats of brain magic. The Secret Powers of Time, video by Zimbardo Professor Philip Zimbardo reveals how our individual perspective on Amendment, time affects our work, health and well-being. Mind Reading Machine on CBS Reads Your Thoughts - (10 out of 10 at guessing what a scanned person is thinking about) – also reading/assessing “intentions” and being able to assess if you’ve been somewhere before (for example, when you were robbing the house) and neural marketing – and Breast Cancer Essay, brain patterns indicating various emotions. Science Nation - Mind Reading Computer System May Help People with Locked-in Syndrome Imagine living a life in which you are completely aware of the world around you but you're prevented from engaging in it because you are completely paralyzed.
Even speaking is impossible. For an The Seventeenth, estimated 50,000 Americans this is a harsh reality. It's called locked-in syndrome, a condition in which people with normal cognitive brain activity suffer severe paralysis, often from injuries or an illness such as Lou Gehrig's disease. Boston University neuroscientist Frank Guenther works with the Reliability of Methods Used to Gather Essay National Science Foundation's Center of The Seventeenth Essay, Excellence for meaning of robert Learning in Education, Science and Technology (CELEST), which is The Seventeenth Essay, made up of eight private and public institutions, mostly in the Boston area. Its purpose is to synthesize the Cancer Essay experimental modeling and technological approaches to research in order to understand how the brain learns as a whole system. In particular, Guenther's research is looking at how brain regions interact, with the hope of melding mind and machine, and ultimately making life much better for people with locked-in syndrome. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Heuer, 1999, for CIA -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking and mental processes, with examples ( PDF version ) Semiotic Fundamentals of The Seventeenth, Information Processing in Human Brain ( local copy ), by czech uprising, Perlovsky, Air Force Research Lab The paper discusses a mathematical nature of signs and symbols, and relates it to information processing and understanding, structure of the mind and brain, learning, and pattern recognition. Videos for Thinking Innovating Many videos from the following sources are scattered throughout this website.
No endorsement of ideas or opinions is implied for the Air Force or any US Government agency/organization. Essay. These are for czech uprising your personal interests and education only. TED talks - over 1,200 videos, from 3 minutes to 25 minutes, by The Seventeenth, leading thinkers and developers in many fields of study TED is social are used extend traditional, a nonprofit devoted to Ideas Worth Spreading. It started out (in 1984) as a conference bringing together people from three worlds: Technology, Entertainment, Design. Since then its scope has become ever broader. if the TED website copy of the Amendment Essay video doesn't play on your computer, cut and Reliability and Validity Used Evidence, paste the title of the talk into a search engine to find the YouTube copy or other copy which may play. The RSA (Royal Society for The Seventeenth Essay the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce) an enlightenment organisation committed to finding innovative practical solutions to today’s social challenges over 400 videos, animations, shorts, and more RSA Animate takes select speeches and adds entertaining animation effects. 99U - Insights on making ideas happen tips, articles, and videos At 99U, Behance's education arm, we focus on what happens after inspiration — researching the forces that truly push ideas to fruition.
Our profiles of proven idea makers, action-oriented tips, and annual conference are all designed to budge wilson help you transform ideas from vision to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay reality. PopTech videos We’re a global community of czech uprising, innovators, working together to expand the edge of change. Miscellaneous Thinking in Essay a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational, by Keim, in Wired online journal, Apr 2012 A series of experiments on more than 300 people from the U.S. and budge wilson, Korea found that thinking in Amendment Essay a second language reduced deep-seated, misleading biases that unduly influence how risks and benefits are perceived. The researchers believe a second language provides a useful cognitive distance from automatic processes, promoting analytical thought and meaning of robert, reducing unthinking, emotional reaction. Learning and The Seventeenth Essay, Reasoning: The True Heart of the Mind ( local copy ), by Gunning, DARPATech2005 - mention of programs to develop cognitive systems that can reason.
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example literature News Comment / Research Resources. HOW TO WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW. Will G Hopkins PhD. Department of Physiology and School of The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, Physical Education, University of Otago, Dunedin 9001, New Zealand. Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghreview.html, 1999 (2618 words) Reviewed by: Garry T Allison PhD, School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University, Shenton Park 6008, Australia; Mark Hargreaves PhD, School of Health Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood 3125, Australia. BACKGROUND . In this first section of the Reliability and Validity of Methods Used, Summary, get the reader's interest with a sentence or two explaining the need for the review.
LITERATURE . List the documents you included in the review. For example: 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript. FINDINGS . Write several sentences here to outline the main findings of the documents you reviewed. The Seventeenth Amendment. Give data and interpret magnitudes of budge wilson, effects. Use plain language and no abbreviations. CONCLUSIONS . Amendment Essay. This section of the Summary should need only a sentence or two. Try to include a conclusion of practical significance.
FURTHER RESEARCH . Indicate what you think now needs to meaning be done. The summary must consist of less than 300 words. Be as economical with words as possible, but do not compromise grammar. Reprint · Help. KEYWORDS: analysis, design, publishing, research, scientific writing. This article is written in the form of a literature review for The Seventeenth Essay the journal Sportscience. A few of the czech uprising, requirements for form and Essay, content are unique to Sportscience, but most are common to all good scientific journals. Meaning. You can therefore use this article to help you write a review for any journal. You can also use this article to structure a literature review for a thesis, but check with your supervisor for any special requirements. This article exists in slightly modified form as a template for a Sportscience review article. If you intend to submit a review to Sportscience, you should download the The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, template from the Information for Authors page at the Sportscience site.
Whether you are writing a review for Sportscience, another journal, or a thesis, you should read my guidelines on scientific writing (Hopkins, 1999a). Here are the main points from faulkner that article: Avoid technical terms. Avoid abbreviations. Use simple sentences. Avoid common errors of punctuation and grammar. The Seventeenth Essay. Use the first person (I, we) rather than the passive voice. Link your ideas into czech uprising, a sensible sequence without repetitions or discontinuities. Get feedback on your article from Amendment colleagues. In this Background section, make the topic interesting by explaining it in are used as a extend the benefits traditional media. plain language and by relating it to actual or potential practical applications.
Explain any scientific principles underlying the topic. Define and The Seventeenth, justify the scope of the review: why you are limiting it to certain sports, why you are including studies of non-athletes and non-human species, and so on. In this short section you should list how many of each kind of publication you summarized (for example, 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript), and how you found them (for example, a search of the sport-science database SportDiscus). Be specific about any database search you performed. Include the key words you used, and the ways you refined your search if necessary.
For example: A search for overtrain* produced 774 references, which reduced to 559 when we limited the budge wilson, search to intermediate or advanced levels ( not le=basic ). Further restricting the search to psych* or mood produced 75 references. We read 47 of these as full papers. Of the 41 papers cited in this review, we were able to obtain the following only in abstract form: Jones et al. (1979) and Smith and Brown (1987). Describe and The Seventeenth, justify briefly any papers or areas that you decided not to include. This section is the most important part of budge wilson, your review. Do not give a summary paper-by-paper; instead, deal with themes and draw together results from several papers for each theme. I have identified four themes for this section: assessing the quality of published work; interpreting effects; points of grammar and style; and a few remarks about tables and figures.
These themes are dealt with under subheadings. I encourage you to use such subheadings, which will make it easier for you to write the review and easier for others to read it. Quality of The Seventeenth Essay, Published Work. Look critically at any published work. And Validity Essay. The fact that something has been published does not mean the Essay, findings are automatically trustworthy. Some research designs are better than others (see Hopkins, 1998a). The most trustworthy conclusions are those reached in double-blind randomized controlled trials with a representative sample of of robert, sufficient size to detect the smallest worthwhile effects. The weakest findings are those from Amendment case studies. Social By Marketers As A Extend The Benefits Of Their Traditional Media.. In between are cross-sectional studies, which are usually plagued by the problem of interpreting cause and Essay, effect in the relationship between variables. How subjects were sampled is an important issue.
You can be confident about generalizing results to a population only if the sample was selected randomly from the population and budge wilson, there was a low proportion of refusals and dropouts (30%). Be wary of generalizing results from novice athletes to The Seventeenth Amendment elites. Something that enhances performance in young or untrained individuals may not work so well in highly trained athletes, who may have less headroom for improvement. There are big differences in the way data can be collected. At one extreme are qualitative methods, in which the researcher interviews subjects without using formal psychometric instruments (questionnaires). At the other extreme are quantitative methods, in which biological or behavioral variables are measured with instruments or techniques of known validity and Used Evidence Essay, reliability. In the middle are techniques with uncertain precision and questionnaires with open-ended responses. Qualitative assessment is time consuming, so samples are usually small in size and non-representative, which in turn limit the conclusions that can be made about effects in a population.
The conclusions may also be biased by the prejudices of the researcher-interviewer. Quantitative data collection is more objective, but for some projects it could miss important issues that would surface in an interview. A combination of qualitative methods for pilot work and quantitative methods for a larger study should therefore produce valuable conclusions, depending, of course, on the design. You will probably find that your topic has been dealt with to some extent in earlier reviews. Cite the reviews and indicate the extent to which you have based your review on them. Make sure you look at the key original papers cited in any earlier reviews, to judge for yourself whether the conclusions of the reviewers are justified.
Reviews, like original research, vary in quality. Problems with reviews include poor organization of the Essay, material and lack of of Methods Used Evidence, critical thought. Some of the better reviews attempt to The Seventeenth Amendment Essay pull together the results of many papers using the statistical technique of william faulkner, meta-analysis . Amendment Essay. The outcomes in such reviews are usually expressed as relative risk, variance explained, or effect size , terms that you will have to czech uprising understand and interpret in your review if you meet them. See my statistics pages for Amendment explanations of these concepts (Hopkins, 1999b). You cannot assess quantitative research without a good understanding of the terms effects, confidence limits of effects, and statistical significance of effects. An effect is simply an observed relationship between variables in of robert a sample of subjects. An effect is The Seventeenth Amendment, also known as an outcome. Confidence limits and statistical significance are involved in generalizing from the observed value of an effect to the true value of the effect. The true value of the effect is the Reliability of Methods Evidence Essay, average value of the effect in the whole population, or the value of the effect you would get if you sampled the whole population. The confidence limits of an effect define the likely range of the true value of the effect: in short, how big or positive and how small or negative the Essay, effect could be.
An effect is czech uprising, statistically significant if the The Seventeenth Amendment, likely range of the true value of the effect is unlikely to include the zero or null effect. Roughly speaking, statistically significant effects are unlikely to Reliability Used to Gather be zero, but such a rough interpretation is misleading: in sport and exercise science, the true value of an effect is never exactly zero. Statistical significance is Amendment Essay, notoriously difficult to understand, whereas confidence limits are at once more simple and more informative. Confidence limits are appearing more frequently in publications, but most authors still use statistical significance. As a reviewer you therefore have to come to terms with statistical significance.
Here are a few suggestions on how to cope. In most studies in our discipline, sample sizes are smaller than they ought to be. Media Are Used By Marketers Way To Extend The Benefits Media.. So if a result is statistically significant, it will probably have widely separated confidence limits. Check to make sure the observed value of the effect is substantial (whatever that means--more about that in a moment). If it is, then you can conclude safely that the true value of the effect is likely to be a substantial. If the observed effect is not substantial--a rare occurrence for a statistically significant effect, because it means the The Seventeenth, sample size was too large--you can actually conclude that the true value of the effect is likely to be trivial, even though it was statistically significant! Problems of interpretation arise when researchers get a statistically non -significant effect. If the sample size is too small--as in almost all studies in sport and william faulkner short stories, exercise science--you can get a statistically non-significant effect even when there is a substantial effect in Amendment Essay the population. Authors of small-scale studies who do not understand this point will interpret a statistically non-significant effect incorrectly as evidence for no effect. So whenever you see a result that is not statistically significant, ignore what the author concludes and look at the size of the effect in question: if the effect is nearly zero and budge wilson, the sample size is The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, reasonable, chances are there is william faulkner short, indeed no worthwhile relationship in The Seventeenth Amendment Essay the population; if the czech uprising, effect is large, there may well be a substantial relationship in the population. But in either case, a bigger sample is required to Amendment Essay be sure about czech uprising what is going on.
Sometimes the research may have been done: for example, moderate but non-significant effects in Essay several studies probably add up to a moderate real effect, if the designs are trustworthy. How big is a moderate effect anyway? And what about large effects, small effects, and trivial effects? Make sure you look closely at the effects and interpret their magnitudes, regardless of meaning, whether they are statistically significant; the Amendment, authors often don't. There are two approaches: statistical and practical.
In the faulkner, statistical approach, effects or outcomes are expressed as statistics that are independent of the units of The Seventeenth Essay, measurement of the short stories, original variables. The Seventeenth Amendment. These statistics are the same ones referred to in the previous subsection: relative risk, variance explained, and effect size. Statisticians have come up with rules of thumb for deciding whether the magnitude of the effect is to be considered trivial, small, moderate, or large. Czech Uprising. For example, Cohen (1988) claims that an effect size of 0.2, a variance explained of 1% (equivalent to a correlation coefficient of 0.1), and a relative risk of 1.2 are the smallest effects worth detecting. I have extended Cohen's scale to effects of any magnitude, and The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, I have made adjustments to his scale (Hopkins, 1998b).
In the practical approach, you look at the size of the effect and try to decide whether, for example, it would make any difference to an athlete's position in a competition. William Faulkner Stories. For many events, a difference in performance of 1% or even less would be considered worthwhile. This approach is the better one for The Seventeenth Amendment most studies of are used as a the benefits, athletes. Whether you use the statistical or the practical approach, you must apply it to the confidence limits as well as the Amendment Essay, observed effect. Why? Because you want to describe how big or how small the effect could be in reality, not just how big or small it was in the sample that was studied. If the czech uprising, researchers do not report confidence limits, you can calculate them from the p value. I have devised a spreadsheet for this purpose (Hopkins, 1998c). Tables and Amendment, Figures.
A table is meaning of robert, a good way to summarize the The Seventeenth Amendment, results of a large number of publications. Examples are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. Table 1: The effect of whatever on the performance of athletes in whatever sports a . male international distance runners. 2% decrease in 10-km time. Bloggs et al. (1997) female club runners. a Number footnotes as shown. Table 2: Events in the development of whatever in whatever sports a . US National Association formed. a Put any footnotes here.
You should also try to czech uprising include a graph or diagram from a paper, or draw one yourself, to liven up the appearance of the review. The Seventeenth Essay. Make sure you get copyright clearance for any verbatim copying. Hierarchical diagrams summarizing the relationships between concepts or variables can be confusing. Make them as simple as possible. For Sportscience reviews, follow the instructions in the template on meaning of robert how to create figures. The Seventeenth. See below for examples (Figures 1-4). Paste figures and tables into the document after the paragraph where you first refer to them. (In other journals tables and figures go at the end of the manuscript.)
Figure 1: Informative title for a time series a . Data are means. Bars are standard deviations (shown only for and Validity Used Groups B and C). a Use letters to label footnotes, if necessary. Figure 2: Informative title for a scattergram. Least-squares lines are shown for The Seventeenth each variable. Figure 3: Informative title for a bar graph. Data are means. Bars are standard deviations.
Figure 4: Informative title for an outcomes figure. Data are means. Bars are 95% confidence intervals. Use bullets to list the points you want to make here. You don't need an introductory sentence before the list.
Be brief. It's acceptable to have only one bullet point. Whenever possible, include practical recommendations in language accessible to athletes and of robert, their professional support crew. Complete the checklist that appears at the end of the reference list, and include it when you submit your review. Write a paragraph or two on The Seventeenth Essay the research that needs to be done, and why. You may wish to use bullets to list the items. List the people who helped you and what they did. List substantial sources of funding for the project. There is a wide variety of Reliability of Methods to Gather Essay, styles for citing and listing references. Make sure you follow the instructions for the journal you are submitting your paper to. These references are in Sportscience style:
Cohen J (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (second edition). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hopkins WG (1998a). Quantitative research design. The Seventeenth Amendment Essay. sportsci.org/resource/design/design.html : Internet Society for william faulkner Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1998). A scale of magnitude for effect statistics. sportsci.org/resource/stats/effectmag.html : Internet Society for Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1998c).
Calculating confidence limits. sportsci.org/resource/stats/generalize.html#calculate : Internet Society for Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1999). Guidelines on style for scientific writing. Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghstyle.html (4397 words) Hopkins WG (1999b). A new view of The Seventeenth Amendment Essay, statistics. sportsci.org/resource/stats : Internet Society for Sportscience. Check these before you submit your review. You have read the meaning, article on style. The Summary is no longer than 300 words (including the Amendment Essay, subheading words).
The Summary includes real data and magnitudes of faulkner stories, effects. Amendment Essay. The content of the Summary is an accurate summary of the content of the Breast, review. The content of each section is appropriate to the section. You performed a spelling check in The Seventeenth Amendment the language appropriate for the journal. Social Media As A Way To Extend The Benefits Media.. References are in the style required by the journal.