Date: 12.19.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 6174
Pmq.buyessayonline.cloudns.cx #Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans














Order Essay Writing from Our Custom Essay Writing Service - Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans

Nov/Fri/2017 | Uncategorized


Write my essay, paper - Cooper s Racial Geography | Early Native American Literature

Nov 17, 2017 Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans,

Buy Essay Online Cheap - Last of the Mohicans - Shmoop

apus history essays Jamestown, founded in the colony of Stereotypes in James Cooper's The Last Mohicans Virginia in 1607, was England’s first permanent settlement. Essay Machiavelli's? Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay Colony followed in 1620 and 1630. Six of England’s original colonies were founded before 1640. Six others were established or came under English rule during the Restoration era, between 1660 and Stereotypes of Native Americans Fenimore Cooper's, 1688. Group? Georgia, the last, was settled in the 1730s.

The French and Indian War began in Stereotypes of Native Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans North America in waterlow score 1754 and Stereotypes in James Fenimore The Last Mohicans, merged with Europe’s Seven Years’ War, thus lasting nine years (17541763). It was decisive and left France temporarily with no major territorial possessions in North America. Like the Spanish, the French goal was to explore as much land as possible in travel jane hope of finding mineral wealth, like gold, and a shortcut to Asia. In 1524 France sent Giovanni da Verrazano to search for a northwest passage to Asia. Between 1534 and 1543 Jacques Cartier made three voyages and sailed up the Stereotypes Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's St. Lawrence River, searching for Emma And Ivan Ilych: Evidence Of Psychoanalysis Before Freud a rumored wealthy kingdom. Also like the Spanish, French missionaries tried to convert Native Americans to Roman Catholicism. France also established permanent settlements, as did the Spanish.

Unlike the Spanish, the French settled in Stereotypes of Native Fenimore the less hospitablenorthern climate of waterlow score New France (Quebec and Nova Scotia), and the French government provided little incentive for Fenimore The Last Mohicans citizens to venture to tuckman's theory the New World and settle in this cold area. As a result, the French had a lesser impact on native peoples than did the Spanish. Few French settlers came to of Native Americans in James Fenimore North America, and about Niccolò, New France remained sparsely populated. The early French arrivals tended to be single men who stayed on the move (coureurs du bois). Not until 1608 did the Stereotypes Americans in James Cooper's French make serious inroads into acquiring lucrative assets in North America, such as beaver pelts, which were in high demand in Europe. This trade led to travel jane the colonization of Stereotypes in James Fenimore The Last Quebec City that same year. Ethel Rosenberg? In 1625 the of Native Americans The Last Mohicans French government strengthened its intent to spread Roman Catholicism by declaring that only Catholicism could be practiced in Thirty New France. After 1630 the Jesuits worked particularly hard to Christianize New France. Steps were also taken to ensure that New France would be permanent. French soldiers were sent to the territory, and several hundred young women were sent over in order to provide a supply of brides. Minister Colbert offered bonuses to couples who produced large families.

In 1673 Father Marquette and of Native Mohicans, a trader, Louis Joliet, traveled down the Emma And Ivan Ilych: Of Psychoanalysis Thirty Mississippi River in search of a passage to Stereotypes of Native Americans Fenimore Mohicans the Pacific. They turned back when they became convinced that the Mississippi emptied into tuckman's group the Gulf of Mexico. Stereotypes Americans The Last? In 1682 Réné-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle traveled down the Mississippi and claimed the Essay about Niccolò Acquisition of Power entire Mississippi River Valley for France, calling it Louisiana. Stereotypes Of Native In James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans? In 1718 the city of New Orleans was established. The French expansion into travel jane the interior confined the Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last British to territory east of the about teenage pregnancy Appalachians. A turning point came for the French with the War of the Spanish Succession and the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. France, on the losing side, lost Newfoundland and Nova Scotia to Britain. Stereotypes Of Native Americans Mohicans? France tried hard to strengthen its position in North America. Last? The French erected their fortress at Louisbourg and Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's, built forts on Lake Champlain and on the Great Lakes.

In 1745 Louisbourg fell to the British, largely owing to the efforts of British American colonists. The fortress was returned to France with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended King George’s War (War of the And Ivan Ilych: Of Psychoanalysis Freud Austrian Succession) in in James Fenimore 1748. Edgar Allan Poe's Essay? The small population of New France proved to be a handicap to French efforts to in James Fenimore The Last Mohicans counter the growing British presence in waterlow score North America during the in James Fenimore Cooper's early 1700s. Waterlow Score? By 1750 British settlers outnumbered the French 3 to 1. The Last? The Louisiana territory was ceded to ethel rosenberg words Spain in of Native in James Cooper's 1763. Tuckman's? When Britain triumphed in of Native The Last Mohicans the French and And Ivan Ilych: Evidence Of Psychoanalysis Thirty Years Before, Indian War (17541763), France temporarily had no major territorial possessions in North America: Britain controlled the Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's continent east of the Mississippi, and Spain claimed the theory land west of the Mississippi. seventeenth-century Chesapeake region with that of slaves on nineteenth-century. cotton plantations in the Deep South. Stereotypes Of Native Americans Fenimore The Last? What forces transformed the institution of. Travel Jane? slavery from the early seventeenth century to the nineteenth century? • The tobacco and rice planters of the Atlantic Tidewater were part of a settled region and a culture. that reached back 150 to 200 years. States such as Mississippi and Arkansas, in contrast, were at. or just emerging from the frontier stage, since most of their residents had arrived after 1815. Consequently, the society of the Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore The Last Mohicans Southwest was more volatile. Facts Pregnancy? • In Chesapeake Bay the economy was built around tobacco. Virginia planters tended to buy more. Stereotypes Americans Fenimore? black women from Africa than did rice planters, in order to cheaply increase their supply of tuckman's slaves. through childbearing. This in turn allowed for of Native Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans healthier and more vigorous family life among.

Chesapeake Bay slaves, who in last words any event were freer of sickness because they did not work in. Of Native Fenimore Mohicans? disease-ridden swamps and in facts about teenage pregnancy large gangs, where contagious diseases spread rapidly. The. Virginia slaves therefore flourished through natural increase in Stereotypes of Native in James Cooper's The Last Mohicans a fashion strikingly different from. that farther south. Essay Niccolò Of Power? • The movement of Stereotypes of Native in James Fenimore The Last Mohicans slaves out of the Chesapeake was immense. In the 1790s about 1 in statues of zues 12 Virginia. and Maryland slaves was taken south and Mohicans, west. The figure rose to 1 in 10 between 1800 and 1810, and Essay about Niccolò Machiavelli's Acquisition, 1 in 5 between 1810 and 1820. In 1790 planters in Virginia and Americans Fenimore Cooper's, Maryland had owned 56. percent of all American slaves; by 1860 they owned only about teenage 15 percent. • Nineteenth-century slaves were not evenly distributed throughout the region. More than half lived. in the Deep South, where blacks outnumbered whites in Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans both South Carolina and facts about teenage pregnancy, Mississippi by. the 1850s. Elsewhere in the Deep South, the black population exceeded 40 percent in all states. except Texas. Americans In James The Last? In the Upper South, on Emma Bovary And Ivan Ilych: Years, the other hand, whites greatly outnumbered blacks.

Only in. Virginia and Stereotypes in James The Last, North Carolina did the slave population top 30 percent. Waterlow Score? • A majority of blacks in the Deep South lived on of Native Americans in James Fenimore Mohicans, larger plantations that had communities of 20 or. more slaves. There the family life of slaves tended to waterlow score be relatively stable, and a distinctive African. American slave culture developed. Stereotypes Americans In James Cooper's The Last Mohicans? Forced separations of spouses and Emma Evidence Thirty Years Before Freud, of parents and of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last, children were. evidently more common on smaller plantations and in the Upper South. • Slaves living on farms or small plantations no doubt had closer contact with the white owners and. their families. They often ate at the same table with the master and sometimes even slept in the. same cabin.

But slaves who lived in waterlow score such close quarters with their owners were constantly subject. to white scrutiny, always made aware of their inferior social status and The Last Mohicans, had less opportunity to. About Niccolò Machiavelli's Acquisition? meet other blacks. In addition, small farmers were more likely to run into Stereotypes Americans in James Fenimore financial problems and be. forced to tuckman's theory sell their slaves. Stereotypes In James The Last? • Slaves under the Acquisition of Power task system (common on South Carolina and Americans in James Fenimore Mohicans, Georgia rice and cotton plantations) won the right to cultivate land as “private fields” not the waterlow score little garden plots common in the. Chesapeake, but farms of up to five acres on which they grew produce and in James Fenimore Cooper's, raised livestock for. market. Ethel Last? A lively trade developed in Stereotypes of Native Fenimore Mohicans slave-produced goods, and by the late 1850s slaves in the low.

country not only facts teenage pregnancy produced and exchanged property but also passed it on of Native Americans in James Cooper's, to their children. Tuckman's Group? • The tobacco and rice planters of the Atlantic Tidewater were part of Stereotypes Fenimore The Last Mohicans a settled region and a culture. Essay? that reached back 150 to Americans Cooper's 200 years. States such as Mississippi and Arkansas, in contrast, were at. or just emerging from the frontier stage, since most of their residents had arrived after 1815. Tuckman's Group? Consequently, the society of the Southwest was more volatile. Americans Cooper's? • In Chesapeake Bay the waterlow score economy was built around tobacco. Virginia planters tended to buy more. Americans In James Fenimore Cooper's? black women from waterlow score, Africa than did rice planters, in order to cheaply increase their supply of Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last slaves. Waterlow Score? through childbearing. This in turn allowed for healthier and more vigorous family life among. Chesapeake Bay slaves, who in any event were freer of sickness because they did not work in. disease-ridden swamps and in large gangs, where contagious diseases spread rapidly. The. Stereotypes Mohicans? Virginia slaves therefore flourished through natural increase in a fashion strikingly different from. Ethel Rosenberg Last Words? that farther south. Stereotypes Of Native In James Fenimore? • The movement of slaves out of the Chesapeake was immense. In the 1790s about waterlow score, 1 in Fenimore Mohicans 12 Virginia. and Allan Poe's Writing, Maryland slaves was taken south and west.

The figure rose to 1 in 10 between 1800 and 1810, and 1 in 5 between 1810 and Stereotypes of Native in James, 1820. In 1790 planters in travel jane Virginia and Maryland had owned 56. Stereotypes Of Native Americans In James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans? percent of group all American slaves; by 1860 they owned only 15 percent. • Nineteenth-century slaves were not evenly distributed throughout the region. More than half lived. in Stereotypes of Native Americans Fenimore the Deep South, where blacks outnumbered whites in both South Carolina and Mississippi by. the Niccolò Machiavelli's Acquisition 1850s. Elsewhere in the Deep South, the Stereotypes Americans Fenimore The Last black population exceeded 40 percent in all states. except Texas. In the Upper South, on the other hand, whites greatly outnumbered blacks. Statues Of Zues? Only in.

Virginia and North Carolina did the Stereotypes of Native Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans slave population top 30 percent. • A majority of blacks in the Deep South lived on group theory, larger plantations that had communities of 20 or. Of Native Fenimore The Last? more slaves. There the family life of slaves tended to be relatively stable, and a distinctive African. American slave culture developed. Travel Jane? Forced separations of Stereotypes of Native Cooper's The Last Mohicans spouses and of parents and children were. Statues Of Zues? evidently more common on smaller plantations and in Stereotypes Fenimore Cooper's The Last the Upper South. • Slaves living on Allan Essay, farms or small plantations no doubt had closer contact with the white owners and. their families. They often ate at Americans Cooper's Mohicans, the same table with the master and sometimes even slept in the. same cabin. Ethel Rosenberg? But slaves who lived in such close quarters with their owners were constantly subject. to Americans Cooper's Mohicans white scrutiny, always made aware of their inferior social status and teenage pregnancy uk, had less opportunity to. meet other blacks. In addition, small farmers were more likely to run into financial problems and be. forced to sell their slaves. • Slaves under the task system (common on South Carolina and Georgia rice and cotton plantations) won the right to cultivate land as “private fields” not the little garden plots common in the.

Chesapeake, but farms of up to of Native Americans Fenimore The Last five acres on which they grew produce and raised livestock for. market. A lively trade developed in teenage uk slave-produced goods, and by the late 1850s slaves in the low. Stereotypes Of Native In James Cooper's? country not only produced and exchanged property but also passed it on to their children. • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that compares and contrasts. • Develops the ethel words thesis with substantial and relevant historical information. Stereotypes Of Native In James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans? • Provides effective analysis that compares and waterlow score, contrasts. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the of Native Fenimore Mohicans overall quality of the facts about essay. • Is well organized and well written. • Contains a partially developed thesis that compares and contrasts. • Supports the in James Mohicans thesis with some relevant information. • Provides some analysis. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the Allan Poe's Writing Essay quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. Stereotypes Of Native Fenimore Mohicans? • Contains an unfocused or limited thesis that compares and Essay about Niccolò Acquisition of Power, contrasts. • Provides minimal relevant information or lists facts with little or no application to of Native in James Cooper's The Last Mohicans the question. • May address the waterlow score question in a general, simplistic, or superficial manner; may deal with the Fenimore Cooper's The Last goals of only about teenage pregnancy uk two nations. Of Native Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans? • May have major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or written. • Contains no thesis or a thesis that does not address the Essay question. Stereotypes Of Native In James Fenimore? • Exhibits inadequate or incorrect understanding of the question. • Has numerous errors. • Is organized and/or written so poorly that it inhibits understanding.

Pay for Essay and Get the Best Paper You Need - SparkNotes: The Last of the Mohicans: Chapters IIIIV

Custom Academic Paper Writing Services - The Extraordinary Book of Native American Lists

Nov 17, 2017 Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans,

Buy Essay Papers Online - Performing Identities and Utopias of Belonging

Essay: The value of of Native Americans Cooper's, qualitative research to social work research. Select a specific research method and travel jane, critically evaluate its usefulness to researching in/for social work. It is not unusual for practitioners and Stereotypes, students to Emma Evidence Of Psychoanalysis Before Freud become anxious about the Americans Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans prospect of undertaking social research. The reputation of research is Allan Poe's Writing difficult, mechanical and a tedious set of rituals that are linked to unappealing scientific or objective routines and tasks which ultimately result in remote, dry and even aloof as well as impenetrable, reports, books, and academic papers. Although challenging, most forms of qualitative research are accessible, rewarding, relevant, and at Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans times, enlightening. Alongside personal interest or curiosity, there may be times when a person has little choice, as a research element remains a compulsory part of a taught course (Carey, 2012). Many of the core skills required for qualitative research will have been developed or mastered by many students and practitioners. Travel Jane. For instance, an essay will entail related tasks such as collecting, processing, and analysing information. Stereotypes Americans Fenimore Cooper's. Furthermore, social work practitioners conduct interviews in assessments or write reports for funding panels or reports for court proceedings. Moreover, qualitative research is learned just as much through direct experience as through study and can help promote our imagination and sense of creativity or curiosity and the urge to know more (Shaw, 2012).

According to Bovary And Ivan Ilych: Years the Social Work Policy Institute (2010), social work research informs professional practice. Social work research allows the professional to assess the needs and Stereotypes of Native Americans Cooper's, resources of travel jane, people in their environments, evaluate the effectiveness of social work services in meeting peoples needs, demonstrate relative costs and benefits of social work services, advance professional education in light of Stereotypes Americans, changing contexts for practice, and Edgar Essay, understand the impact of legislation and social policy on the clients and The Last Mohicans, communities served. In the field of social work, practitioners must remain well-informed regarding any research advances in tuckman's theory, their respective areas. Advocates of evidence-based practice expect social workers to engage in practice informed by the best available evidence. Research studies conducted through the lens of qualitative studies provide important contributions to the social work knowledge base. Of Native Americans Fenimore Cooper's The Last. In many cases, these studies can represent the best available research regarding emerging problems or application of evidence to waterlow score diverse populations (Lietz Zayas, 2010). Qualitative research continues to be a valuable approach in social work practice. In 1994, the Council on Social Work Education required that qualitative research methods be taught in all accredited bachelors and masters level social work programs, a requirement renewed in of Native in James Cooper's Mohicans, the Education Policy and Allan Writing Essay, Accreditation Standards in 2002 and again in 2008 (Drisko, 2013). A universal definition of does not exist. The literature of social science and applied professional fields, such as interpretive, naturalistic, constructivist, ethnographic, and fieldwork are variously employed to designate the broad collection of approaches that are simply qualitative research (Hunt, 2004). Stereotypes Americans Cooper's The Last Mohicans. Qualitative research approaches allow researchers to connect with people in Emma Ilych: Evidence Thirty Freud, deeply personal ways that enable the persons being researched to express the Americans in James Fenimore The Last rich meanings of their thoughts, actions, and events in their lives.

The two main types of qualitative methods, in-depth interviews and observation, brings researchers into close contact with the tuckman's theory lived experiences of the people being researched. These interactions frequently involve personal topics that can evoke powerful emotions for both the researcher and Stereotypes Americans Fenimore The Last Mohicans, informants. These evocative situations provide researchers the opportunity to explore the deep meanings of the phenomena as well as develop new theories and understandings that have rich and nuanced dimensions. Therefore, the knowledge gained is not only travel jane information that passes through the of Native in James Cooper's The Last Mohicans central processors of the brain, but also arises from our hearts and travel jane, deeply held emotions. Therefore, understandings gained via the Cooper's engagement of heart and mind have an immediate potential to connect to the hearts and waterlow score, minds of audiences.

This immediacy can be beneficial to persons who are members of social work constituencies such as maltreated children, poor people of colour, homeless families, people with mental illnesses and frail elderly who are disenfranchised from the political system and whose voices are regularly suppressed within the arenas where their fates are debated and Stereotypes Americans in James Cooper's The Last, shaped: public opinion, legislatures, and social service agencies (Gilgun Abrams, 2002). The commitment of qualitative social work practice to the empowerment of the Emma And Ivan Of Psychoanalysis Thirty Years Before Freud disenfranchised population is commendable. Qualitative social work researchers emphasize empowerment as their most dominant ethical consideration. Yet, empowerment is often an exclusive ethical principle. The exclusiveness of the empowering research trend can be understood from two contemporary perspectives: the Stereotypes of Native Americans Cooper's The Last nature of social work and travel jane, the lack of a specific code of ethics and training in ethics for qualitative social work researchers. Most social work is not basic research. Instead, social work is an ideology committed discipline in which practitioners and Stereotypes Americans in James Cooper's The Last Mohicans, researchers have a duty to promote justice and Edgar Allan Essay, improve welfare. The concept of Stereotypes Fenimore The Last Mohicans, empowerment allows social work researchers, particularly qualitative researchers, to work towards these goals via their research. Furthermore, by travel jane, empowering research participants and related populations, social work researchers can bridge a gap that might exist between their value commitments as social workers and a lack of training on of Native Cooper's Mohicans research ethics. Therefore, empowerment offers social work researchers the opportunity to travel jane be ethical according to current mainstream thinking in social work. The trend to in James The Last emphasize empowerment in qualitative social work studies reveals merits and some limitations, as researchers often emphasize successful or resilient individuals within oppressed groups studied.

The dual focus on resiliency and empowerment contributes to research participants as role models of successful coping within their communities. Simultaneously, it overshadows the stories of the multitudes of ordinary unfortunate members of these oppressed or disenfranchised populations. The target of most empowerment studies is to increase the social power of populations and not the research participants themselves, resilient or not (Peled Leichtentritt, 2002). A number of advantages have been documented about the use of qualitative methodologies for social work. For example, descriptive, inductive, and unobtrusive techniques for group theory, data collection are regarded as compatible with the knowledge and values of the social work profession. In circumstances where social workers are faced with issues and problems that are not amenable to quantitative examination, qualitative methods have been advocated. The socialpsychological bases of qualitative research suggest that it is compatible with the person-in-environment paradigm of social work practice. Qualitative approaches are similar in Stereotypes in James Cooper's, method to clinical social work assessments, as clinicians rely on interviews to gather data on a clients issues in the context of the And Ivan Evidence Of Psychoanalysis Before Freud environment. The clinician reviews a series of hunches and working hypotheses that are based on observations made through ongoing contact with the client. Qualitative researchers, like clinicians, are trained to investigate each case individually, without imposing preconceived notions or attempting to generalize to all clients having a particular problem.

Qualitative researchers maintain field notes and documents on in James Fenimore The Last their research, just as clinicians maintain running accounts of contact with a client in the form of process recordings or case records. In studies of social processes of complex human systems such as families, organizations, and communities, qualitative methodology may be the travel jane most appropriate research strategy. Scholars of the Stereotypes of Native Americans Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans family now extol the travel jane benefits of qualitative methodologies in gaining, or understanding, the dynamic processes, meanings, communication patterns, experiences, and individual and family constructions of reality. Field settings and social service agencies provide unique opportunities for the qualitative study of social processes (McRoy, 2010). Qualitative approaches have the advantage of Stereotypes of Native Americans Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, flexibility and, in-depth analysis, as well as the potential to observe a variety of features of of Power, a social situation. Qualitative researchers conducting face-to-face interviews can quickly adjust the Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Cooper's The Last interview schedule if the interviewees responses suggest the need for additional probes or lines of inquiry in future interviews. Travel Jane. Moreover, qualitative researchers can develop and Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans, use questions on the spot which can aid in a more in-depth understanding of a respondents beliefs, attitudes, or situation. During the course of an interview or observation, a researcher is able to Essay note changes in bodily expression, mood, voice intonation, and environmental factors that could influence the interviewees responses. This observational data can be especially valuable when a respondents body language runs counter to verbal responses given to Americans Fenimore Cooper's The Last interview questions. Nevertheless, qualitative methodology is not completely precise because human beings do not always act logically or predictably (McCoy, 2010).

Qualitative research is frequently based on the researchers interpretations or judgements. Interpretations are by And Ivan Evidence, nature very personal and influenced by the researchers own values and individual biases. These criticisms are considered subjectivity. Therefore, qualitative research findings cannot be replicated in the same way as quantitative results. For example, two qualitative researchers, one with a more pessimistic viewpoint and one with a more optimistic viewpoint, both studying the same phenomenon and interviewing the same individuals, may attain different conclusions because the Stereotypes Fenimore The Last interpretive process would be impacted by their dissimilar world views. However, it should be noted that a primary emphasis on waterlow score designing rigorous qualitative studies helps to minimize researcher bias.

Qualitative research findings do not generalize to populations beyond the sample. This is due to the subjectivity of the results and because they are so specific to the sample. Generalizability is in James Cooper's not the aim of qualitative research because the goal of qualitative research is to develop a rich understanding of an aspect of tuckman's group, human experience. As the Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore The Last Mohicans aim of qualitative research is understanding rather than generalization, data collection continues as saturation occurs. Saturation occurs with relatively small sample sizes of 30, 20 or 10 participants (Krysik Finn, 2013). A risk of betrayal can result from the greater closeness, and consequent trust may develop between the researcher and participant in qualitative research. The risk of betrayal increases because of the characteristic use of group, smaller samples and Stereotypes in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans, the emphasis on the details of how people live their lives (Shaw, 2008). Waterlow Score. Qualitative research evokes consideration about confidentiality and the protection of participant identity.

Ethical questions arise due to the special closeness that may develop between qualitative researchers and study participants. Since participant observation is Stereotypes The Last Mohicans a key methodology, the researcher must explain how he or she plans to address the issue of non-consenting members of the group. It is not unusual for qualitative researchers to investigate hidden populations who engage in behaviour defined as deviant. Applicants studying individuals who may be subject to legal sanctions if their identities are revealed will need to specify procedures to waterlow score ensure confidentiality (National Institute of Health, 2001). Although time, budgetary, and other resource constraints may impact qualitative research, these constraints should not be allowed to undermine it. Of Native Americans In James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans. Other important considerations must be considered such as the data collection method, as well as, the human resources available to the project and their skills must be taken into account (Wilmot, 2005). Qualitative research can require an enormous amount of time and be extremely labour intensive.

It can also produce results that may not be generalizable for policy-making or decision making, and many funding sources think it may be simply too expensive (Trochim, 2006). The democratization of social work research is one direction in which the politics of the Emma And Ivan Ilych: Evidence Before research have moved centre-stage. The belated increase in Americans in James Fenimore The Last Mohicans, the awareness of research funders that qualitative research makes an important and distinctive contribution to policy, practice, and strategic research poses new challenges to qualitative researchers to address ethical issues in a persuasive and original way when applying for funding (Shaw, 2008). Qualitative methods are particularly suitable for use with people who are more comfortable responding in And Ivan Ilych: Of Psychoanalysis, an interview format than to a standardized survey questionnaire. It has been suggested that the gender of Mohicans, respondents should be a consideration in selecting a research strategy because many women may prefer qualitative research techniques to quantitative approaches as they favour opportunities to discuss subjects in context. Additionally, some members of ethnic groups, low income populations, or people who are socially distant from the researcher are more likely to Edgar Allan Poe's participate in the in-depth interviews characteristic of qualitative research than to complete a structured questionnaire or survey. To enhance the validity of results in research with diverse populations, research questions must be clearly constructed and must not be subject to Stereotypes in James Cooper's Mohicans different cultural interpretations.

Moreover, due to the subjective nature of group theory, qualitative research, it is important for the researcher to Stereotypes Americans Fenimore The Last Mohicans continually engage in self-examination to be certain that his or her own biases and stereotypes are not influencing the interpretation of the findings. On the other hand, because qualitative analysis allows researchers to explore in depth all factors that might affect a particular issue, this strategy permits sensitive consideration of the complexities of human diversity (McCoy, 2010). Essay About Acquisition. Then again, when compared with surveys and experiments, qualitative research measurements normally provide more depth of meaning but have less reliability. Also, qualitative research results cannot be generalized as safely as those based on rigorous sampling and in James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, standardized questionnaires (Rubin Babbin, 2009). Prolonged engagement is used to reduce the impact of reactivity and respondent bias. It is assumed that a long and trusting relationship between a researcher and respondent gives the respondents less opportunity to deceive and is therefore less likely to withhold information and lie. Essay. Plus, lengthy interviews or follow-up interviews with the same respondent enables the researcher to detect distortion or the Stereotypes of Native Americans Fenimore The Last respondent to disclose socially undesirable truths. However, there are drawbacks to prolonged engagement as lengthy engagement can lead to bias if the waterlow score researcher over-identifies with the Stereotypes of Native respondent and lose his or her objective, analytic stance, or own sense of identity. The term for this narrative is going native. Notwithstanding, qualitative studies that lack prolonged engagement should be viewed with caution as some authors think that because qualitative inquiries emphasizes flexibility, the label qualitative means anything goes.

The most common example occurs when a researcher thinks that one brief open- ended interview with each respondent is satisfactory (Rubin Babbie, 2009, p.233). Another decisive factor in whether the qualitative research report provides sufficient detail about the studys contexts and participants is to enable readers in other situations to determine if the findings seem likely to apply to the contexts or populations with which they are concerned. Statues Of Zues. Researchers using qualitative observation must fuse two paradoxical perspectives. The first is the Mohicans emic perspective in which they attempt to adopt the beliefs, attitudes, and other points of view shared by the members of the culture being studied. The second is the etic perspective which means maintaining objectivity as an Emma Evidence Thirty Years Before, outsider and in James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, raising questions about the culture being observed that would not occur to waterlow score members of that culture (Rubbin Babbin, 2009). In conclusion, it is true that many people dislike the thought of researching, yet it is also true that once research is initiated, it can be become addictive as the researchers thirst for Americans Fenimore The Last, knowledge is Bovary Freud awakened. It is a positive attribute that quantitative research engages with hard-to-reach populations and offers insight in extremely complex and often hidden social problems. Of Native Americans Fenimore Cooper's The Last. It gives oppressed populations a voice that can pave the way for social inclusion and social justice. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Social work essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is statues of zues qualified to a high level in Stereotypes Americans in James Cooper's, our area of waterlow score, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and Americans Fenimore Cooper's, you could have your customised Social work work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Social work essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to statues of zues provide a citation, as follows:

Essay UK, Essay: The value of qualitative research to social work research . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/social-work/essay-the-value-of-qualitative-research-to-social-work-research/ [05-10-17]. If you are the Americans in James Cooper's The Last original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on Allan Poe's our website then please click on of Native Americans in James Cooper's The Last the link below to request removal: 04-12-15 - Essay: How changing laws, policies and economical ideologies impact on social work practice 10-10-15 - Essay: The value of qualitative research to social work research 21-09-15 - Essay: Social work 17-09-15 - Essay: The Incredible Years Programs 13-09-15 - Essay: The First Response Team 08-09-15 - Essay: Armenian Family Case 25-07-14 - Essay on statues of zues the Multi-Ethnic Placement Act as Amended by the Inter-Ethnic Adoption Provision of of Native Americans in James Fenimore The Last Mohicans, 1996. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 .

Essay Writer for All Kinds of Papers - Last of the Mohicans - Shmoop

Nov 17, 2017 Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans,

Order Essays Online: No Plagiarism And Top Quality - Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film

The Difficult Transition from of Native Cooper's Military to Civilian Life. Military service is travel jane, difficult, demanding and dangerous. But returning to civilian life also poses challenges for the men and women who have served in the armed forces, according to a recent Pew Research Center survey of Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's 1,853 veterans. While more than seven-in-ten veterans (72%) report they had an easy time readjusting to civilian life, 27% say re-entry was difficult for thema proportion that swells to 44% among veterans who served in the ten years since the And Ivan Ilych: Thirty Before, Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Why do some veterans have a hard time readjusting to civilian life while others make the transition with little or no difficulty? To answer that question, Pew researchers analyzed the attitudes, experiences and demographic characteristic of veterans to identify the factors that independently predict whether a service member will have an easy or difficult re-entry experience. Using a statistical technique known as logistic regression, the analysis examined the impact on of Native Americans in James Fenimore Mohicans, re-entry of 18 demographic and attitudinal variables. Four variables were found to Allan Poe's Writing, significantly increase the likelihood that a veteran would have an easier time readjusting to civilian life and of Native in James Cooper's, six factors predicted a more difficult re-entry experience. According to the study, veterans who were commissioned officers and those who had graduated from college are more likely to have an easy time readjusting to Bovary And Ivan Ilych: Evidence Of Psychoanalysis Years Freud, their post-military life than enlisted personnel and Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Mohicans, those who are high school graduates.

1 Veterans who say they had a clear understanding of their missions while serving also experienced fewer difficulties transitioning into civilian life than those who did not fully understand their duties or assignments. In contrast, veterans who say they had an emotionally traumatic experience while serving or had suffered a serious service-related injury were significantly more likely to report problems with re-entry, when other factors are held constant. The lingering consequences of a psychological trauma are particularly striking: The probabilities of an easy re-entry drop from 82% for Allan, those who did not experience a traumatic event to 56% for those who did, a 26 percentage point decline and Stereotypes of Native Americans, the largest changepositive or negativerecorded in Edgar Allan Essay, this study. Of Native In James. 2. In addition, those who served in a combat zone and those who knew someone who was killed or injured also faced steeper odds of an easy re-entry. Travel Jane. Veterans who served in the post-9/11 period also report more difficulties returning to civilian life than those who served in of Native Americans Cooper's Mohicans, Vietnam or the Korean War/World War II era, or in Essay Niccolò Machiavelli's Acquisition, periods between major conflicts. Two other factors significantly shaped the Stereotypes Cooper's The Last, re-entry experiences of post-9/11 veterans but appear to have had little impact on tuckman's group, those who served in previous eras.

Post-9/11 veterans who were married while they served had a significantly more difficult time readjusting than did married veterans of past eras or single people regardless of when they served. At the same time, higher levels of Stereotypes in James religious belief, as measured by frequent attendance at religious services, dramatically increases the odds that a post-9/11 veteran will have an about Niccolò Machiavelli's of Power easier time readjusting to civilian life. According to Stereotypes Americans in James Fenimore The Last, the analysis, a recent veteran who attends religious services at Allan Writing Essay least once a week has a 67 percent chance of having an Stereotypes Americans in James Cooper's The Last Mohicans easy re-entry experience. Among post-9/11 veterans who never attend services, the probability drops to 43%. 3 Among veterans of other eras, current attendance at religious services is not correlated with ease of waterlow score re-entry. Stereotypes Of Native Mohicans. 4. Eight other variables tested in the model proved to be poor predictors of Emma And Ivan Evidence Of Psychoanalysis Years Freud how easily a veteran made the transition from military to civilian life. Americans Fenimore Cooper's. They are race and ethnicity (separate variables tested the Essay, effect of being white, black, Hispanic or some other race); age at time of discharge; whether the Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, veteran had children younger than 18 while serving; how long the veteran was in the military; and how many times the veteran had been deployed. This analysis employs a statistical technique known as logistic regression to measure the effect of any given variable on statues of zues, the likelihood that a veteran had an easy or difficult time re-entering civilian life while controlling for the effects of Stereotypes in James Fenimore Cooper's all other variables. To identify the statues of zues, factors that best predicted an easy re-entry, eighteen independent variables were included in the regression model. The variables were chosen based on their predictive power in previous research.

The demographics were: veterans age at discharge; how long the individual served; the veterans education, race and ethnicity (tested as four separate variables: white, black, Hispanic or some other race); whether the veteran was married or had young children while in the service; highest rank attained; and era in which the veteran served. Other variables tested the impact of specific experiences on re-entry: whether the veteran had been seriously injured while serving; experienced a traumatic or emotionally distressing event; served in Stereotypes of Native Americans, a combat or war zone; or served with someone who had been killed or injured. A question that asked veterans whether they understood most or all of the missions in which they participated also was included. Of the 18 variables in the model, ten turn out to Edgar Writing Essay, be significant predictors of a veterans re-entry experience. Four were positively associated with re-entry: being an officer; having a consistently clear understanding of the missions while in the service; being a college graduate; and, for post-9/11 veterans but not for those of other eras, attending religious services frequently. Six variables were associated with a diminished probability that a veteran had an easy re-entry. They were: having a traumatic experience; being seriously injured; serving in the post-9/11 era; serving in a combat zone; serving with someone who was killed or injured; and, for post-9/11 veterans but not for those of other eras, being married while in Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans, the service. Factors that Make Readjustment Harder.

Overall, the waterlow score, survey found that a plurality of Stereotypes of Native Cooper's The Last Mohicans all veterans (43%) say they had a very easy time readjusting to their post-military lives, and group, 29% say re-entry was somewhat easy. But an additional 21% say they had a somewhat difficult time, and 6% had major problems integrating back into Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last civilian life. Among the 18 variables tested, veterans who experienced emotional or physical trauma while serving are at the greatest risk of having difficulties readjusting to civilian life. According to the analysis, having an emotionally distressing experience reduces the chances that a veteran would have a relatively easy re-entry by 26 percentage points compared with a veteran who did not have an emotionally distressing experience. About. Similarly, suffering a serious injury while serving reduces the probability of an easy re-entry by 19 percentage points, from 77% to Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Mohicans, 58%. Overall, the survey found that serious injuries and exposure to emotionally traumatic events are relatively common in the military. Nearly a third (32%) of all veterans say they had a military-related experience while serving that they found to be emotionally traumatic or distressinga proportion that increases to 43% among those who served since the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. About one-in-ten veterans (10%) suffered a serious injury; of those who served in the post-9/11 era, 16% suffered a serious injury, in about Machiavelli's, part because service members with serious injuries are more likely to of Native Americans in James The Last, survive today than in previous wars, when those with serious injuries died.

The survey also pinpoints some of the specific problems faced by returning service members who suffered service-related emotional trauma or serious injury. More than half (56%) of all veterans who experienced a traumatic event say they have had flashbacks or repeated distressing memories of the experience, and Essay about Niccolò of Power, nearly half (46%) say they have suffered from post-traumatic stress. Of Native Americans Cooper's The Last. 5 Predictably, those who suffer from PTS were significantly less likely to say their re-entry was easy than those who did not (34% vs. 82%). According to the model, serving in statues of zues, a combat zone reduces the chances that a veteran will have an easier time readjusting to of Native Fenimore Cooper's The Last, civilian life (78% for group, those who did not serve in a combat zone to Americans Fenimore The Last Mohicans, slightly more than 71% for those who did). Knowing someone who was killed or injured also lessens the probability that a veteran will have an easy re-entry by six percentage points (73% vs. Edgar Allan. 79%). Many veterans who served after Sept. 11, 2001, have experienced difficulties readjusting to civilian life. The model predicts that a veteran who served in the post-9/11 era is 15 percentage points less likely than veterans of other eras to have an easy time readjusting to life after the military (62% vs.

77%). A word of caution about comparing re-entry experiences between service eras. Those in the post-9/11 era were interviewed relatively soon after they left the Stereotypes Americans Fenimore The Last, military, and Poe's Writing Essay, their views could reflect the Americans Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans, immediacy of their experience and could change over time. Edgar Allan Writing. For earlier generations of veterans, their views could have changed from what their views were at a similar point in their post-military lives. Also, the overall view of veterans of earlier eras could change as members of this generation die and the composition of the cohort becomes different.

As a consequence, these results are best interpreted as the Americans Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans, views and experiences of Essay Niccolò Machiavelli's of Power current living veterans from each era, and not necessarily the views each generation held in Stereotypes Americans in James Fenimore Mohicans, the years immediately after leaving the service. The analysis produced a surprise. Post-9/11 veterans who were married while they were in travel jane, the service also had a more difficult time readjusting to life after the military. Overall, being married while serving reduces the chances of an easy re-entry from 63% to 48%. At first glance, this finding seems counterintuitive. Shouldnt a spouse be a source of comfort and Stereotypes Americans Cooper's The Last Mohicans, support for a discharged veteran? Other studies of the general population have shown that marriage is associated with a number of benefits, including better health and Essay Acquisition, higher overall satisfaction with life. 6. In fact, the answer to another survey question points to Americans Fenimore Mohicans, a likely explanation. Post-9/11 veterans who were married while in the service were asked what impact deployments had on their relationship with their spouse. Nearly half (48%) say the impact was negative, and this group is significantly more likely than other veterans to have had family problems after they were discharged (77% vs.

34%) and to say they had a difficult re-entry. Among those married while they were in the service, about tuckman's group theory six-in-ten (61%) post-9/11 veterans who had experienced marital problems while deployed also had a difficult re-entry. In contrast, about four-in-ten veterans (39%) who reported that deployments had a positive or no impact on Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, their marriage say they had problems re-entering civilian lifevirtually identical to waterlow score, the proportion of then-single post-9/11 veterans (37%) who experienced difficulties re-entering civilian life. Taken together, these findings underscore the Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore The Last, strain that deployments put on a marriage before a married veteran is discharged and after the veteran leaves the waterlow score, service to rejoin his or her family. Factors that Improve the Chances of an Easy Re-entry. Three variables tested in the modelrank at the time of of Native Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans discharge, how well the theory, mission was understood and education levelemerged as statistically significant predictors of an easy re-entry experience for all veterans. A fourth variable, religiosity as measured by service attendance, is a powerful predictor of an easier re-entry experience for Stereotypes of Native Americans in James The Last Mohicans, post-9/11 veterans but not for tuckman's theory, those who served in earlier eras.

The model predicts that commissioned officers are 10 percentage points more likely than enlisted personnel to of Native Americans Fenimore The Last, experience few if any difficulties readjusting to life at home (85% vs. 74%), 7 when all other factors are held constant. Tuckman's Group. Veterans who say they clearly understood their missions while serving also were more likely than those who did not to have an in James Fenimore The Last easier re-entry (77% vs. 67%). 8. College-educated veterans also are predicted to waterlow score, have a somewhat easier time readjusting to life after the military than those with only a high school diploma. According to the analysis, a veteran with a college degree is of Native in James Fenimore Cooper's, five percentage points more likely than a high school graduate to have an Emma Bovary And Ivan Evidence Years Freud easy time with re-entry (78% vs. 73%). Again, a word of of Native in James Fenimore Cooper's caution is in order. Veterans in Niccolò Acquisition of Power, the survey were asked how many years of school they have attended. Some of these college graduates may have earned their degree well after their discharge from the service.

Among the larger factors influencing the re-entry experience of post-9/11 veterans is religious faith, as measured by how often a recent veteran attends religious services. Recent veterans who attend services at least once a week are 24 percentage points more likely to say they had an easy re-entry back into civilian life than those who never attend services (67% vs. Of Native Americans In James Fenimore Cooper's. 43%). This finding is consistent with other studies of the general population that suggest religious belief is correlated with a number of statues of zues positive outcomes, including better physical and emotional health, and Stereotypes of Native in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last, happier and more satisfying personal relationships. 9. The impact of waterlow score religious observance vanishes if the sample is Stereotypes of Native Fenimore Mohicans, based only on waterlow score, those who completed their service before Sept. 11, 2001. Of Native In James The Last Mohicans. In fact, there is barely a one percentage point difference in waterlow score, the probability of an easy re-entry between older veterans who currently attend religious services and those who never do. As noted earlier, one reason for of Native Americans Fenimore The Last, the absence of an impact may be related to travel jane, the question measuring current attendance at religious services. This measure of attendance may be a good proxy for the religious convictions of more recent veterans.

But it may be a poor estimate of how religious older veterans were immediately after they were discharged from the service. Over the years the religious belief of these older veterans may have changed, obscuring the impact of religious conviction on their re-entry experience. An advantage of Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans logistic regression analysis is travel jane, that it estimates the effect of of Native Fenimore Cooper's each variable controlling for the impact of all other variables in the model. For example, service in combat significantly increases the chances of having a difficult time adjusting to Niccolò, life after the military irrespective of the effect of being injured, having a traumatic experience while serving or any of the of Native Cooper's The Last Mohicans, other positive or negative factors included in the model. Waterlow Score. Similarly, being a college graduate increases the predicted chances of an easy re-entryover and above the impact of rank, religiosity and other variables tested. #8617; Most of the Fenimore, estimated effects reported in this study are based on travel jane, the change in in James Fenimore The Last Mohicans, probability between a veteran with a given experience or demographic characteristic (a commissioned officer, served since Sept.

11, 2001, was seriously injured) and those who did not have these experiences or characteristics. Waterlow Score. For some variables, the reported estimates are based on Stereotypes Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, contrasts between two different levels of that variable. For example, the estimated effect of education on re-entry is based on the contrast between those who are college graduates and Poe's, those whose formal education ended with high school graduation. The impact of other education levels was used to model the effect and was estimated but not reported. #8617; A possible explanation of the absence of an effect on Stereotypes Americans Fenimore Cooper's The Last, older veterans is that the religion question asked how often a respondent currently attends religious services. Edgar Essay. For older veterans, this measure may not be a good indicator of religious belief at the time they were discharged. #8617; To estimate the impact of church attendance and marital status while serving on recent veterans, the model was rerun using only the sample of those who served after Sept. 11, 2001. #8617; For a more detailed look at veterans experiences with PTS and other emotional problems, see The Military-Civilian Gap: War and Sacrifice in the Post-9/11 Era, Pew Research Center, Oct. 5, 2011.

For more on of Native in James, the consequences of serious injuries for veterans in later life, see For Many Injured Veterans, a Lifetime of Consequences, Pew Research Center, Nov. 8, 2011. #8617; For summaries of scholarly research into the benefits of travel jane marriage, see Thomas A. Hirschl, Joyce Altobelli, and Mark R. Rank, Does Marriage Increase the Odds of Affluence? Exploring the Americans in James Cooper's The Last, Life Course Probabilities, Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. Group Theory. 65, No. 4 (November 2003), pp. 927938, or Allan V. Horwitz, Helene R. White, and Sandra Howell-White, Becoming Married and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Study of a Cohort of Young Adults, Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 58, No. Fenimore Mohicans. 4 (November 1996), pp. 895907. #8617; These probabilities have been rounded.

The actual percentage-point difference is Allan Poe's, slightly more than 10 percentage points. #8617; This variable was included in of Native in James Mohicans, the model in an attempt to see if veterans who clearly understood their assignments and missions in the military had an easier or harder time readjusting to civilian life than those who did not have a clear understanding. It is possible that the causal relationship may flow in the other direction; that is, having an And Ivan Of Psychoanalysis Thirty Years easy or difficult re-entry may shape veterans judgments about their military experience, including their attitude toward the missions they served. Omitting this variable from the analysis produces no significant changes in the model. #8617; For a summary of some of the benefits of marriage, see The Psychological and Physical Benefits of Spiritual/Religious Practices by in James Fenimore The Last Rutgers University sociologist Ellen L. Waterlow Score. Idler. #8617; For Many Injured Veterans, A Lifetime of of Native Americans Cooper's The Last Consequences. General Public Survey on Veterans Generational Change. Women in the U.S. Military: Growing Share, Distinctive Profile.

Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in the US middle class? Try our income calculator. Fact Tank 09/28/2017. Views about whether whites benefit from tuckman's theory societal advantages split sharply along racial and partisan lines. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in the US middle class? Try our income calculator.

Internet Tech 11/11/2016. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts. Copyright 2017 Pew Research Center About Terms Conditions Privacy Policy Reprints, Permissions Use Policy Feedback Careers.

Please complete all required information marked with * Pew Research Center will not sell any of Stereotypes Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last your personal information.

Best Custom Academic Essay Writing Help & Writing Services UK Online - Cooper s Racial Geography | Early Native American Literature

Nov 17, 2017 Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans,

Best Custom Essay Writing Service Online For Cheap - Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film

Action Verbs #8212; By Skills Categories. Remember to Stereotypes of Native Fenimore, use the below action verbs when describing your skills and Edgar Allan Poe's accomplishments in Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last a resume or cover letterby doing so, you’ll maximize the effectiveness of your accomplishments, and Edgar Poe's Writing make potential employers take notice. Be sure to Stereotypes Americans The Last, use these action verbs in their proper context. Always use action verbs in Edgar Poe's Writing the past tense when describing responsibilities and Stereotypes of Native Americans in James The Last Mohicans accomplishments from a previous job . Travel Jane! Here’s an Stereotypes Americans in James Cooper's Mohicans, example: Trained, led, and supervised a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of online classes. And Ivan Evidence Of Psychoanalysis Thirty Before Freud! Always use action verbs in the present tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments in a current job . Stereotypes Of Native! Remember, these are leads words that start off each descriptive bullet point of a job description. Bovary And Ivan Thirty Years Before! Train, lead, and supervise a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and Stereotypes in James Fenimore The Last writing of online classes. Addressed Advertised Arbitrated Arranged Articulated Authored Clarified Collaborated Communicated Composed Condensed Conferred Consulted Contacted Conveyed Convinced Corresponded Debated Defined Developed Directed Discussed Drafted Edited Elicited Enlisted Explained Expressed Formulated Furnished Incorporated Influenced Interacted Interpreted Interviewed Involved Joined Judged Lectured Listened Marketed Mediated Moderated Negotiated Observed Outlined Participated Persuaded Presented Promoted Proposed Publicized Reconciled Recruited Referred Reinforced Reported Resolved Responded Solicited Specified Spoke Suggested Summarized Synthesized Translated Wrote. Acted Adapted Began Combined Composed Conceptualized Condensed Created Customized Designed Developed Directed Displayed Drew Entertained Established Fashioned Formulated Founded Illustrated Initiated Instituted Integrated Introduced Invented Modeled Modified Originated Performed Photographed Planned Revised Revitalized Shaped Solved. Administered Adjusted Allocated Analyzed Appraised Assessed Audited Balanced Budgeted Calculated Computed Conserved Corrected Determined Developed Estimated Forecasted Managed Marketed Measured Netted Planned Prepared Programmed Projected Qualified Reconciled Reduced Researched Retrieved Slashed Sliced.

Adapted Advocated Aided Answered Arranged Assessed Assisted Clarified Coached Collaborated Contributed Cooperated Counseled Demonstrated Diagnosed Educated Encouraged Ensured Expedited Facilitated Familiarized Furthered Guided Helped Insured Intervened Motivated Prevented Provided Referred Rehabilitated Represented Resolved Simplified Supplied Supported Volunteered. Administered Analyzed Appointed Approved Assigned Attained Authorized Chaired Considered Consolidated Contracted Controlled Converted Coordinated Decided Delegated Developed Directed Eliminated Emphasized Enforced Enhanced Established Executed Generated Handled Headed Hosted Improved Incorporated Increased Initiated Inspected Instituted Led Managed Merged Motivated Navigated Organized Originated Overhauled Oversaw Planned Presided Prioritized Produced Recommended Reorganized Replaced Restored Reviewed Scheduled Secured Selected Streamlined Strengthened Supervised Terminated. Statues Of Zues! Approved Arranged Catalogued Categorized Charted Classified Coded Collected Compiled Corrected Corresponded Distributed Executed Filed Generated Incorporated Inspected Logged Maintained Monitored Obtained Operated Ordered Organized Prepared Processed Provided Purchased Recorded Registered Reserved Responded Reviewed Routed Scheduled Screened Submitted Supplied Standardized Systematized Updated Validated Verified. Analyzed Clarified Collected Compared Conducted Critiqued Detected Determined Diagnosed Evaluated Examined Experimented Explored Extracted Formulated Gathered Inspected Interviewed Invented Investigated Located Measured Organized Researched Reviewed Searched Solved Summarized Surveyed Systematized Tested. Adapted Advised Clarified Coached Communicated Conducted Coordinated Critiqued Developed Enabled Encouraged Evaluated Explained Facilitated Focused Guided Individualized Informed Instilled Instructed Motivated Persuaded Simulated Stimulated Taught Tested Trained Transmitted Tutored. Orlando Haynes is an Stereotypes of Native in James Cooper's Mohicans, author, speaker, CEO, and founder of The Inside Recruiter LLC, a full service career coaching company with one mission: #8220;Taking you from the Emma Bovary And Ivan Ilych: Of Psychoanalysis Thirty Before job seeker to the sought after.#8221; The Inside Recruiter offers a wide array of Stereotypes of Native Americans The Last, career enhancement services, including resume writing, interview coaching, job search assistance, career workshops, and much more. Orlando brings 14 years of experience and insider knowledge to the game, and Emma Ilych: Of Psychoanalysis Thirty Years is ready to Americans in James Fenimore Mohicans, help job seekers realize their career goals and waterlow score dreams. Learn more here. Stereotypes Of Native Fenimore Cooper's The Last! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.

Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Theory! Randall S. Of Native In James Cooper's! Hansen is founder of Edgar Writing, Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on in James Cooper's The Last, the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com.

He is publisher of waterlow score, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in Stereotypes in James Mohicans books, and hundreds of articles. Hes often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.

Hansen is Edgar Poe's Writing Essay also an educator, having taught at Americans Fenimore Cooper's The Last, the college level for more than 15 years. Theory! Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and Stereotypes Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to tuckman's group, go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and Stereotypes of Native Americans Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans scoops for Bovary And Ivan Ilych: Evidence Of Psychoanalysis Thirty job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of of Native in James Fenimore The Last, our previous blog posts.

Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Essay Machiavelli's Acquisition of Power Careerists. Of Native In James The Last! Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of travel jane, Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to Stereotypes Americans Fenimore Mohicans, the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to Essay about Acquisition, the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and Americans Fenimore The Last Mohicans employment section of the tuckman's [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Stereotypes Of Native In James! Customer Service Customer Service.

800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in statues of zues touch with us.

Buy Essay Online Cheap - Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film

Nov 17, 2017 Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans,

Order Essays Online: No Plagiarism And Top Quality - From Jackson to Lincoln: Democracy and Dissent

Case#x02013;Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Our goal was to investigate the association between ADHD and of Native Americans Fenimore Cooper's The Last, blood lead levels (BLLs) in statues of zues Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. We conducted a pair-matching case#x02013;control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4#x02013;12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The case and control children were systematically evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews, including caregiver interviews, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Stereotypes Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, Mental Disorders , 4th ed., revised criteria (DSM-IV-R). We evaluated the association between BLLs and group theory, ADHD using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and the Student t -test for continuous data. We then performed conditional multiple variables logistic regression analyses with backward stepwise selection to predict risk factors for Stereotypes Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans ADHD. There was a significant difference in BLLs between ADHD cases and controls. ADHD cases were more likely to have been exposed to lead during childhood than the non-ADHD control subjects, with adjustment for other known risk factors [children with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL vs. #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.10#x02013;8.77, p #x0003c; 0.01; 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL vs.#x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 3.47#x02013;6.98, p #x0003c; 0.01]. These results were not modified by age and sex variables.

This was the Allan Poe's Writing Essay, largest sample size case#x02013;control study to date to study the association between BLLs and ADHD in Chinese children. Of Native In James Cooper's The Last! ADHD may be an additional deleterious outcome of lead exposure during childhood, even when BLLs are #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders, characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of Of Psychoanalysis Years, inattention, impulsivity, and Stereotypes of Native Americans The Last, hyperactivity [American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2000; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Rappley 2005; Remschmidt 2005]. Edgar Poe's! Prevalence of ADHD in of Native Cooper's The Last children has been reported to be 3#x02013;8% worldwide (Froehlich et al. 2007; Leung et al. 1996; Remschmidt 2005). Children who have ADHD are at increased risk for conduct disorder, antisocial behavior, and drug abuse later in statues of zues life (Satterfield et al. 2007). Moreover, the costs associated with their medical care and education are substantial (Leibson et al.

2001). Although the causes of ADHD remain unclear, both genetic and environmental factors are thought to influence the etiology of Stereotypes of Native in James Fenimore Mohicans, ADHD (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Millichap 2008; Remschmidt 2005; Swanson et al. 2007). Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated high heritability, and waterlow score, various polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes have been found to increase susceptibility to ADHD (Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Durston 2003; Khan and Stereotypes of Native in James Fenimore, Faraone 2006). Furthermore, many environmental risk factors and potential gene#x02013;environment interactions have also been shown to increase the risk for waterlow score the disorder (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; Thapar et al. 2007). Indeed, there is growing interest in studying the relationship between chronic heavy metal toxicity, including lead exposure, and ADHD (Braun et al.

2006; Konofal and Cortese 2007; Millichap 2008; Nigg et al. 2008). Lead is one of the Stereotypes Americans Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, well-established environmental poisons, and its general toxic effects, particularly in tuckman's group children, continue to be a major public health issue worldwide [American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2005; Lidsky and Schneider 2003; Needleman 2004]. It is well known that lead can cause cognitive impairment and correlate with decreased IQ scores and impaired attention (Canfield et al. 2003; Koller et al. 2004), and increased BLLs were associated with higher distractibility and impulsiveness scores in the affected children (Needleman 1993). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Americans in James Fenimore The Last Mohicans Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that child blood lead levels (BLLs) not exceed 10 #x003bc;g/dL (CDC 1991; WHO 1995). Travel Jane! As a result of rapid industrialization in China, it is estimated that tens of millions of children 1#x02013;18 years of age have BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Huo et al.

2007; Ren et al. 2006; Wang and Zhang 2006). Stereotypes In James Cooper's The Last! Furthermore, several recent studies have shown that cognitive deficits and behavioral problems in children still exist even with BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Binns et al. 2007; Braun et al. 2006; Canfield et al. 2003; Koller et al. Edgar Allan Poe's Essay! 2004). Early studies have documented an association between dentine lead, whole-tooth lead, hair lead, and symptoms of inattention (Bellinger et al.

1994a, 1994b; Fergusson et al. 1993; Needleman and Leviton 1979; Needleman et al. 1979; Tuthill 1996), and subsequent studies showed that lead exposure can cause attention deficit disorder and impulsivity (Brockel and Cory-Slechta 1998; Burns et al. 1999; Eppright et al. 1997; Kahn et al. 1995; Minder et al. 1994; Silva et al. Of Native Americans In James! 1988; Thomson et al. 1989; Wasserman et al. 1998, 2001). However, these studies may not be conclusive.

First, few studies have investigated the effect of lead exposure on ADHD formally diagnosed with the waterlow score, established criteria in International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) (WHO 2007) or in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., revised (DSM-IV-R; APA 2000) (Burns et al. 1999; Eppright et al. 1997; Silva et al. 1988). Stereotypes Americans Cooper's Mohicans! Second, most studies were limited by small sample size, and some studies lacked sufficient control of confounding factors (Bellinger et al.

1994b; Minder et al. Bovary And Ivan Of Psychoanalysis Years Before! 1994). Third, early studies involved children who had higher BLLs than the levels seen in contemporary children (Needleman and Leviton 1979; Wasserman et al. 1998) and thus may not be directly relevant to children with lower levels of lead exposure. Of Native Fenimore Mohicans! In addition, there is no investigation of lead exposure and ADHD in Chinese children. Therefore, in an effort to waterlow score evaluate the association between BLLs and the risk for ADHD in Chinese children, we performed a case#x02013;control study involving large samples of children 4#x02013;12 years of of Native Americans in James Fenimore The Last Mohicans, age. We also considered known potential variables in the etiology of ADHD, such as delivery characteristics, perinatal factors, parental psychosocial factors, and prenatal exposure to tobacco and waterlow score, alcohol. This study was designed as a pair-matching case#x02013;control study. Americans Cooper's! ADHD subjects were consecutively recruited from children coming for initial or follow-up assessment from October 2003 to August 2007 in two pediatric clinics at the Anhui Provincial Children#x02019;s Hospital and the Institute of statues of zues, Anhui Traditional Chinese Medicine in Anhui Province, People#x02019;s Republic of China.

The two major hospitals served the same local population in Anhui province and accepted referrals from all administrative districts within the province. All ADHD (ICD-10 codes F90, 208#x02013;210) subjects were children of Chinese Han nationality 4#x02013;12 years of age at the time of investigation and had a lifetime medical history that fully met the DSM-IV-R criteria (APA 2000; Su et al. 2001) for Stereotypes Americans in James The Last Mohicans ADHD. Waterlow Score! The DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria had been previously translated into Chinese, and Americans Cooper's Mohicans, the reliability for the ADHD diagnosis was previously assessed (Su et al. 2001).

The diagnoses of ADHD were derived from Essay about Niccolò, a structured diagnostic interview based on Stereotypes of Native Americans The Last Mohicans Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-E) (Ambrosini 2000), which was modified to assess DSM-IV-R criteria and incorporate parents#x02019; and teachers#x02019; reports of behavioral symptoms, clinical observation of behavior, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (Aman and Singh 1986), and tests of attention such as the Conners#x02019; Continuous Performance Test (Homack and Riccio 2006). The interviews were performed in our outpatient clinic and administered by raters (trained research assistants) to waterlow score children, one of their parents, and their teachers. All the raters, from two involved pediatric clinics, have postgraduate degrees in psychology and had been trained to high levels of interrater reliability. We computed #x003ba; coefficients of agreement between all the raters and three experienced board-certified child psychiatrists who listened to audio taped interviews made by the raters. Americans Fenimore The Last Mohicans! Based on 120 interviews, the median #x003ba; was 0.87; #x003ba; was 0.95 for ADHD. Children with identifiable perinatal insults, autism, Asperger syndrome, other pervasive developmental disorders (ICD-10 codes F84.0#x02013;F84.9, 308.0), and mental retardation (ICD-10 codes F70#x02013;F79, 312#x02013;315) were excluded. The non-ADHD controls were randomly selected from computerized lists of outpatients admitted for travel jane acute upper respiratory infection at the same two pediatric medical clinics during the daytime and during the same study period. By the pair-matched design, each ADHD case and control set had the of Native Cooper's, same sex, the same age (difference between birthdays within 6 months), and almost the group, same level of socioeconomic status (SES). The controls were given the same full diagnostic assessment as the ADHD cases and Stereotypes in James Fenimore The Last, screened only for the absence of ADHD without exclusion of any other diagnosis except for tuckman's the same exclusion criteria applied to cases. SES is measured by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), and PIR is the Stereotypes of Native, ratio of family income to the poverty threshold for the year of the interview.

Low SES was defined as having PIR values #x0003c; 1 in our analysis and high SES as having PIR #x0003e; 3. Waterlow Score! The others were regarded as middle SES. The study was approved by our institutional review boards and complied with all applicable requirements of the United States. Stereotypes Americans In James Cooper's The Last Mohicans! The parents of all the children in this study provided written informed consent at enrollment. Blood samples (2 mL/child) were collected in And Ivan Ilych: Thirty Before heparinized syringes. Lead concentrations were measured by anodic stripping voltametry through a blood lead analysis instrument (3010B; ESA Laboratories, Inc., Chelmsford, MA, USA) after the blood samples were digested with an organic tissue solubilizer. The limit of detection was 1.0 #x003bc;g/dL. No detectable values were given values of 0.70 (1.0 divided by the square root of Americans Fenimore Cooper's, 2).

Lead values were calculated as the means of four analyses of each sample. Epidemiologic studies have shown that male sex, low SES, and young age are associated with a raised prevalence of ADHD. Travel Jane! Moreover, its prevalence falls with age (Biederman and of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last, Faraone 2004; Doyle 2004; Scahill and travel jane, Schwab-Stone 2000). To address these important confounding factors, we employed a pair-match design on age, sex, and SES; thus, the stratified control subjects were at risk at the same sex, age, and SES. In addition, we considered multiple covariates and potential confounders for the association of lead exposure and ADHD in our study. They were based on established predictors of child behavioral problems and Stereotypes Americans Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans, those widely used in travel jane studies of Stereotypes The Last Mohicans, pediatric lead exposure (Banerjee et al. Travel Jane! 2007; Biederman and Stereotypes Americans in James Mohicans, Faraone 2005; Linnet et al. 2003; Mick et al. Essay Niccolò! 2002; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al.

2004; Swanson et al. 2007; Wasserman et al. Stereotypes Of Native In James Fenimore Cooper's The Last! 2001). The following variables were used: family history of ADHD (ADHD in parents and Essay about Machiavelli's, siblings, diagnosed by psychiatrists, obtained from clinical reports), household composition (normal: child lives with biological parents; single: child lives with only one parent; or recombined: child lives in remarried family), maternal tobacco use during pregnancy (at least one cigarette per of Native Americans in James Cooper's day during the last trimester), maternal drinking during pregnancy (at least two glasses per week during the tuckman's, entire pregnancy), labor complications, cesarean delivery, perinatal distress [low birth weight and admission to of Native in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as markers], parents#x02019; age at childbirth, and Allan Poe's, parents#x02019; education. Stereotypes In James Cooper's The Last! Because all the cases recruited were of Chinese Han nationality, the variable of ethnic origin could not be used in statues of zues our analysis. These variables were obtained from clinical records or questionnaires completed by direct interview of the parents. Study factors were defined as binary variables or categorical variables. For example, maternal smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy were recorded as binary variables#x02014;that is, drinker or nondrinker, cigarette smoker or nonsmoker. We analyzed some continuous potential risk factors as categorical variables according to Stereotypes Fenimore Cooper's The Last cut points suggested by statues of zues, the literature. Mohicans! For example, low birth weight is typically defined as #x0003c; 2,500 g (St Sauver et al. Waterlow Score! 2004).

Maternal and paternal age were analyzed as three categories (St Sauver et al. Of Native Americans In James Fenimore Cooper's The Last! 2004): #x0003c; 20 years, 20#x02013;30 years, and #x0003e; 30 years of waterlow score, age. Maternal and paternal education were analyzed as #x02264; 9 years of compulsory education, high school education (9#x02013;12 years), or some college or advanced training (#x02265; 12 years). The association between BLLs and ADHD was evaluated using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and Stereotypes of Native in James Fenimore Cooper's, the Student t -test for continuous data. We also performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with a binary outcome of ADHD in relation to BLLs, adjusting for other potential confounding factors (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000). Statues Of Zues! In the regression model, BLLs were analyzed as an ordered categorical variable and recorded as three categories: #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL, and Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans, #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. We then performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise procedures based on Niccolò of Power the maximum partial likelihood estimates to construct a final best-fit logistic regression models to identify predictors of risk for ADHD among known risk factors and BLLs. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for differing levels of exposure.

All statistical tests were considered to Stereotypes of Native in James Fenimore Cooper's be significant at an alpha level of 0.05 on a two-tailed test and performed with the statues of zues, statistical software SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The analysis included 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD control subjects matched by age, sex, and SES. There were 434 sets of boys and 196 sets of girls. The average ages were 7.9 #x000b1; 2.1 years. The mean BLLs were 8.77 #x000b1; 3.89 #x003bc;g/dL in the ADHD group and 5.76 #x000b1; 3.39 #x003bc;g/dL in the control group. The ADHD group had higher BLLs ( p #x0003c; 0.05, see Table 1 ). There was no significant difference in BLLs between males and females. Figure 1 shows BLL distribution and cumulative distribution of ADHD children and controls. Of Native! Only 10.1% of waterlow score, non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas this percentage increased significantly to 24.4% in ADHD children. (#x003c7; 2 = 237, p #x0003c; 0.01). In addition, 49.8% of non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas of the ADHD cases, 74.7% had BLLS #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL (#x003c7; 2 = 116, p #x0003c; 0.01).

Additional information in demographic and of Native Americans The Last, the distribution of risk factors are shown in Niccolò Machiavelli's Acquisition Table 2 . We performed a conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis with all variables (BLLs and Stereotypes of Native Americans Fenimore Cooper's The Last, all risk factors) simultaneously included in the same model to adjust for each other. We found that the tuckman's, ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs (OR = 5.19, p #x0003c; 0.01 for of Native The Last children with BLLs 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 7.15, p #x0003c; 0.01 for with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, using the sample with BLLs #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL as referent) and family history of ADHD (OR = 4.54, p #x0003c; 0.01, compared with the sample without familial ADHD history). Travel Jane! The risk for ADHD decreased as the mother#x02019;s education level increased (OR = 0.69, p = 0.017, using the Stereotypes in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last, sample of #x02264; 9 years maternal education as referent). The analysis also found an association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy, but the travel jane, p- value is Stereotypes Americans Fenimore Cooper's, near the significant threshold (OR = 4.04, p = 0.047). The remaining confounding variables in our analysis were not associated with ADHD status ( Table 2 ).

To eliminate multivariable interaction and statues of zues, multicollinearity, we then performed a backward stepwise logistic regression based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates. Stereotypes In James Fenimore Mohicans! In the final best-fit model, the association between ADHD and tuckman's group theory, maternal smoking during pregnancy was excluded, but ORs for of Native in James Fenimore The Last Mohicans the associations between ADHD and family history of ADHD, maternal education levels, and BLLs were largely unchanged from estimates obtained in the original model used in Table 2 ( Table 3 ). We also performed a conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis stratified by Essay about Niccolò Machiavelli's Acquisition of Power, sex and age. As with the total sample, ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs than the lower BLLs in all subdefinitions ( Table 4 ), which indicates that increased risk for ADHD associated with BLLs is not modified by age and sex. We examined the in James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, effect of BLLs in ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls with adjustment for most other known risk factors in waterlow score Chinese children 4#x02013;12 years of age. We found ADHD cases were more likely to have been exposed to lead. The children with BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL had 4.1- to 8.7-fold higher risk for in James Fenimore Mohicans ADHD.

Even when their BLLs were under the recommended level but #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, the risk also showed a 3.5- to 7.0-fold increase. Family history of ADHD was another positive high-risk factor. Decreased risk for about Niccolò ADHD was associated with higher maternal education. Lead may play important roles in the etiology of ADHD. Recently, Braun et al. Stereotypes Americans Cooper's Mohicans! (2006) analyzed data from a U.S population-based sample and concluded that prenatal tobacco exposure and environmental lead are risk factors for ADHD; they found 4.1-fold increased odds of ADHD with increased BLLs. Edgar Poe's Essay! Our work confirmed this finding in the referred sample that relied on the DSM-IV-R criteria.

In addition, Nigg et al. Of Native In James Fenimore Mohicans! (2008) reported that low-level lead exposure was associated with formal clinical diagnostic ADHD by DSM-IV-R criteria in And Ivan Ilych: Evidence Of Psychoanalysis Thirty a community sample in Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last the United States, where regulations have reduced the incidence of lead poisoning and the current population average of lead levels is relatively lower. This is consistent with our finding that the risk of ADHD was associated with low lead exposures (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL) in Chinese children. Emma Ilych: Evidence Of Psychoanalysis Thirty Freud! Some studies documented varying behavioral effects of lead exposure in males and in James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, females (Burns et al. 1999; Ris et al. 2004). However, in our study, sex and age did not modify the relationship between BLLs and ADHD. Emma Thirty Years Before Freud! Further studies investigating how neurobehavioral outcome varies with sex and of Native Americans Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, age may be required. In our study, the absence of about Machiavelli's, a statistically significant association between maternal smoking and ADHD was unexpected, in contrast to of Native Americans Cooper's Mohicans previous reports (Braun et al. 2006; Linnet et al.

2003; Swanson et al. 2007). The reason might be that, in China, few women smoke during pregnancy and throughout life, which limits the statues of zues, statistical power in detecting a significant difference. Stereotypes In James Fenimore Cooper's The Last Mohicans! Another reason might be that smoking and drinking variables of the mother were recorded as a dichotomy in our study, and the threshold to tuckman's group theory define the variables may underreport in utero smoke and alcohol exposure. This potential misclassification might underestimate the true association between pregnancy smoking and ADHD. Our study found higher maternal education was associated with decreased risk for ADHD. Americans In James The Last Mohicans! This result is consistent with previous work, which indicated that low maternal education, low SES, and tuckman's group theory, single parenthood are important adverse factors for ADHD (Biederman and Cooper's Mohicans, Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004). Apart from environmental risk factors for Machiavelli's Acquisition ADHD, our current report indicated that children with a family history of ADHD were more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. It is also consistent with previous work, which showed that ADHD is transmitted in families (Biederman and Faraone 2002, 2005; Millichap 2008).

Although our study showed the association between lead and ADHD, we cannot explain clearly the mechanism that underlies the of Native in James Cooper's The Last Mohicans, relationship. As for the etiology of ADHD, dopamine system dysfunction has important effects (Biederman and Faraone 2002; Swanson et al. 2007). There is Essay Acquisition, extensive evidence that lead alters midbrain/striatal dopamine functioning as well as gene expression in the striatum (Cory-Slechta 1995; Kala and Jadhav 1995; Szczerbak et al. Of Native Americans Cooper's The Last! 2007), so the tuckman's, neurotoxic effect of lead on the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system may be implicated in the pathway to ADHD. Stereotypes Americans Mohicans! Lead exposure could represent a hidden major effect on ADHD incidence via genotype by environmental interaction (Swanson et al. 2007). The strengths of this study are as follows: a ) Our sample size was the travel jane, largest to Stereotypes Fenimore Cooper's date in case#x02013;control studies to investigate BLLs and ADHD. b ) The ADHD diagnosis was made through an group theory, extensive clinical evaluation based on the DSM-IV-R diagnostic instrument and performed by child and adolescent psychiatrists. c ) The investigators matched the Stereotypes of Native Americans in James The Last Mohicans, cases and controls on potentially important aspects such as age, sex, or SES.

This is important because lead levels are highest among younger children compared with adolescents, and ADHD is of higher prevalence among children of elementary and waterlow score, middle-school age. This study suggests that there is a link between ADHD and BLLs, and the results reinforced findings from in James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans, previous studies (Braun et al. 2006; Nigg et al. 2008). If on further inquiry these associations are found to be causal, lead exposure may represent a modifiable risk factor for this common psychiatric condition of Essay, childhood.

Considering that ADHD typically starts in early childhood and that lead poisoning is Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's, one of the Essay Machiavelli's of Power, most common and entirely preventable pediatric problems (AAP 2005; CDC 1991), strategies in public health must focus on Stereotypes Fenimore Cooper's The Last practicing primary and secondary prevention of statues of zues, lead exposure in children. For example, clinicians should alert parents to in James Fenimore Cooper's Mohicans potential adverse outcomes of lead associated with this disorder. In addition, routine screening for lead exposure may be needed so that if ADHD symptoms emerge, they can be managed at an early stage. Moreover, BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL also indicated a risk factor. This may suggest that the Essay about Acquisition of Power, lower standard may effectively protect children from the harmful effects of lead, which is consistent with previous investigations (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003; Surkan et al. Stereotypes Americans Cooper's! 2007). Some studies (Ruff et al.

1993; Tong et al. 1998) found an association between declining BLLs and improved cognitive test scores, independent of whether iron or chelation therapy was administered. However, other works (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003) indicated that the damage caused by blood lead exposure is irreversible. Theory! Further epidemiologic studies and Fenimore Cooper's, rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether chelation therapy or removal of possible lead exposure sources might help children with ADHD. This study has several limitations.

First, temporality between high BLLs and ADHD could not be ascertained definitely in group theory this case#x02013;control design. It is of Native Americans Fenimore The Last Mohicans, possible that hyperactive children ingest more lead rather than that lead causes hyperactivity. Therefore, further studies with serial lead measurements, even from the group, antenatal to the postnatal period, and Americans in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last, more continuous measures of ADHD symptoms or of specific underlying neurobehavioral domains may be required to document the Evidence, temporal relationship between lead exposure and development of ADHD. Second, some might argue that concurrent blood lead tests are not an adequate biomarker of a child#x02019;s lifetime exposure. However, recent studies indicate that concurrent BLLs are a stronger predictor of lead-associated IQ decrements than blood lead measured during early childhood (Lanphear et al. 2005). Third, recall bias is one of the problems of the Stereotypes of Native in James Cooper's The Last, case#x02013;control study. In this study, the main variable of tuckman's, interest was the BLLs, which were objectively measured. However, other variables such as in utero tobacco and alcohol exposure may be susceptible to recall bias. Fourth, the cohort was not a random population sample, so potential selection biases cannot be fully ruled out.

In addition, because all our sample was Chinese Han, no children living in foster families were included, and none of the sample had health insurance, our results may not generalize to children with different socioeconomic or ethnic backgrounds. Finally, it is interesting that Nigg et al. (2008) found a significant relationship between combined-type ADHD and low-level lead exposure but not predominantly inattentive type and lead exposure. Stereotypes In James Fenimore Mohicans! However, we were unable to do analogous analyses by subtype because of the constraints of the study matching scheme. This hospital-based case#x02013;control study suggests a strong relationship exists between ADHD and lead exposure, even low-level lead exposure (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL BLL), in Edgar Poe's Writing Chinese children. If this finding is confirmed in future studies, the potential to Stereotypes of Native Americans in James Cooper's prevent ADHD by reducing childhood lead exposure should be considered.