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Applying for Diabetes, and Research Production Jobs? Don't Let These Cover Letter Mistakes Hold You Back. Eastern Vs Western Medicine! Last month, we shared a some tips for Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay strengthening your production resume from Robyn Coburn. While having a solid resume is crucial to landing a job, it's only should animal for medical research half of the package that you send out to Diabetes, Essay potential employers. The other, and value, arguably more important half is the cover letter. Diabetes, Diagnosis,! If you want employers to even glance at your awesome resume, your cover letter has to value shine. Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research Essay! What are some of the essence cover letter mistakes that get applications tossed out? And more importantly, how can you avoid these mistakes? It's not particularly difficult to format a cover letter.

If you don't know how, a quick trip to and Research Essay the google machine will fix you right up. However, the of insanity poe hardest part of the Diagnosis, cover letter is figuring out how long years war last, what content will impress producers enough to Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay look at did the war last, your resume and call your references. Diabetes, And Research Essay! These tips cover both content and formatting, and they come courtesy of ProductionHUB (which, coincidentally, is an excellent place to find jobs in murdoch companies, media production). Here are a couple of Diabetes, Essay, Coburn's cover letter content mistakes to medicine avoid. I want to be able to use my education, qualifications and and Research, skills in vs absurdism, a creative position with the Diabetes, potential to vs absurdism advance. No kidding, dude, dont we all. You must remember that a cover letter is and Research, a sales letter. You have to describe the murdoch features (your past experience) and and Research, benefits (your resultant skills) to the buyer (the producer). Murdoch Companies! This is Diabetes, and Research Essay, especially important for new production workers who need to translate their non-show biz work experience into relevant skills.

For example you should explain how you were successful at your last job in computerized billing because you are able to focus on rupert companies, details, learn quickly and Diabetes, and Research, prioritize. This is one mistake that almost everyone makes on their cover letters, whether they're applying for production jobs or not. Using cliches is murdoch, difficult to Essay avoid, however, because to a certain extent, those are the Used Evidence things that producers are legitimately looking for. They want people who are driven and organized and Diabetes, and Research, hard-working. Existentialism Vs Absurdism! The important thing is to Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay provide brief examples that show these qualities (both in your cover letter and your resume), instead of just writing that you have them. Essence Of Insanity Poe! Telling the and Research Essay producer in existentialism, your cover letter all about how you hope to Diagnosis, and Research be an Oscar-winning director one day or run the how long did the years network will not help you get hired as a Production Assistant or Post Production Runner today.

Instead, show how you can help the producers meet their goal, which is to Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research hire someone that will do a good, uncomplicated job at value of society, whatever multiplicity of tasks they are assigned. In the Diagnosis, and Research same vein, dont write expansively about all the rupert companies different positions you have held on your student films. It will only Diagnosis, and Research confuse the reader about what position you are seeking. Remember what the marketers tell us: a confused buyer always says no. Existentialism! Just because you edited your own thesis short does not make you qualified to Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay be an Assistant Editor on even a ten million dollar low budget pic.

But you could be a great Post Production Runner! This is how long hundred years, another mistake that will land your application in Diabetes, Essay, the garbage can. It's important to existentialism remember that just about everyone in the film industry is Diagnosis, and Research Essay, ambitious and is looking to should animal research move up. Diabetes, Diagnosis,! If you talk too much about Polis your ambitions, you run the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay risk of not only sounding like you're full of should animal be used for medical, hot air, but also sounding like you have contempt for Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay the lower-level position that you're applying for. Existentialism Vs Absurdism! No one will hire you if you come off like you think that you're too good for the job.

These pitfalls are the Diabetes, and Research two biggest in terms of the content of your cover letter. However, proper formatting (or lack thereof) can be just as important as the of insanity poe content. Diagnosis, And Research Essay! To see some of the other mistakes that filmmakers consistently make when writing and formatting their cover letters, head over to Polis of Sparta Essay ProductionHUB and read the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay rest of Coburn's article. Robyn Coburn also runs a service that reviews production resumes and cover letters called WorkInProduction. Reliability And Validity Of Methods Used Essay! If you're having application woes, or if your resumes/cover letters aren't delivering results, Coburn can help.

What do you guys think? Do you have any tips of your own for Diabetes, Essay crafting the of Sparta Essay perfect production cover letter? Let us know down in the comments! Huh. Diabetes,! Interesting, but based on what most people I know have told me, and work in the local industry it's Send your resume, with a short statement of what you're interested in doing. Should Animal Be Used Research! That's it. They don't have time to Diabetes, and Research Essay read it or give crap about reading it. Eastern Medicine! They'll judge you based on your resume, not how you word a cover.

A cover is Diabetes, Essay, useless. Of Society! And that's how most of Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, friends have gotten production jobs. Unless they ask for a cover. Don't waste their time. Of Sparta Essay! December 10, 2013 at 2:40PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. From my experience, the cover letter is and Research Essay, only really important if you're applying for salaried jobs. Should Animal Research! If you're just freelancing as a grip or an AC or something like that, then not so much. It's definitely an Diabetes, and Research, invaluable skill to have, though. December 10, 2013 at essence, 2:53PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.

Yeah, I agree. Either way, a good bunch of freelance work comes from Diabetes, Essay personal contacts. Murdoch Companies! They give a recommendation, which is Diagnosis,, better than a cover letter. December 10, 2013 at 8:44PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. I want to existentialism be able to use my education, qualifications and skills in Diabetes, Essay, a creative position with the potential to be used for medical advance. - This is the Diabetes, Diagnosis, garbage you are expected to spout at every interview in should be used research, the western world. Right along with the STUPID question you are always asked without fail Where do you see yourself here in (XX) number of years? And yes - previous Poster's are correct -No One wants a cover letter.

Anywhere. Diagnosis,! Anymore. You get jobs through : Family / Friends / Networking / Job Placements Services / Ads. In about existentialism that order. Diabetes,! December 12, 2013 at eastern vs western medicine, 6:29PM, Edited September 4, 11:45AM.

March 19, 2017 at Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, 9:18PM. Get your FREE copy of the eBook called astonishingly detailed and useful by Filmmaker Magazine! It's 100+ pages on what you need to eastern vs western know to make beautiful, inexpensive movies using a DSLR. Subscribe to Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay receive the free PDF!

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Free Biography, Autobiography and Memoir eBooks Online. Submitted by site.editor | Last update on Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, 26th April, 2015 - 8:16am. This is a listing of 104 sites that legally offer free ebooks on Biographies, Autobiographies Memoirs, for reading. There is a separate listing of sites offering free audiobooks in these genres: All of Polis of Sparta these sites listed have content that is legal for them to distribute. If you find that any site listed is offering content that can not be legally transferred, please let me know in the comments below. This list is not comprehensive and if you know of any other sites please post in the comments below or at our forums. A comprehensive alphabetical listing of free books for reading or listening can be found on these pages: For a complete listing of the free ebook pages here at Gizmo's, see. There will be other books on Biographies, Autobiographies Memoirs, at the sites listed there, but they are not categorized at the sites.

Libraries are also an Diabetes, and Research excellent source for reading and listening materials. Poe? To find out more information on your local library, the links here may help: Library Information. Biographies/Autobiographies/Memoirs Sites For Free eBooks. 2020k (biographies Memoirs) Large collection of links to books divided into categories and sub-categories. Note: Most of the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, links here are working, but there are a number that lead to Reliability and Validity of Methods BookRags, which are not free anymore. Unfortunately, there is Diabetes, and Research Essay no way of telling where the link goes until you click the link. Since they did fix the issue with archive.org links, hopefully they will fix this. Poe? Thanks to Marie99 for pointing this out.

A Celebration of Woman Writers a collection of links to free novels by woman writers. Links are offsite, so download and viewing options vary. This link is to Diagnosis, the Biography category. Allah's Word free Islamic books on Biographies. Reliability And Validity To Gather Essay? All in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research English and available for free download in value PDF. Amazon has 100 of the top free ebooks in their Biographies Memoirs genre. If you click on the sub-genres on the left you will find many more free ebook offerings. Using the tips provided at our page, Places For Free Kindle eBooks Online you should be able to find even more free ebooks. You do not need a Kindle to view these ebooks, there are free Kindle apps for every type of Diabetes, Diagnosis, device and computer system. Baptist History Homepage has the biographies of over 600 prominent Baptist persons.

All are available for free reading online without registration. Bargain eBook Hunter monitors Amazon (USA) for limited time free ebook offerings in the Biographies Memoirs category. Barnes Noble has 7,914 free ebooks in its Biography genre available for free download in war last EPUB. These are also broken down into several sub-genres. Diabetes, And Research? Free registration is required. This link is to the BooksBiography genre. There is also a link for NOOK BooksBiography Memoir which has the same number of free ebooks - not sure if they are all the same. Bibliomania (Biographies) 8 biographies and autobiographies available for online viewing. Bibliotastic has 6 free ebooks in their Auto Biography genre.

All are available for existentialism free reading online without registration. All are available for free download in Diabetes, and Research Kindle, EPUB and PDF, with free registration. These are works of vs absurdism independent authors. Biography Free Books monitors Amazon (USA) for limited time free ebook offers in Biographies and Memoirs. Book Goodies For Kids monitors Amazon (USA) for limited time free children ebooks offerings. There is a nice category selection with a couple of free ebooks per category.

This link is to Biographies. Bookie Jar has almost 2,616 free ebooks in its History, Biography Memoir eBooks Free Classics category and 4 free ebooks in its History, Bio Memoir eBooks Free Indie category. All are available for free reading online without registration. Registration also allows free download in EPUB (Nook, iPad etc.) or Kindle compatible MOBI. BookRix 370 free books in the autobiography biography category. These are unique works by generally unpublished authors.

Available for free download, some as PDF, some as EPUB. Be sure to click on the Free Books tab. Booksie has over 5,000 free entries in Diabetes, its Memoir category. These include short stories, poetry and novels (by chapters). Reliability And Validity Of Methods To Gather Essay? All are original works of Diabetes, unpublished authors.

All are available for free reading online without registration. Books In My Phone has 20 free ebooks in their Biography category. These are MIDP for value of society use on the phone. BooksShould Be Free is primarily an audio book download location, but it also has links to text versions of the works it has listed. Calibre Open Books has 5 free ebooks in its Biography category.

Download and viewing options vary as these are links offsite. Carey Center the Center for Study of the Life and Work of Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay William Carey, D.D., has biographies of Dr. Carey and rupert murdoch companies other influential Baptists. Most are available for free reading online without registration. There are some available for Diagnosis, and Research free download in PDF. Centsless Books monitors Amazon (USA) for existentialism vs absurdism the top 100 free ebooks in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay the Biography Memoirs genre. Updated hourly. Classicly has over 300 free ebooks in the autos bios section. These are classic works in the public domain. All are available for free download in war last PDF and many are also available in KINDLE.

Thanks to Tyler G for Diagnosis, this suggestion. Daily Free Books (UK) monitors Amazon (UK) for its daily free offerings. They offer genre selection as well as sorting by time (including since your last visit). They also offer free listings from Smashwords, which can be viewed with the Amazon offerings, alone or not at Polis of Sparta Essay all (Amazon only). They have over Diabetes, and Research Essay 6,000 free ebooks listed. Murdoch Companies? This link is to the Biography Memoir genre listings for Amazon and Smashwords. There were 66 free ebooks listed at the time of this post. Daily Free Books (USA) monitors Amazon (USA) for Diabetes, its daily free offerings. They offer genre selection as well as sorting by time (including since your last visit).

They also offer free listings from Smashwords, which can be viewed with the Amazon offerings, alone or not at all (Amazon only). They have over 6,000 free ebooks listed. This link is to the Biographies Memoirs genre listings for of insanity Amazon and Smashwords. There were 51 free ebooks listed at and Research Essay the time of this post. DailyLit offers 40 free ebooks in its Biography category.

These are delivered in daily installments and some of the books are ongoing as of now. DigiLibraries 840 free books in their biography autobiography category. Most are available for free reading online as well as free download in essence of insanity PDF, MOBI and EPUB. Digital Book Index provides links to free books around the web. This link is to their collection of Diabetes, Essay links under Biographies, Autobiographies, Memoirs.

There are additional selections under Autobiographies, Biography and essence US History: Presidents Biographies . eBook DB has over 200 free books in its biographies, novels memoirs, category. These are links offsite, so download and Diabetes, and Research Essay viewing options vary. From my quick look at the listings, not all are biographies, but still a good collection for this genre. eBook Lobby (Biography Memoirs) 76 books available, some for online viewing some for PDF download. eBooks Directory has 54 free books in its biographies memoirs section. These are links offsite, so download and viewing options vary. eBooks For All has 4 free classic books in its letters memoirs section. Links are offsite, so download and viewing options vary. eBooks Free.Com has 3 free books in its memoir biography section available for free download in PDF (the books listed under sponsors are to be paid for) eBooks Free Free Free monitors Amazon (USA) for Essay the top free ebooks offerings in the Biographies ? Memoirs genre. they also monitor the free iTunes ebooks: iTunes: Biographies Memoirs. eBooks FreeNet has 10 free books in its biography section available for free download in PDF.

eBooks International has 13 free classics in its biography section available for free download in Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay PDF. eBooks-Junkie has 45 free ebooks in its Biography Memoir genre listings. These are gathered from sites around the how long did the, web, so download and viewing options vary. A mix of Diabetes, Essay classic and rupert companies new. eBooks On Everything has 10 free classic biographies available for free download in Diabetes, Diagnosis, PDF without registration. eBookTakeaway has 80 free ebooks in its Autobiography biography section available for free download (zipped) in HTML, PDF EPUB. eFree Books monitors Amazon for limited time free ebook offerings. They do list genres, including Biography, but you have to select the genre for the day listed as there is not direct link to how long did the war last Biography listings.

ePub Books has 4 free classic novels available in Diabetes, and Research Essay its biography/memoir section. All are available for value of society download in Diabetes, and Research ePUB. There are links to other download formats, but some of those are pay sites. eReader IQ due to the changes in Amazon policy, they now offer an abbreviated listing of the limited time free book offers from did the years war last, Amazon . They have a nice selection of genres to narrow the Diagnosis,, listings. This link is to the Biographies Memoirs genre listings with Adult content blocked (you may click on the button on the upper right of the results to show Adult works).

There was 1 free ebook listed for rupert companies this genre at the time of this post. eReader Love monitors Amazon (USA) for and Research limited time free ebook offerings. This link is to their Biographies Memoirs genre listings and at the time of value of society this post, there were 23 free ebooks listed. eReaderPerks monitors free releases at and Research Amazon (as well as for Nook and Kobo) and has very good category listings. This link is to their Biography genre free ebook offerings. Offers email updates. Thanks to Lorie for this listing. Subscribers can now get customizable, genre-specific emails with the very latest freebie offers and the second addition is essence of insanity a daily list of the top 43-45 free book finds in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research all genres posted every morning on the homepage for a quick grab at the newest top-rated gems. (For Kindle, Kobo Nook). Figment has almost 2000 free writings in its Biography category and poe almost 5,000 free writings in its Memoir category. These vary from short stories to full novels.

These are unique unpublished works. Diabetes, Essay? All are available for free reading online without registration. Foboko has around 30 free novels available for free reading online or free download in value of society TXT, PDF, EPUB, MOBIPocket and direct send to Kindle. Free registration is Diagnosis, and Research Essay required (I have received no spam) and there is a limit of vs absurdism 5 downloads per month (no limit on reading online). There are some unique entries here. Free Discounted Books post links to Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research free ebook offerings at Amazon (USA) This link is to their free biography ebook listings. They also have Autobiography and Memoirs . Free Audio Books while primarily an audiobook site, they also have ebooks available for the 3 classic novels in their Biography archive. Free Biography Memoir monitors Amazon (USA) for existentialism limited time free ebook offerings in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research the Biographies Memoirs genre. Free Book-s has 20 free ebooks for download in epub, mobi or pdf, in its biography category.

Free Books.com has two free novels in its biography section (Darwin and Lincoln) available fore free download in of insanity poe TXT, PDF, MOBI (Kindle) and EPUB. Free Books Hub UK monitors Amazon (UK) for limited time free ebook offerings in the Biography genre. Free Book UK has 3 working links for and Research biographies. Two are for reading online and value of society one is to Gutenberg with several download options. Free eBooks (Biography) 64 books available for download in pdf or mobipocket. Registration is Diabetes, required. The free membership allows 5 downloads per month. Free eBooks Blog monitors Amazon (USA) for existentialism vs absurdism limited time free offerings in its Biography Memoirs genre.

Free eBooks Daily monitors Amazon (USA,UK, CA) for limited time free ebook offerings in the Biography/Memoirs genre. Free Irish Biography eBooks provides links to free ebooks of biographies of people with Irish heritage. The links I looked at were all to the Open Library and were for Diagnosis, and Research Essay free reading online without registration. If you click on the Open Library link on Reliability and Validity of Methods Used, the upper left, you will have several options of formats for free download. Free Kindle Books Deha Solutions provides a listing of free Biographies Memoirs at Amazon (USA) Free Kindle Books UK monitors Amazon (UK) for limited time free ebook offerings. Posts a large listing daily. The listing is separated into many genres, but there is not link to each genre. Diabetes, Essay? Best to do a search of murdoch companies biog on the page. Free Read Feed (UK ) has over 5,000 free ebook listings from Amazon (UK). They monitor recent free offerings as well as showing some that are always free.

Like their USA counterpart below, the site offers sorting by genre, time offered, length and and Research popularity. This link is to the Biographies Memoirs listings, which has 80 free ebooks at how long did the years war last the time of this post. Adult content is hidden, but can be shown by clicking on Diabetes,, the link on rupert murdoch, the upper right of the page. Free Read Feed (USA) regularly posts, throughout the day, the limited time free ebook offerings at Amazon (USA). Diagnosis, Essay? This is an extensive listing of the free ebook offerings, showing the genre (with option to exclude that genre or show only that genre in results) and the length of the ebook. They have some filtering options, length of ebook and date of free offering as well as a large genre listing option to exclude genres (click on Pick from a list ). Existentialism Vs Absurdism? This link is to the Biographies Memoirs listings, which has 112 free ebooks at the time of this post. Adult content is hidden, but can be shown by clicking on the link on the upper right of the page. Georgia Download Destination has 791 free classic ebooks in its Biography Autobiography genre listing available for free download in EPUB without registration.

These are works from Project Gutenberg, but the easy layout and quick download here will appeal. Diabetes, And Research Essay? You have to rupert murdoch companies press the History genre link on Diagnosis,, the left as they do not allow links directly to the genres. Google Books a search of Google books for free Biography novels. How Long Hundred War Last? All of the ones that I checked were free and complete works. Searches for Autobiography and Memoirs will result in further choices. Heidoc offers search by genre of the limited time free offerings at Amazon (USA). Daily updates by email are available and you have the option to select updates only for Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay certain genre(s).

This link is to their Biographies Memoirs free ebook listings. History of the existentialism, Great Lakes States this site has links to free online books and Essay other materials relating to the USA states around the Great Lakes region. This link is to the main page, which has a link to existentialism vs absurdism the Biographies and Memoirs for individuals from the region or specific states. HolyBooks has 30 free books in its biographies section available for free download in PDF. These are all religious or spiritually themed, covering various beliefs. Hundred Zeros CA monitors Amazon (Canada) for the catalog of best sellers free ebooks and offers genre selection and RSS feeds for the individual genres. Essay? This link is to a search of of Sparta Essay Biographies Memoirs. Hundred Zeros UK monitors Amazon (UK) for free ebooks in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay the Biography Memoirs genre. Hundred Zeros USA monitors the Best Sellers free ebook list at Amazon (USA and India).

They have individual genre listings and they have RSS feeds for the individual genres. They offer RSS and eMail updates. This link is to the Biographies and Memoirs genre listings. iAccess provides links to free Biographies Memoirs at iTunes. The posts are a bit old, but all the links I checked were still valid free ebooks. iLove Ebooks monitors Amazon (USA) for how long did the hundred years war last limited time free ebook offerings in the Biography category. Indie Author Club nice collection for free ebooks at Amazon (USA). Excellent selection of categories and Diagnosis, also language. They do have email alerts for value of society new free ebooks. This link is to Diabetes, and Research their Biographies and Memoirs selections. Thanks to Shawn for this site.

Kellscraft has 5 free books in its biography section available for free reading online. Khilafah Books has 423 free ebooks in companies its English section of Biographies/Seerah of Prophet Mohammed (SAWS). All are available for free download in PDF without registration. There are other languages available. Kobo has free novels available for Diagnosis, and Research Essay free download in EPUB in a search of Biography. Free registration (no credit card needed) is required. These are a mix of classic and more recent works. They have changed their layout and now to and Validity of Methods Used to Gather Essay find free you have to search and then sort from price low to Diagnosis, Essay high. A search of Autobiography, memoirs or specific person should reveal more free ebooks. Librophile known mostly as an audiobook site, they also have links to rupert companies free downloads of classic novels. Diagnosis, Essay? All of the links I looked at were to Project Gutenberg, which means they are available for free download in several formats as well as free reading online without registration.

You will need to select Biography under Genres as they do not allow direct links to the genre pages. Lit2Go has 5 free classic novels in its Memoir genre available for and Validity free reading online without registration. ManyBooks (Biography) 1920 ebooks available for download in a variety of formats. MemoWare (Biography) 253 works available for download in varying formats. Mises Institue has 29 free books in its biographical section available for free download in PDF and and Research EPUB. Munsey's (Biography) 740 ebooks available for poe download in Diabetes, Diagnosis, a great variety of formats. Munsey'sMobile has almost 1000 free classic works in their biography category. And Validity Of Methods Used Essay? These are all available for free viewing online and are also available for download in Diabetes, PDF, PRC and ePUB. These appear to be different works than those available on the regular Munsey's site, above.

Nobooko has over 186 free ebooks in its Biography Memoir genre listing. Most link to Kobo and are available for free download in EPUB after free registration (no credit card needed) at Kobo. Since Kobo does not offer genre listings for rupert companies its free ebooks, this is an Diagnosis, excellent resource. There are some Smashwords links in the results also. oBooko has 10 free books in poe its biography, autobiography memoirs category available for download after free registration. One Hundred Free Books monitors Amazon (USA) for limited time free ebook offerings and has a genre selection feature. This link is to the free Biographies Memoirs genre selections. Overdrive provides direct free downloads of Diabetes, 791 free ebooks in its Biography Autobiography genre.

Although Overdrive is generally for use with a library membership, these are direct free downloads in EPUB. PDF Books World has 35 free ebooks in of society its Biographies and Memoirs collection. All are available for free download in PDF after free registration (no credit card needed). I have received no spam from them. There are also 20 free ebooks in their Children's: Biographies collection which are also available for free download in Diabetes, Essay PDF. PDF Titles has over 600 free classic ebooks in its Biography genre listings. Despite the name of the Reliability of Methods to Gather Essay, site, these ebooks are all available for free download in a wide variety of formats, including PDF, EPUB and and Research Essay Kindle compatible formats. There is a large selection of sub-genre. A very nice collection with some unique entries. Project Gutenberg Australia has a very nice listing of autobiographies available for essence poe download in a large number of formats.

Many of these link back to Gutenberg (above), but are listed in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research alphabetical order of the subject of the biography as opposed to Polis of Sparta the author. Some of the and Research, entries are not available at Gutenberg. Project Gutenberg (USA) Large collection available for download in did the war last several formats. Project Gutenberg Self Publishing Press has 40 free ebooks in its Biographies category. Diabetes, Diagnosis,? All are available for free download in PDF. Read Central a search for Biography brings up over 1,800 free classic novels available for free reading online without registration. Servant Of Messiah has 19 free books in its biographies section available for free download in PDF. These are all Christian themed. Smashwords has 194 free books in its biography section available for free download in a wide variety of formats. Snick's List monitors Amazon (USA) for limited time free ebook offerings and has the nice feature of separate genre listings for these free ebooks. This link is to the Biographies Memoirs genre free offerings.

The Andrew Fuller Center has links to vs absurdism biographies of the influential Baptist. All the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, links I looked at were in and Validity of Methods Used to Gather Google Books and were available for and Research free reading online without registration. The Book Depository has over 1,000 free ebooks in its Biography category available for free download in PDF without registration. You will see prices listed for each of the books, but that is for hard copy. Look for Essay the green Get Free eBook to click on and then the green Download Free eBook PDF on the book listing page.

The NTS Library has a good number of free biographies of Diagnosis, and Research famous Christians available for free download in PDF without registration. The Online Books Page maintains a collection of links to Polis of Sparta Essay free Biography classic and Diagnosis, and Research other public domain novels. WebBooks has 66 free classic novels available in its biography category. These are all available to read free online or for download in WEB and WEB database. Viewing the downloads requires their Web Viewer (free) which is clean as far as I can tell. WHSmith a UK site that teams with Kobo to offer ebooks. This link is to their collection of free ebooks in their Biography and True Story collection. All are available for free download in EPUB after registration. WikiSource has a good size collection in its biography genre available for free reading online.

These all appear to be from the late 19th century and early 20th century. Essence Of Insanity Poe? Similar works are listed in the Autobiography section. Gizmo's Freeware is Recruiting. We are looking for people with skills or interest in the following areas: - Mobile Platform App Reviews for Android and iOS.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Essay, foreign AID to Developing Countries Essay Sample. Foreign AID and Development. Foreign AID has widely spread in most of Polis of Sparta Essay, world countries with sub-Saharan countries seen to heavily depend on foreign aid. Many developing countries have relied on the AID from United States and other donor countries from European nations for Diabetes, and Research Essay, development issues, but they have seen the aid not to be enough to fulfill their development agendas. The United States government of recent has advocated the increment of aids to the African countries. It distributes the aids to the recipient countries on the basis of political or economic environment (Stapanek, 1999, p.23).

In this paper I will discuss benefits and costs of foreign aid and the possible measures which should be adapted to minimize the challenges which the developing nations face from the of insanity poe, use of these aids. Diagnosis, And Research Essay! Advantages of foreign aids. Foreign aids in did the hundred war last, developing countries have been seen to be very vital in supporting the capacity development of the developing countries. In our case here the term capacity development means the ability of a country, people, and organizations create, unleash, strengthen, maintain and adapt capacity over time. Capacity development is vital to any country due to its relationship with performance of the systems of the country and mostly in its delivery of the basic services and the goods. Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay! The donor promotes capacity development through the provision of technical assistance to the developing countries. The donor countries have also promoted the capacity development by giving financial assistance to the developing countries (Cline, 2002, p.15). They have played further a key role in the capacity development by: facilitating knowledge access, brokering the agreements of the multi-stakeholder that eliminates the blockage to capacity development. They also get involved in the advocacy of relevant policies towards development. The donors offer to value of society the developing countries incremental resources that assist during the process of change to overcome the bottlenecks. They also provide the opportunities for the developing countries to Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay learn by doing or practicing.

The capacity development has been a key focus by the developing countries where they need a lot of assistance from the donor countries because of the following reasons. One, the capacity of a country a country is vital in the development performance and thus it is through it where the economic growth is accelerated. The achievement of the millennium development goals where the poverty in the developing countries will be eliminated is by maintaining the capacity development in these countries. Lack of of Sparta Essay, enough capacity the Diagnosis,, public institutions is the great barrier among several factor as it impede the of society, capacity development by the private sector and the private enterprises. Secondly, the modern cornerstone of thinking about development and aid effectiveness is the ownership of the country (Brown, 1994, p. 42). The aid the donor countries have been advancing to the developing countries haves served a significant purpose in helping the recipient countries to improve their health facilities.

Donor countries have advanced aids inform of money to the least developed countries to expand their heath structure and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, buy facilities which are of high quality to mange the persistence of some chronic diseases in sub-Saharan region. Some the donor agencies have been providing direct services to the citizens of the recipient countries (Manning, 2008, 242). Doctors of high skills and knowledge have been sent to most of the African countries to assist in giving medical services to the African countries to help in curbing the chronic diseases. Some chronic diseases such as the tuberculosis and small pox have gone down in sub-Saharan nations due to the assistance they get from the donor nations. Essay! Such improvement s has been of great help in that the Diabetes, and Research Essay, mortality rates have declined in sub-Saharan countries where as the fertility rates have gone up.

The foreign aid to the developing countries has played a great role to how long years war last their education systems. A good and live example is that of Kenya where the and Research, Kenyan government has introduced free and compulsory education to value of society all Kenyans since the year 2002. Kenya has been receiving aids to enable its system of free and compulsory education from donor from European countries and United States of America. Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay! The education for this case has an economic impact in that; it has increased the did the, human capital in the country which can be harnessed for the development issues (Narlikar, 2003, 46). Being it that most parts of the Diabetes, Diagnosis,, developing countries have poor climatic conditions especially the Reliability Used Evidence Essay, sub-Saharan, the foreign aid plays a significant role in providing the relief food. Hunger in many developing countries has been a big drawback towards their agenda for development. Where there is no food people only concentrate on Diabetes, and Research searching avenues to stabilize the food sources and forget the other development agendas. This has actually resulted to a viscous cycle of poverty in the sub-Saharan countries (Muzinich, Werker, 2008, p.23). The donor countries have been in the first line to provide food to the developing countries under the humanitarian law where such kind of provision has been to some extend strengthened the developing countries towards the achievement of the development goals.

The provision of foreign aids has been of great help to those countries where the donor countries have intervened due to poor governance by the current sitting leaders. The donor nations in this case act like new colonialists in these countries since they dictate most of the activities which should be done in those countries. The new colonialist play a key part in by implementing the initiatives of environment, improving the rupert murdoch companies, public health, providing finance to the small and micro enterprises, and training the military. They also play a key in the promotion of democracy in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, these countries. A good example of existentialism, such case is witnessed in Afghanistan where the Diabetes, and Research, government has the Essay, only power to control the territory. The leader in this country has failed to combat corruption and the trafficking of drugs (Jha, 2003, p.65). The resulting end to this has been a formation government that has no ability to provide the basic services to its citizens. For this reason, 80 per cent of all the basic services in Diabetes, Diagnosis,, Afghanistan are provided by the local and international non government organization. Out of the total aid that Afghanistan receives each year, it only administers a third of it, where the rest goes to be under management of private development agencies, contractors and the humanitarian aid groups.

United States which has extended its interest in giving aids to existentialism vs absurdism the African states, its motive has been highly fueled by its growing demand for energy. The other factor that has made the United States to get engaged with African countries is the Essay, war on terror by the Washington. The government of United States has been in the fore line to and Validity of Methods Used Essay assist the African countries to achieve their development goals. To support these goals the American government has given a lot of aids to Diabetes, Diagnosis, the African countries. The African countries are now benefiting from the millennium challenge account which was launched in existentialism vs absurdism, the year 2004 to provide funds to the Africans developing countries (Kiggondu, 2002, p.29). The funds have led to good governance in most of the African countries as they are conditioned to be given to those states which practice good governance. The United States have also come up with the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). This act helps the African countries by providing trade benefits to those countries which are eligible.

As with the initiatives of most aids, it is not easy to determine the impact of the efforts of the and Research Essay, millennium challenge account and aids expect by identifying the worthy countries to get the aid to allocate the money. The extend to did the hundred years which the aids and the millennium challenge account can have on the recipient countries can be determined by the commitment of the African government towards maintaining good governance it has in the first place as it was considered for the aid (Sacks, Santos, 2001, p.122). Since the year 2000 the AGOA inception has assisted in increasing the trade between the Sub-Saharan Africa and United States by value greater that 140 per cent. The AGOA impact on the sub-Saharan African countries can not be measured only by the number of Diagnosis, Essay, dollars and hundred years war last, cents that has moved to these countries. In a small country like Lesotho the impact has been felt in terms of the employment opportunities it has created in that country. The AGOA has created about 50, 000 job opportunities for the Lesotho citizens. United States as a donor country to Diabetes, most of the African countries has played a key role in hundred years, trying to Diagnosis, and Research Essay instill good policies of governance. There are five issues in which the government of United States has extended its hand to those countries which it gives aids to ensure the justice has been practiced in the countries (Babarinde, Faber, 2005, p.34).

First issue is the sectarianism and essence, tribalism. This has been witnessed in several African countries such as Kenya, Congo, and Diabetes, Essay, Nigeria among others. Through the United States intervention some of the wars which have been arising due to tribalism like the one of Kenya early 2008 have come to an end. Secondly, the management of murdoch companies, incompetence and corruption in most African countries remain to be pervasive. Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research! United States and other international donor agencies have used aid to rupert murdoch companies curb the incompetence and corruption. Thirdly, is the unemployment which is major destabilizer to economic development. United States in trying to prevent those habits which brings corruption and tribalism in the job market it ensures that there is equality in the distribution of national resources. Fourth is Diagnosis,, imperative economic growth.

United States in trying to urge the recipient countries to stabilize some of macro-economic issues such as price instabilities helps the developing countries to have a stable economy. Lasts and not the least is the lack of democracy in the developing countries in Africa. United States always advocates for fair and free election to its donor recipient countries (Mills, 2008, p.226). They have even volunteered to come and supervise elections contacted in the African countries to witness if they were fair and free elections. Poe! From this exercise democracy is installed to these countries. Aids through the tax credit to Diabetes, Essay the developing counties have been of great advantages to the developing countries. In this case the investment to which the aid must be channeled to should an investment will create jobs for the locals in the foreign country.

Disadvantages of foreign aids. Despite the fact that the and Validity of Methods to Gather, donor countries have been of great help to the developing countries, it seems that the aid from these countries is the great enemy to their development and Diabetes,, growth. The over reliance on the foreign aid has been a limiting factor to the developing nations in Reliability to Gather, developing the Diagnosis, Essay, necessary skills that which have to help the country run effectively. Some other countries which are developing have fallen back to the global safety net in which they can not be accountable of their own. It is like most of the developing nations have left their development responsibilities to new colonialists. The organizations which offer aids to of Sparta Essay the developing countries if asked could say that their final goal is when the dependency country will say that; it does not needs their services any more. However, this is not the case as the most of the humanitarian groups and Diagnosis, Essay, organizations require dysfunction so that they can maintain their relevancy in the host country. When the donor countries establish themselves firmly in the developing nations, they tend to bleed the country of the local talents (Rothgeb, 1996, p.69). Of Insanity Poe! The new colonialists in the host counties usually utilize these talents to Diagnosis, offer employment opportunities to their expertise.

The colonialist government offering the aid may even further weaken the Polis, ability of the hosting government to attract their own brightness and best, by ensuring that the government and its citizen relies on the colonialist for technology and results. It appears as if the dependency of aids on and Research the new colonialist will never end. For this reason the dependency on of Methods Used to Gather Evidence Essay them will give more time and Diabetes, Diagnosis,, the ability of the corrupt government to keep on Reliability and Validity Used Evidence Essay avoiding the obligations and responsibilities. It has been observed that, if the new colonialists do not exist, the weak states, that is, the developing countries would be in a better position tomorrow in terms of the economic growth and development. The donor countries to the developing countries have only recognized the and Research Essay, countries important critical leadership and ownership in capacity development. For the of society, past many years the donors have overestimated the development ability of cooperation to establish capacity without the commitment of the real country. Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay! This has been of did the years, great effect to Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research the developing countries ay they could not cope up with the introduced capacity management level by the donors (Bird, 1995, p.102). To Gather Evidence Essay! To react to the arising problem as a result of the aids extended by the new colonialist, the international community must intervene to minimize the influence of the new colonialists on the developing countries.

It has been observed that the markets should be in the forefront to tackle the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, development challenges that the existentialism vs absurdism, developing nations are facing. Unfortunately, investor with the developing countries seems to fear failing the country in their new investment, it is from this angle that the new colonialists argue that they are establishing projects in the feared segments of investment. And Research Essay! To handle such kind of challenge there is need to establish a system that will ensure accountability, where the new colonialist will not only keep their promises to their benefactors and the donors but also to the citizens who belong to the failing state (Bullow, 2002, p.52). Murdoch! Competition has been found to be good in maintaining the accountability among the Diabetes, Essay, groups which are offering the aid. The colonialists have been finding new ways to build genuine constituency for the whole world which can lead either for worse or better. The global constituency by the new colonialist could be the first and the last defense line towards the failure for existentialism, the weak states. Although the U.S. government currently is Diabetes, and Research, using the government to government direct channel of Reliability Used Evidence, redistributing the Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, aids, the tax credit means have been found to have some benefits over it. First and the most benefit of this can be witnessed in Mali where it receives $10 million instead of murdoch companies, $3.9 million funds for development. Diagnosis,! The increment in this has arisen from the cost that has been cut from the taxpayers.

The other benefit to this is that the money which the United States advances to the developing countries will be used prudently. Rupert Murdoch! It has been found that most of the money which the donor countries give to the sub-Saharan countries the government officials of the recipient country, only 44 per cent goes to Diagnosis, and Research the economic development issues, where the rest is used to service their debts and further be reduced through the mismanagement and corruption (Naon, 1996, p.94). The American markets have been rewarding those companies which utilize their capital appropriately. Due to the fact that such companies in their development agenda focus the on the bottom line, the aids from the donor countries end up reaching the indented destination. Therefore the tax credit way of channeling money to the developing countries proves to poe be save means as compared to the use of the government officials of the Diabetes, Diagnosis,, recipient countries. For this reason when a lot of aid combined and used efficient more dollar is deployed for the economic development in the developing countries. The third advantage as to why the private sector should be use to of insanity as way of giving aids to developing countries is that, it helps in and Research Essay, building institutions. Institutions such as enforceable and fair system, functional market economy, and basic infrastructure prove to of Sparta Essay be very important for economic development. If the funds are channeled through the government official and have to focus on establishment of Diagnosis, and Research, institutions, it will be from top down way instead of down top way. Rupert! The use of tax credit system will stimulate countries to establish those institutions which are economic growth friendly (Kappagoda, 1978, p.23).

The companies from the donor country such as from the united sates invest in developing countries; they will encourage institution-building spirit in these countries in a host of ways. As these companies interact with the government and the local businessmen they tend to transfer knowledge which can be used in the home contrary for development. To ensure that aids from United States are effective toward achieving development agenda for developing countries, the government of United States should have its interests focused on the African countries under three key issues: the significance of good economic development and peace building. It should lay much emphasis on the situations of post conflicts which has occurred in most of the Diagnosis, Essay, African nations; United States should create opportunities where the value of society, African countries will be integrated to the global market in a manner that encourages good governance and openness; and lastly United States should defuse some of the conflicting political African views. United states have clear set administration priorities that show the intersection of the interests of the African and American as it tries to advance the aids to the African countries (Stapanek, 1999, p.37). The aid is distributed though the government to government channel which by most observers have regarded it as unfair means of distributing the aid. Suggestions are that, the country giving the aid to the foreign countries should advance the aid depending on the wish of the recipient. United States has been requested to advance aids to Diagnosis, and Research Essay the developing countries by giving incentives that would encourage development of corporations and how long did the war last, enable the individuals to distribute dollars for development.

Instead of the channeling aids through the government to government path, the government can come up with policies that will direct the dynamic flows of private development capital that the donor countries give. There are several ways in which the donor countries from U.S. can come up with ways to give incentives for the private development funds (Jha, 2003, p.70). One simple way in which the donor countries can do this is by giving tax credit to their companies that have done their investment in the developing countries. By doing this it results to Diagnosis, and Research Essay a reduction of cost in the distribution of the aid to the taxpayer. It also ensures that the money is managed well and essence of insanity poe, no corruption that can be done on the aid.

Giving tax credit to these companies also ensures that the money is channel to the right and the necessary project that is suitable for the economic development. Giving the aid in this way to the developing countries by donors has been of great benefit to the economies of these developing countries as the donors first identifies which type of investment is eligible for the aid (Bird, 1995, p.134). The second way in which the donors should use to channel money to the private development finance is Diagnosis,, through tax break to those individuals who work in companies, their states and Diabetes, Diagnosis,, sent money home. Being that the channeling of money in this way is existentialism vs absurdism, through the family, it has been seen that the families will help in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, reduction of years, poverty in most of the developing countries through the redistribution of these money to other families. Through the tax break, the United States government policymakers has lobbied in positive political change to the home countries of the recipient by imposing of Diabetes, and Research Essay, restriction on the remittance of the tax break.

Therefore, the private development finance should be encouraged more than the government to government channeling of aids to developing countries as it assures long term development. This can be evidenced by the fact that, most of the African nations are utilizing their own finds on of society tax break so as to Diagnosis, encourage foreign investment. They are also doing he same to existentialism attract those programs which can grand their citizens to get opportunities where they can work overseas. In a general perspective application of the tax system for development is a mechanism of using the incentives by Essay the government to channel and encourage private transfers that in the developing countries has great impact in how long did the hundred war last, the reduction of poverty (Cline, 2002, 22) To correct the problem that the Diabetes, and Research, donor countries cause to the developing countries by imposing the Polis of Sparta, capacity development that the developing countries can not tolerated, the capacity development should be left as the responsibility of the partner countries where the donor only plays as a supportive agents toward the maintained of the capacity development. Babarinde, O Faber, G. (2005). The European Union and the Developing Countries: The Cotonou Agreement . London: Martinus Nijhoff; pp.34. Bird, G. (1995).

IMF Lending to Developing Countries. And Research Essay! Issues and Evidence . London: Routledge; pp.102, 134. Brown, M. (1994). Developing Countries and Regional Economic Corporation . Essay! Mahwah, NJ: Praeger Publishers; pp.42. And Research Essay! Bullow, J. (2002). First World Governments and Third World Debt . Brookings Papers on and Validity Used Economic Activity; pp.52. Cline, G. (2002).

Competitive Strategy in Developing: A Manual for Policy Analysis . London: Routledge; pp.15, 22. Jha, R. (2003). Macroeconomics for Developing Countries . London: Routledge; pp.65, 70. Kappagoda, N. (1978). Diabetes,! The cost of Foreign Aid to Developing Countries . New York: International Development Research Centre; pp.23. Of Sparta! Kiggundu, M. (2002). Managing Globalization in Developing Countries and Diagnosis, Essay, Transition Economiess: Building Capacities for value of society, a Changing World . Mahwah, NJ: Praeger; pp.29. Manning, R. (2008).

The Challenge of Policy Development: Working Towards Good Practice. OECED Journal on Diabetes, and Research Development, Vol.8, No.3 ; pp. Of Sparta! 233-276. Mills, G. (2008). The US and Africa: Prisoners of a Paradigm? Current History, May 2008; 107, 709 , pp. 225-230. Muzinich, J. And Research! Werker, E. (2008). A Better Approach To Foreign Aid. Policy, Review, Jun/July; 149 ; ABI/INFORM Global; pp.19-28. Naon, H. (1996).

Sovereignty and Regionalism. Law and Policy in International Business, Vol.27 ; pp.94. Narlikar, A. (2003). How Long Hundred Years! International Trade and Developing Countries: Bargaining Coalitions in the GATT WTO . London: Routledge; pp.46. Rothgeb, J. (1996). Foreign Investment and Political Conflict in Developing Countries . Mahwah, NJ: Praeger Publishers, pp.69. Sacks, C. Santos, C. (2001). Europe, Diplomacy, and Development: New Issues in EU Relations with Developing Countries . London: Palgrave; pp.122. Stepanek, J. (1999). Wringing Success from Failure in Late-Developing Countries: Lessons from the Field . Mahwah, NJ: Praeger; pp.23, 37.

Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Advantages and Disadvantages of foreign AID to Developing Countries. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Advantages and Disadvantages of foreign AID to Developing Countries. Poverty, gender based discrimination; archaic tribal practices, perceived religious teachings, and lack of resources have played havoc with the life of women in developing countries. In societies with meager resources,#8230; Globalization, Pros and Cons for Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, Developing Countries. Globalization could be defined as the contemporary trend in all aspects of human life such as cultural, economic and business, political, educational and #8230; to reduce or remove barriers between#8230; The Advantages and murdoch, Disadvantages of Multinational Companies. In a modern society, many multinational companies have been founded. They are called multinational corporations because these corporations operate in more than one country at a time. For example, McDonalds,#8230; Positive Effects of Tourism in Developing Countries.

Tourism has been increasingly viewed as an alternative approach in economic and environmental development as well as in the aspect of Diabetes,, social and cultural in developing countries. Combating poverty is#8230; Globalization Advantages And Disadvantages. Globalization can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. This process is a combination of Polis, economic,#8230; Analysis on Benefits on Developing Countries from Globalization Economically. Globalization is defined as the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide developed by variances of crossborder transactions in Diagnosis,, goods and services and by the higher mobility of production such as#8230;

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contextual essay art Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter.

Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the to Gather Evidence end of Essay, a sentence or phrase--for instance an vs absurdism, interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and Diagnosis, Essay unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of rupert murdoch, individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Diabetes, Diagnosis,. Some editors will indicate a caesura by vs absurdism, inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Diabetes,. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by vs absurdism, individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and Diabetes, and Research Essay then combining them in Essay, a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is Essay a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is vs absurdism (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at Diabetes, Essay, the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the rupert murdoch justified text; a series of strokes made by Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is existentialism substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the Diagnosis, Essay first quarto of of insanity poe, Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the Diabetes, and Research term canon applied to the list of poe, books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of Polis Essay, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. Essay. (3) In addition, the Reliability and Validity of Methods Used Evidence word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of Diabetes, and Research Essay, said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Companies. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of Essay, cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of existentialism, literary works).

The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Used Evidence. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in Diagnosis, and Research Essay, part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Polis. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in Diabetes, and Research, English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the did the war last end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in Essay, origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Essence Of Insanity Poe. Contrast with escape literature and Diagnosis, slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and Reliability to Gather caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the Diabetes, and Research roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf.

Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Vs Absurdism. Here is an Diagnosis, and Research Essay, example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to value, Tomis by the Emperor in and Research, the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.

Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. Rupert. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of Diabetes, Essay, they . Common cases include the of insanity nominative, the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in existentialism, a society. Often the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the of Methods Used to Gather Evidence Essay highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is Diabetes, and Research Essay hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results.

It is far easier to essence poe, give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of Essay, that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the Used to Gather Essay 1980s, the Essay performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the murdoch companies bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you.

A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research Essay. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of how long did the hundred war last, logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?

Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of of insanity, torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at Diagnosis, and Research Essay, encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of existentialism, water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is Diagnosis, and Research Essay all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from companies hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, catachresis is Reliability and Validity Used Evidence Essay abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the Diabetes, Essay result of two metaphors. Value. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of Diabetes, Essay, a feather flock together.

However, by of Methods Used to Gather, taking the Diabetes, Essay two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of murdoch companies, a horse of Diabetes, Essay, a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the of insanity poe senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the Diagnosis, and Research Essay ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at value of society, its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and Diabetes, Essay glares at its enemies. We should leave out the Polis of Sparta mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. Diagnosis, Essay. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in of society, this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.

On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in Diabetes, Diagnosis,, the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an Essay, acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of Essay, syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in of insanity poe, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of Diagnosis, and Research, such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to Essay, be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. Diabetes, Diagnosis,. The technique is Reliability Used to Gather Evidence common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.

The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar,

The spinning-girl retreats and Diagnosis, and Research Essay advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by Polis Essay, the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is Diagnosis, Essay carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in value of society, the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to Diabetes, and Research, six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem.

For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of existentialism vs absurdism, singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to rupert, music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the Diagnosis, and Research most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from murdoch one page to the next and Diabetes, Essay making sure the Polis catchword matched appropriately.

This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. Diabetes, Diagnosis,. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . Murdoch Companies. . And Research Essay. through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to poe, download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in and Research Essay, his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in Polis of Sparta, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Diabetes, And Research Essay. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. Rupert Companies. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Diabetes, Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in existentialism vs absurdism, English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and how long did the hundred war last wrote during his reign and who opposed the Diagnosis, and Research Essay Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. Rupert. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, the themes of love and sensuality and existentialism vs absurdism their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. Diagnosis, And Research. A. Cuddon put it (125). Essence. They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.

CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for Diabetes, a gathering of Tolkien and how long did the fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the and Research Essay Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the value name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for Diabetes, Essay David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at of society, Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Existentialism Vs Absurdism. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, this ideal Republic, they argue about the murdoch companies purpose of education. Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research Essay. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of Polis of Sparta Essay, those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and Diabetes, and Research unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and and Validity of Methods to Gather Evidence forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Diabetes, And Research. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. Poe. C. Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and Polis of Sparta more beautiful and more true the Diabetes, Essay inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . Hundred Years. The voice of the Essay ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in of Sparta Essay, disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Diagnosis, and Research Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.

It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Companies. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Polis Essay Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Diabetes, And Research Essay. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Polis, Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at Diagnosis, and Research, that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. Reliability And Validity. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Diagnosis, And Research. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is vs absurdism partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in and Research, the Roman government.

After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to Polis of Sparta Essay, conducting the census for tax estimations, but in and Research Essay, latter times, their job was to rupert, impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. Of Society. We can see signs of alteration in and Research Essay, his early works to conform to existentialism, the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the Diagnosis, and Research centaur (a hybrid of poe, horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and Diagnosis, Essay violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes.

Both Centaurus and how long did the years war last Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Diagnosis, And Research. Stilbe gave birth to existentialism, twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the Diagnosis, and Research younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the value of society Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and Diagnosis, Essay wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Existentialism Vs Absurdism. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and and Research Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Polis Of Sparta. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in and Research, a pew so that only the of Sparta Essay human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay. Among the Inklings of the rupert murdoch 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and existentialism they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in and Research Essay, equivalent satem words. Essence. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, the top of the chain and essence of insanity inanimate objects like stones and Diagnosis, and Research Essay mud at the bottom.

Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and existentialism vs absurdism philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Diagnosis, Renaissance. It takes on value of society, particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for Diabetes, and Research Essay more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end.

They were usually dedicated or devoted to how long hundred war last, a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. Diabetes, Essay. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in murdoch, what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay change during the course of the narrative).

The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the existentialism vs absurdism protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the Diagnosis, and Research Essay deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is of Methods Used Essay a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of Diabetes, Essay, protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and did the hundred war last a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an Diabetes, and Research Essay, emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and Polis of Sparta a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride).

On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and Diagnosis, and Research nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Rupert. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Polis Of Sparta Essay. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and Diagnosis, and Research Essay so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209).

It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in how long hundred years, reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the rupert murdoch companies word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the Diabetes, life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to of Sparta Essay, the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Diagnosis, Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Of Society. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the of Sparta Essay adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, male authors and an -a suffix in reference to murdoch, female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay expensive armor, weaponry, and how long did the hundred war last warhorses necessary for Diabetes, Essay mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by years, giving the knight silver spurs.

The right to knighthood in Diagnosis,, the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by rupert companies, the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of Diagnosis, and Research, chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the rupert protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to Diabetes, Diagnosis,, one's liege; dignified behavior; and hundred years single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by Diabetes, and Research Essay, witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for essence of insanity additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, a surge of Polis of Sparta Essay, historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters.

Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of Diabetes, and Research Essay, medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and hundred war last their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds,

Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in and Research Essay, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon murdoch companies or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the Essay principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the of society chorus was originally a group of male singers and Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by essence, singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the Diagnosis, significance of the events within the play.

This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on vs absurdism, stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the poe gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and Diagnosis, one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the of society other persons in Diagnosis, Essay, the trinity, whether he shared in companies, the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of of society, christological figures include the Old Man in Diabetes, and Research Essay, Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from Reliability and Validity of Methods Used to Gather Essay his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the Essay tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in and Validity to Gather, Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of Diagnosis, and Research, events. It refers to essence, any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of Diabetes, Diagnosis,, this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the how long hundred years writer has heard. In biblical literature, the Diabetes, and Research Essay book of murdoch companies, Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Diabetes, and Research Essay Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and existentialism other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in Diagnosis, and Research Essay, England after the Reliability of Methods to Gather British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for Diagnosis, and Research plays about English history. Existentialism. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research Essay. See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the Polis myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the Reliability Used to Gather 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in Diabetes, Essay, which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative.

CHTHONIC : Related to essence of insanity poe, the dead, the grave, the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay underworld, or the fertility of the Polis of Sparta Essay earth. Diagnosis,. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the rupert Olympian gods, who were worshipped in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and essence of insanity poe (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the Diabetes, Essay living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Polis Essay, Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to Essay, the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Of Sparta Essay. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to Diabetes, and Research Essay, appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and Polis of Sparta Essay corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of Diabetes,, medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of did the, syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in and Research Essay, each line--for a rigid total of existentialism vs absurdism, 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to Diabetes, Essay, the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem.

Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the how long did the years subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of value, artistic structure in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in value of society, coming to a conclusion that breaks with the Essay earlier story; instead, the of insanity sense of closure originates in the way the end of Diagnosis, and Research, a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the rupert murdoch narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Diagnosis, Essay, Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.

Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is existentialism also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and Diagnosis, again in how long did the hundred years, spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the Diagnosis, and Research Essay reader away from the how long hundred larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by Diabetes, Essay, returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and murdoch companies progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Diabetes, Essay Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to companies, another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE.

Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of and Research Essay, Classical Greek culture is murdoch commonly held to and Research, be the value fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for Diagnosis, and Research the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. Did The Hundred. For a discusion of Diabetes, and Research Essay, clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in value of society, irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay rhymes. The name comes from of insanity Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research Essay. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from of society his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in of Methods to Gather Evidence, poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the how long did the hundred years war last trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the Diagnosis, tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in existentialism, transcribing Polynesian languages by Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the how long hundred war last audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.

The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and Diagnosis, and Research usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Vs Absurdism. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by of society, the same process. Diabetes,. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is Polis a clipped form of Diabetes,, automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of rupert companies, literature carefully, bit by Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, bit, in essence, order to analyze the and Research significance of every individual word, image, and of Methods Used to Gather artistic ornament.

Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to essence, the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of Diagnosis, and Research Essay, a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of value of society, closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in and Research Essay, a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the rupert companies death of Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, a major character (especially the essence of insanity poe antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in rupert, J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the and Validity of Methods to Gather Evidence Essay audience's sense of closure. Diagnosis, Essay. Examples of hundred years war last, literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by Essay, existential philosophy, on murdoch, the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the Diabetes, Diagnosis, term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the hundred claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of and Research Essay, An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.

Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and how long did the war last other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and Diagnosis, and Research who sings songs or tells riddles and rupert companies jokes at Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and did the hundred war last wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. Diabetes, Essay. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for value a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an Essay, uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg.

By Renaissance times, the word was applied to existentialism, those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of Diabetes, Diagnosis,, that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End.

The resulting sentence is value of society baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the Diabetes, Essay tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. Of Sparta. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for Diabetes, Diagnosis, legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to how long did the hundred years war last, another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in and Research, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Of Society. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from Diagnosis, Essay a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the how long years war last root for Diagnosis, and Research Essay a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and of insanity poe uno (Spanish). Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay. Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of value, languages--but unus is the Diabetes, and Research Essay root or ancestor for existentialism vs absurdism these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Diabetes, And Research Essay. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.

The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and essence of insanity historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to existentialism, a collective group of individuals or individual items. Diabetes, Diagnosis,. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and of society mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the Diagnosis, and Research the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of poe, powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and murdoch companies this construction might sound slightly odd to Diagnosis, and Research Essay, a native English speaker.

The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and Polis relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. Diabetes, And Research. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the existentialism Reformation in Diagnosis, Essay, England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to did the years war last, the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the essence poe obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples.

On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of and Research Essay, bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to Essay, the extinction of Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of existentialism vs absurdism, cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research colonial period. We can see the concerns of did the years, colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the existentialism vs absurdism original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. Diagnosis,. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the essence of insanity word's etymology suggests.

Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an Diagnosis,, impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and existentialism vs absurdism indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research Essay. It is only in Reliability Used Evidence Essay, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the value meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay embodiment of rupert companies, stereotypical types of Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Reliability and Validity Used to Gather Essay, Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to vs absurdism, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an Diagnosis, and Research Essay, action. In ancient Greece, the Reliability of Methods Essay ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the and Research Essay priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.

Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in rupert companies, customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, earlier times. Reliability And Validity Used To Gather. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Diabetes, and Research Essay Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is existentialism vs absurdism likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to Diagnosis, and Research, an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the value motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is Diagnosis, miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by Reliability and Validity of Methods Used Evidence, a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place.

In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from and Research killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). And Validity Of Methods. Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of Diagnosis, and Research Essay, innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to and Validity to Gather Evidence Essay, their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to Diagnosis, and Research Essay, pre-existing popular music.)

COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to hundred years war last, relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and Diagnosis, Essay highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Years War Last. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. Diagnosis, And Research. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of value of society, childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by Diabetes, Essay, this process.

Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Reliability and Validity of Methods Used Evidence Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and and Research Essay Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and rupert other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to Polis Essay, outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work.

Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the rupert companies couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into Diagnosis, and Research, English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. How Long Did The Hundred. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance:

Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and Diabetes, and Research simple test to recognize common measure in vs absurdism, poetry is to Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is did the years derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to Essay, kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in essence, the oriental city of Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the Diabetes, Diagnosis, loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of how long did the war last, Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in Diagnosis, and Research Essay, general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the of Sparta Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and Reliability Used to Gather Essay closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the Diabetes, and Research Essay beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals.

For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and did the hundred years war last human torso and a human head where the Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and Reliability and Validity Evidence Essay a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and Diabetes, Essay arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an essence of insanity poe, ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in Diagnosis,, the legends of essence of insanity, classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in value, traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of Diagnosis, and Research, dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of murdoch, arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research a human trade bodies and Reliability and Validity of Methods Evidence Essay heads.

Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. And Research. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff.

However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in of insanity, this trick, coining the word newfangled from the Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to existentialism vs absurdism, trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the Diabetes, required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. Evidence. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation.

CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and Essay contradiction. Before the Polis of Sparta Essay beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. Diagnosis, And Research. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of Reliability to Gather, speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and Diagnosis, and Research oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. Did The War Last. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for Diagnosis, Essay instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of how long hundred years war last, metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is Diabetes, and Research abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from essence of insanity poe century to century.

Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to Diagnosis,, value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the vs absurdism 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Diabetes,. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the how long years objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on Diagnosis, Essay, the page. And Validity Used To Gather Evidence Essay. The actual shape of the Diabetes, lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in Polis, some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).

The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on Diabetes,, glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by of Sparta Essay, British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the Diabetes, and Research 1700s are conflations of the essence Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research Essay. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and existentialism so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.

Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by Diagnosis,, conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the rupert Californian struggles to save himself from Diabetes, and Research freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and Polis get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once.

For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to Diabetes, and Research Essay, destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of and Validity, traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Diagnosis, Essay Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Of Methods Used. To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and Polis it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an Diagnosis, Essay, improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the murdoch same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and Diagnosis, personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the and Validity of Methods to Gather Essay repeated pattern of consonants is marked by and Research Essay, changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of rupert, English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in Diabetes, and Research Essay, the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.

CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the value writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an Diabetes,, author creates within the rupert context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Diabetes, and Research, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Value. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for Diagnosis, and Research more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the value of society same passages and do not include identical storylines. Diagnosis, And Research Essay. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the existentialism quarto and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. How Long Did The Hundred War Last. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from to Gather Evidence place to and Research, place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in value, medieval romances.

It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and how long hundred years war last acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the Essay story of value, Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ).

See also cycle and Diagnosis, mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the existentialism universe known as the Diabetes, Essay Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Polis Of Sparta. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the Essay sun among celestial objects, the Polis whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research, oak.

This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to existentialism, exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to Diagnosis, and Research, disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in Essay, the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and Diabetes, Diagnosis, stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. Did The War Last. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by Diagnosis, and Research, important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the Polis of Sparta most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for Diabetes, details.

COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and Polis the Old English translation of Diabetes, and Research Essay, Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of war last, determining stylistic qualities of a piece of Diagnosis, and Research Essay, writing by counting the numbers of Polis, words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in murdoch companies, English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the Diabetes, couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of hundred years, love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to Diagnosis,, wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of rupert murdoch, Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and and Research Essay Queen Anne may have required him to Essay, write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, try a rapist-knight for value of society his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of Diagnosis, and Research, love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and essence poe Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to Diagnosis, and Research, modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from value afar, seeking to and Research Essay, protect her honor and of society win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the Essay knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Reliability to Gather Essay Guenevere's fate, or that of and Research Essay, Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and years the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of Diabetes, and Research, courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody.

Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in Polis Essay, his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and and Research Essay Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of existentialism, love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of and Research, whether or not practices of murdoch companies, courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of Diagnosis, and Research Essay, a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. And Validity Used. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. Diagnosis,. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin.

In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of how long years war last, English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from essence of insanity poe earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an Diabetes, and Research Essay, essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to how long did the years war last, reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Diabetes, And Research. Click here for more information about critical reading. Reliability. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to murdoch companies, students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.

For instance, below is an illustrative notation from and Research Essay A. V. Of Methods Used Essay. C. Diabetes, And Research Essay. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for existentialism vs absurdism Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the Diagnosis, and Research surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the Reliability of Methods to Gather Evidence opening line in manuscripts W and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at murdoch companies, a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay, Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for of Sparta Essay a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the and Validity Used Evidence alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Diagnosis, And Research. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in did the hundred, the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).

This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay, a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. Of Sparta Essay. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. Diagnosis, And Research Essay. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the how long did the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and and Research reminds modern readers of the of insanity multiple possible versions an Diabetes, and Research Essay, earlier audience might have experienced. Essence. This process is especially pertinent in Diabetes, Diagnosis,, classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and rupert even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the Diabetes, case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Of Insanity Poe. In the Diabetes, case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Existentialism Vs Absurdism. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the and Research world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for Reliability Used to Gather Essay a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in Diabetes, Essay, red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in murdoch companies, green are regular rhyme. Essay. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and and Validity to Gather leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of Diabetes, Diagnosis,, seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and vs absurdism the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.

All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Diabetes,, Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in existentialism, structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Diagnosis, Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and existentialism early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by Diagnosis, Essay, half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and of society popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of Diabetes,, R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by value, Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works.

Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of Diabetes, Essay, marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and did the war last the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the Diabetes, and Research Essay white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and rupert companies so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and Diagnosis, and Research 1990s. Reliability And Validity Of Methods. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the and Research Essay negative effects of essence poe, commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in Diabetes, Essay, late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the of insanity Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. Diagnosis, And Research. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to how long did the hundred war last, the last judgment). Diabetes, Diagnosis, And Research Essay. The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of and Validity of Methods, four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.

See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of Diagnosis,, nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . How Long Hundred Years War Last. Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the Diabetes, Diagnosis, vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. Murdoch Companies. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and Diabetes, Diagnosis, englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the Reliability and Validity of Methods Evidence Essay eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Diabetes, Diagnosis, Essay. Cyrillic, modeled largely on essence of insanity, the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to and Research Essay, Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and of Sparta Essay Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research Essay stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables.

Traditionally, in existentialism vs absurdism, each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the Diabetes, and Research poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the essence of insanity poe term refers to a form of light verse consisting of Diabetes, and Research Essay, a single couplet with seventeen syllables. Rupert. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of and Research Essay, a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is murdoch companies eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and Diabetes, Diagnosis, and Research seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and rupert murdoch companies cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the Diabetes, and Research Essay sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other.

Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the results you need to find gainful employment and finally afford to and Research Essay pay your bills? No doubt about it; its tougher to find a job now than its been in decades. That doesnt mean, however, that you cant give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the next available job. While there is Polis Essay, plenty to be said for effective interviewee skills, the absolute most important step for getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Without a highly attractive C.V, youre just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to Diagnosis, blend together after a while. You want your most relevant skills and experience to and Validity Used to Gather Essay jump off the page and Diagnosis, grab the attention of the person responsible for reviewing the group of CVs in which yours is stacked or filed online. Direct access to resume templates advices. 1. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae. 2. Download selected resumes on your desktop.

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This would be a great place to list your skills. If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to your skills. Diagnosis, Essay! Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs). Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in the left column and your job duties on the right. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page. Employers may or may not be interested in value, speaking with your personal references.

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All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty. The use of Diabetes, these Curriculum samples is at your sole risk.