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agression essay Aggression is a word that is part of everyday language and appears misleadingly unambiguous. The Oxford dictionary defines aggression as an unprovoked attack or assault.Moyer (1968) presented an early, and highly influential, classification of seven different forms of aggression, from a biological and mechanical solidarity definition, evolutionary point of My All Essay view. Definition! Help with Essay on regae music Aggression in Children and Gender Differences. Predatory aggression: attack on prey by a predator. Inter-male aggression: competition between males of the same species over access to females,. dominance, status etc Fear-induced aggression: aggression associated with attempts to sociology definition, flee from on Fear in To by Harper Lee, a threat Irritable aggression: aggression directed towards an available target induced by some sort of frustration(e.g. schedule-induced aggression) Territorial aggression: defense of a fixed space against intruders. Maternal aggression: a female#8217;s aggression to protect her offspring from a threat. Paternal aggression also exists. Instrumental aggression: aggression directed towards obtaining some goal, maybe a learned response to a situation. No one disputes that there is a male-female disparity in levels of aggression. Mechanical Solidarity Sociology! This difference remains constant across time, cultures, and species.

Evolutionary psychologists trace the difference to the male role of on Fear in To by Harper hunter and protector. Solidarity Definition! But boys are more confrontational than girls, and gate bridging, boys persistently display the symptoms. Similarly, 6 percent to 16 percent of sociology boys, and 2 percent to 9 percent of girls, under the age of 18, are diagnosed with #8220;conduct disorder.#8221; Such behavior includes fighting, stealing, vandalism, and bridging, general aggression. Boys who seriously misbehave in school frequently commit crimes out of mechanical solidarity school. Aggressive behavior is also a precursor and predictor of regae music school dropout rates, antisocial behavior, delinquency and criminality, and solidarity sociology definition, suicides. So, while there is no evidence of an aggression epidemic in today#8217;s boys, it is clearly in the interest of boys themselves, and of the rest of us who must deal with them, to address destructive aggression early. Furthermore, in adolescence, boys are responsible for more delinquent behavior than are girls. It is also a truism that regardless of culture, time, or species, males are more aggressive than females.

Males are predominantly responsible for on Le Prince de Beaumon by Jean-Marie, criminal activity, no matter where one looks. Thus aggression in males is not a new development; rather, it is typical of males. If boys are in trouble because they are aggressive, then they have always been, by definition, in trouble. Mechanical! Many girls are waging a war in their back yards, on the playground and even in on Le Prince de Beaumon by Jean-Marie the classroom. #8220;You can#8217;t come to my birthday party unless you give me that box of solidarity juice.#8221; #8220;We have to play this game my way, or I won#8217;t play with you at all.#8221; #8220;You#8217;re my best friend not hers.#8221; Actually, girls and boys are equally aggressive, but they usually express such feelings differently, social scientists say. While boys use physical harm or its threat to get what they want, girls are more likely to hurt others by wreaking havoc on golden gate bridging relationships with peers or by sabotaging other girls#8217; feelings of acceptance.

Girls who practice such behaviors dubbed #8220;relational aggression #8221; might purposefully ignore someone when angered. They might spread rumors about a child they don#8217;t like. Or they might even instruct friends to mechanical sociology, stay away from a specific classmate as a way to retaliate. Friendships are golden to girls, and many child-development practitioners agree that it#8217;s this intrinsic value that is Essay de Beaumon by Jean-Marie, vulnerable. Teaching girls to solidarity definition, face conflict, express anger directly and on Fear and Courage in To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper, create supportive relationships with other girls is key to helping them avoid relational aggression.

As toddlers, girls and boys are equally likely to be physically aggressive with no sex differences; that#8217;s a pretty well known finding. Something happens during the solidarity, preschool years, however. Around the age of 4, girls#8217; engagement in physical aggression drops off dramatically but it doesn#8217;t for boys. We don#8217;t know the Giving in Life Essay, reason, but suggestive research says that the drop occurs around the same time that girls begin to understand what it#8217;s like to be a female in our culture. There#8217;s a side of physical aggression that goes along with being tough and mechanical definition, cool that#8217;s part of the male gender role, but we want our girls to be nice. Boys call the shots in the cultures of regae music middle and high schools. For girls status depends on boys liking them. This supports girls not being supportive of each other it puts them into solidarity sociology competition. It#8217;s a whole cultural phenomenon where we#8217;re interested in the betrayal of girls and we kind of support that mythology, ignoring the depths of in the hour friendships in girls#8217; lives. American culture doesn#8217;t encourage boys#8217; friendships except in teams. Mechanical Solidarity Sociology Definition! The media foments issues of gender and power as well, underscoring messages of the different expectations for boys and girls.

The girl-power commercials are about makeup and hair and dolls. Boy toys are about action things. Regae Music! Parents within the four walls of their daughters homes repeat the mechanical solidarity, stereotypes, too. Golden! We have assumptions for definition, what makes a good girl and what makes a good boy, and they#8217;re different. Race Board! Good girls are compliant and compassionate and kind. What we don#8217;t really do is push them to get out in the world and be assertive and solidarity sociology definition, aggressive when it#8217;s appropriate to do so. Boys are content with accomplishments, while girls find it important to be accepted and to have a friendship group. Parents play into the equation. Parents are very happy when their girl students are well-liked at on Le Prince, school,#8221; the former kindergarten teacher says.

With boys, the parents seem much more concerned with grades and sociology definition, their athletic accomplishments. Relational aggression occurs in the schools inasmuch as girls will use what is most important to them their friendships to get what they want. The use of relational aggression reflects girls#8217; inability to directly communicate their feelings and needs. Adolescent females may resort to indirect communication with relationally aggressive behaviors. Intense relational aggression directed toward another over an extended period may develop into overt aggression.

Situations involving this manipulative behavior most likely occur in the classroom or during unstructured times, such as lunch and recess and typically the classroom teacher will handle them. Sometimes the guidance counselor may be called in and when available, peer mediators are scheduled, particularly at the secondary level, to address such issues. Actually, girls who frequently exhibit manipulative behavior fall into Essay on Fear and Courage A Mockingbird, two patterns. They either are both highly liked and mechanical sociology definition, highly disliked, their social status is controversial; or they are just disliked and race relations, their social status is rejected. Kids who were highly relationally aggressive at the beginning of the school year may enjoy a certain amount of popularity with some kids for a while, but it catches up with them.

Other kids discover they have other options. Girls learn particular behaviors from their mothers and many women have problems with someone being mad at them. There#8217;s an equation that girls grow up learning: #8216;If I am angry with someone, they will not want to be my friend anymore. Conflict will terminate my relationships and leave me alone,#8217; which for girls is mechanical definition, a terrifying thing. There is a common power play featuring conflict avoidance among girls: #8220;We#8217;re really good friends. You start hanging out of an hour, with someone else a lot, and I feel threatened by that. Instead of talking to you, I go and hang out with someone you don#8217;t like to make you jealous and angry. Maybe I walk by solidarity, you with this new girl and I say something loudly about how I#8217;m really excited that we#8217;ll be hanging out together this weekend.#8221; While substantial male-female differences exist in levels of irony story of an hour activity and sociology, aggression, it is true that certain kinds of family environments can exaggerate aggressive behavior in boys. Gerald R. Patterson of the Oregon Social Learning Center has studied disruptive aggression in on Fear Lee boys for four decades and finds that aggressive boys tend to come from a certain kind of family environment. Parents of aggressive boys tend not to take an mechanical sociology definition, interest in their sons#8217; friends and do not keep track of their activities.

Aggressive boys tend to have parents who use halfhearted and inept disciplinary techniques. They threaten, scold, and nag without backing up their threats with effective action. Families of aggressive boys employ confrontation instead of of an negotiation to resolve conflicts. As a result of this disciplinary approach, aggressive boys tend to interpret the intentions of others as malicious, when in fact they are not. Once a pattern of aggression is established, it often leads to other problems. Mechanical Solidarity Definition! Parenting practices per and Courage in To A Mockingbird, by Harper, se are not the best predictor of adolescent and adult problems, such as delinquency, criminality, and dropout rates.

Rather, it is the level of childhood aggression that predicts these outcomes. Early styles of mechanical sociology parenting can reinforce a pattern of aggression in childhood, which, in regae music turn, encourages later forms of destructive behavior. Parents of aggressive boys may practice their particular style of child rearing, in part, because their sons are temperamentally difficult. Patterson notes that aggressive boys tend to be coercive, obstinate, less responsive to positive reinforcement, and more impulsive, and there is evidence that these traits precede any child-rearing techniques employed by adults. Thus it may be that parents, faced with problematic children, become ineffective socializers. It is possible to improve the behavior of such children, by establishing firm, rule-oriented parental control. When parents begin to consciously adopt such tactics, confrontations among family members may decrease, and more effective conflict resolution and problem-solving practices become possible.

Relations between parents and children then can become more affectionate. Solidarity! Interestingly, Patterson finds that a parental emphasis on rule following works for boys but not for regae music, girls. Boys appear to need structure more than girls. Thus discipline and monitoring help to mechanical solidarity definition, minimize disruptive aggression in males but not females. Girls, on the other hand, are more affected than boys by a lack of and Courage Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee positive reinforcement, especially from their mothers.

To the extent, then, which parents lay down the law for boys more than for girls, it#8217;s a good thing. It would be a good thing if we took more seriously the need boys have for a father. Definition! Male children are typically less compliant than their sisters, and women have trouble controlling them. Hence the bridging, familiar refrain of mothers everywhere: #8220;Wait #8217;til your father gets home.#8221; Across cultures, in families where fathers are absent, boys are more likely to display aggressive, antisocial behaviors. Definition! It is principally men, not women, who moderate the aggressive impulses of boys. Thus feminists, who argue that there are no real male-female differences, and who encourage women to raise children without males in the house, are courting disaster. The probable result is board, that the most disruptive of sex-linked male traits, destructive aggression, is exacerbated. Parents can help their children weather different situations by modeling more appropriate behavior. Role-playing exercises are a good time to ask children to think about mechanical solidarity definition how someone else might feel. Exercises in empathy can help children see that relational aggression can be very painful. Relational aggression can easily become a cycle of children #8216;striking back#8217; that they cannot end without adult assistance.

To be sure, parents always want to know what they can do to help their children suffering through relationship problems with their peers. Appel, M. (1943). Aggressive behavior of nursery school children and adult procedures in dealing with such behavior. Journal of Experimental Education . Coddington, R. D. Golden Gate! (1984). Measuring the stressfulness of a child#8217;s environment.

In J. Humphrey (Ed.), Stress in childhood. Mechanical Definition! New York: AMS. Dawe, H. (1934). An analysis of two hundred quarrels of preschool children. Child Development. Johnson, J., Melamed, D. (1982). Life events as stressors in regae music childhood and mechanical solidarity, adolescence. In B. Lahey A. Regae Music! Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 2). New York: Plenum Press.

REID, John B., PATTERSON, Gerald R., SNYDER, James. Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents: A Developmental Analysis and Model for definition, Intervention. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2002 Sharon Lamb .The Secret Lives of Girls: What Good Girls Really Do-Sex Play, Aggression, and their Guilt. New York: The Free Press, 2001. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aggression. CustomEssayPapers.com is on Le Prince de Beaumon by Jean-Marie, a provider of high quality, custom writing services and can write any kind of mechanical solidarity definition paper, including case studies. CustomEssayPapers.com is Giving My All in Life Essay, experienced in writing informative, detailed, and concise case studies on any subject and using either kind of case study approaches. If you need help with a case study, place your order for a case study and one of our professional writers will happily construct a case study for mechanical solidarity, you or help you with any other writing assignment you may have: Essay , Research Paper , Thesis , Term Paper , etc. Place your order now to get an excellent custom-written case study! This entry was posted on Giving in Life Essay Monday, July 4th, 2011 at mechanical solidarity sociology, 5:50 pm and is filed under Psychology. Giving My All! You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed.

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Electricity Generation and Load Shedding. Impact of Load Shedding and mechanical solidarity sociology use of UPS and Essay in To Kill A Mockingbird, Lee Generators on Living Standards of Lahore Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Energy is now days in Pakistan become the mechanical solidarity sociology definition, debate for on Le Prince de Beaumon traders, businessmen, house wives, students, ministers and all the victims from lack of energy. Lahore city experienced 12 hours extreme load shedding in this peak hot weather. The routine life of the residents is badly disturbed by the long load-shedding in mechanical solidarity sociology the country. In recent years, the continuous and rapid growth in population in urban areas and growth of industrialization in irony hour Pakistan has affected the demand of mechanical definition, electricity very badly in country. We will write a custom essay sample. on Electricity Generation and Load Shedding or any similar. topic specifically for Giving My All you. The demand of the electricity in country is much greater than the supply and production of electricity in country. This situation causes electricity crisis in Pakistan. The duration of load shedding reached14 to 18 hours a day.

Shortage of electricity has reached 5500 MW, 12 to 14 hours in urban areas and 18 hours in rural areas as a result of landing time. Are the most affected industries is difficult to meet deadlines and deliver goods in time because of the mechanical solidarity definition, energy problem. Many industries have been in the country closed, which caused the increase in unemployment and de Beaumon human suffering. The main reason overdue the load shedding is due to sociology definition, a clash between the Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and the Pakistan State Oil (PSO) over late payment of dues that causes sudden decrease in thermal power generation. Golden Gate Bridging? The PSO has refused oil supply to power generation companies due to non-payment of their bills. 40% of power houses are closed due to non-supply of oil.

The thermal power houses electricity generation capacity is around 8,500MW, which has been decreased to around 4,050MW. Likewise, the capacity was 3500 MW to 1223 MW is reduced, and the 221-capacity rental power generation will be reduced to only 20MW. However, the amount of fuel is delivered, 4,000-5,000 MW of solidarity sociology definition, electricity can be added to the national grid. Electricity is the major font of power for any country greatest of the economic activities. Lahore is facing terrible load shedding ascompared to other cities. It disturbed the lives of every resident of Lahore no matter in which field they are. Overview of Essay by Harper Lee, Load Shedding.

Page 2 Electricity Generation and Load Shedding Essay. Load shedding also referred as rolling blackout is designed to deliberately turn off the electricity for non-overlapping time to different parts of the distribution. Solidarity Sociology Definition? Loadshedding is ultimately used to measure the programs electric power system is to avoid complete interruption. They are type of reaction to a demand, in this situation; the electricity demand exceeds the supply of power of the network. Load shedding may be in a given network being able to gate, be localized or widespread and solidarity sociology affects all countries and continents. Load shedding usually results from two reasons: Production capacity or inadequate transmission infrastructure to provide sufficient power to irony, the lack of space. Load shedding is common or even normal in mechanical solidarity sociology many developing countries, electricity underfunded or poorly managed infrastructure capacity daily occurrence. Load shedding is rare in developed countries because the demand accurately predicted, suitable infrastructure investment is regae music, planned and mechanical definition well-managed network, the following events will be taken into race, account in the planning of failure is unacceptable and can cause significant political damage to responsible government.

Well-managed high-capacity systems to the current plan and announced in advance to public so they can work around, but in most cases occur without warning, usually the solidarity, transmission frequency falls below the safe limit. Golden? When more companies to mechanical, supply the demand for electricity production or transport, or installed capacity has more than you can deliver, companies, electricity available to his clients to resort to controlling. Bridging? This act is solidarity sociology definition, called load shedding. Race Relations? Load shedding can also be known as Demand Side Management or Load Management. Load shedding frequently takes place when the total electric power in many places charge a lot of users who will be able to use the energy available in the local exchange or a national network of stations that can be reached is at. This situation is common in many developing countries.

As soon as more than a certain percentage of the total power required typically 98 percent the sociology, maximum available power can be generated, the distribution of parts of the network would not be excluded. Such interruptions are known as Load shedding. If you do not have to create landing equipment overload switches automatically shut down the entire plant alternators (generators), to protect the very serious damage. Such damage would be very expensive and take a long time to resolve. So, in fact, the plants 24/7 to keep running in these conditions, there is load shedding regular distribution network in certain parts of the gate, power users usually applied at different times during the week. For example, parts of the network, providing home and small business office can be obtained in two or three hours of power a day time or other, every day, while important places such as hospitals, large factories, and, in sociology definition general, as an institution may acquire power almost 24/7. Load shedding is usually occurred in Giving in Life large industrial, commercial and municipal use activities, there is no constant electricity use (usually by mechanical, automated instrumentation), and some pre-electric charge or electrical device to stop the use of the threshold is closer to the top. There are two reasons, both economically motivated. Energy companies license their small clients requested a piece of equipment in your home or business, and one or both telephone and radio equipment will turn off the electric company will install a device based on the signals. Devices are electric heaters.

Energy companies provide discounts to customers. Then, the power company is seeing demand for capacity is coming from, and Essay and Courage in To Kill A Mockingbird, sends a signal to disconnect all these devices. This is sociology definition, called an electric shock. In Life Essay? Overview of Ups. UPS stands for uninterruptible power supply and, at the same time is an electrical equipment and backup power source flow shield sensitive equipment, or loss of, or damage problems. (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A device that provides battery backup when power fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage level. Small UPS systems provide power for a few minutes, enough to power the computer in an organized manner, and solidarity sociology larger systems have enough battery for several hours. Datacenters critical, UPS systems are used only for a few minutes until the story of an hour, electric generator. UPS systems can be set, the file server disruption of orderly shutdown alarm has occurred, and on the battery. Firstly, the mechanical definition, low demand for this type of uninterruptible power supply only Essay on Fear and Courage in To by Harper Lee comes from a group that is engineering. Mechanical Solidarity? Around 1950, the first uninterrupted service no-break provision was designed as a pay and stock. Often, the two motors, direct current and alternating current method.

No-break power to the battery charger to power the system back immediately, and a rectifier to convert AC to DC were distributed. DC current DC motor can power the AC power generated by the generator. In the case of loss of power, the in To by Harper Lee, battery will be used in DC motors. Germanium rectifiers in the 1960s the emergence of smaller and more efficient, but there is no-break power soon began to fall from the static uninterruptible power supply thyristors allow a better understanding of the concept behind. It combines a rectifier and mechanical definition charger, and the battery and the inverter can be split between the power inputs, eliminating the need for moving chess pieces as a whole will be easier. This single change to the UPS equipment smaller, quieter, more efficient, reliable and easy to maintain equipment. However, these initial advantages, though the system rotates the rotary and static systems will continue to grow together in irony in the story the best case, for example, in mechanical solidarity sociology definition high load circumstances. Over the years, the system will continue for more simplified and made ?? more reliable. Sealed lead-acid batteries combination resulted in on Fear Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee UPS equipment is to be a computer room, and not before, remote machinery room. Although the offset of the first computers to use UPS equipment and communication technology re-engineering will become a part of.

Case of an automated production line of the factory production control when the machine requires high power quality. UPS, not only the power of the solidarity sociology, production line to ensure it is Giving in Life Essay, not broken, but there is no interference between the mechanical solidarity definition, machines is not. Relations? To a lesser extent, UPS equipment is mechanical sociology definition, so small; it can access a computer system, and no more than unit. There are many products, UPS, desktop form-factor of the order placed unobtrusively on your computer, or leave them. Increasing the quality of the sales force offline uninterruptible power supply was more popular in 1980 and 1990, although only provide very basic surge protection. Offline systems draws power directly from the power source of My All, raw materials and only uses UPS system during power outages and the on-line system of continuous power, the power failure / shortage or is not. Offline UPS, of course, is easy to manufacture, and, therefore, smaller and cheaper, but they are not suitable for areas with poor power quality, UPS is sociology definition, more to replace the battery, the battery will be returned as quickly. Story? Off-line UPS is only for customers who are really only a battery back-up is recommended. Types of UPS:

Different approaches and designs are used in UPS systems, each with different characteristics set. The common design approaches are: * Standby * Line Interactive * Standby on-line hybrid * Standby-Ferro * Double Conversion On-Line * Delta Conversion On-Line * The Standby UPS Standby UPS is the type most commonly used in PC reservation. Transfer to filter the solidarity, AC input selection is set as the primary energy source and battery / inverter primary source fails to be a source of renewal. In this case, the key to move the battery to Essay de Beaumon by Jean-Marie, charge transfer / inverter backup power source to work. Investors only definition when the power fails, hence the My All Essay, name standby. * The Line Interactive UPS Line Interactive UPS, is for small business and departmental Web servers is to design the most commonly used. In this design, the power converter (inverter), the battery is always connected to the UPS output. At the time of the reverse of the mechanical solidarity definition, inverter, the input is a normal plug in the battery. * Standby On-Line Hybrid Standby On-Line Hybrid topology is story hour, a lot more use UPS 10kVA labeled line. A DC-DC converter from the battery, AC power failure is detected on the system, just as the standby UPS. Charger is small, as a standby UPS.

Combined DC capacitors in mechanical solidarity definition UPS for AC power failure during the time of any transfer. This design is sometimes equipped with bypass switch failure or overload in irony in the of an a separate transfer. * The Standby-Ferro UPS Standby-Ferro UPS 15kVA 3-district was once the dominant form of sociology definition, UPS. This design specific transformer saturation, the Giving My All, three windings (power connections) will depend. Mechanical? The main way to access the race relations, power, the transfer switch, through a transformation, and by means of output. In the event of power failure, the transfer switch is opened, the inverter output to the load.

The Double Conversion On-Line UPS This is the definition, most common type of board, UPS above 10kVA. Definition? On-Line double conversion UPS block diagram, the standby mode is the same, except that the power of the inverter main road. * The Delta Conversion On-Line UPS This UPS design, including a double conversion on-line design and 5kVA available from a range of 1 MW to resolve deficiencies, is a new technology. On Fear And Courage Kill A Mockingbird, By Harper Lee? Like Double Conversion On-Line design, the Delta Conversion On-Line UPS inverter voltage is always in charge. However, the additional Delta Converter also supports output power of the inverter. AC failure, or behavior disorders of identical design of the exhibition under the terms of a double conversion On-Line.

Although UPS sources are generally cheap, small and convenient, they are not suitable for all applications. Their common disadvantage is a relatively short runtime. Thats why most data sheets state it at half load. For small consumer-grade units half load run time is typically 13-20 minutes. Sociology? Note that this characteristic is not linear. At full load you may get only 1/3 of Essay on Fear and Courage in To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper, half-load life. Prices of UCP: Over 40 local UPS brands. There are more than 40 markets, locally produced and unregistered UPS brands.

Fuji, Microtech, Digi Tech, Easy Tech, Soft Tech, Star Tech, PowerOn Line, Galaxy, United, would install Power, PANA Tech, Pak Power, Mega Tech, Power Tech, Auto Tech, Fantom, Sun, Super Power Among they are, Offline, Unitex, Uni Power, Power Plus, Auto care, Peace, Toyo, Pro Line, Royal, Toshiba, Nokia, Auto Volt, Auto Power and Laser. Mechanical Solidarity? Stack of new brands and trademarks are only irony available on the market. Best-selling brands of UPS are Micro Tech, Auto Care, Power Plus and Laser. UPSs are manufactured in over a dozen areas in the city, including Hall road, Hafeez center, Regal Chowk, Shahalaami, Abid Market and local markets. It takes 5-10 hours to recharge batteries.

195 Amp wet batteries to fully recharge the standard time is 10 hours. The duration of the charge amplifier 145 and 140 Amp wet batteries, six hours 120 Amp wet battery charge lasts for four hours. The 80W of power consumed by the fan to be the same as that for 24 hours, and at least part of the increase in mechanical the electricity bill of 250 PRs. More batteries charged, more is the Giving in Life, electricity bills. There are many batteries available in market to attach with ups.

They are AGS, Exide, Osaka, Phoenix, Atlas, and Volta. * UPS with built-in dry batteries range from Rs 7,000 to Rs 117,000. * UPS 500 VA that can run 1 PC costs Rs 7,000. * UPS 1,000 VA that can run 3 PCs costs Rs 12,500. * UPS 1,500 VA UPS that can run 4 PCs costs Rs 25,800. * UPS 2,200 VA that can run 5 to 6 PCs costs Rs 35,900. * UPS 3,300 VA that can run 8 to 9 PCs costs Rs 45,500. * UPS 4,000 VA that can run 12 to 13 PCs costs Rs 80,400. * UPS 5,000 VA that can run 15 to 16 PCs costs Rs 96,000. * UPS 6,000 VA that can run 18 to 20 PCs costs Rs 117,000. The back-up duration for these UPSs is between 10 and mechanical solidarity definition 15 minutes. * UPSs without built-in batteries and built-in voltage stabilizers and which need wet batteries range from Rs 7,500 to Rs 17,200. The wet batteries price range from Rs 5,500 and Rs 9,500. * UPS with 50 0VA with 120 Ampere battery price Rs 7,500 + Rs 8,500 = Rs 16,000. * UPS with 1,500 VA with 195 Amp battery price Rs 17,200 + 13,200 = Rs 30,400. * UPSs with built-in voltage stabilizers which need wet batteries price from Rs 14,000 to Rs 115,400. * 500 Watts UPS will manage 2 Fans and 4 energy savers. RS 8,000 * 700 Watts UPS will manage 3 Fans and 6 energy savers. RS 9,500 Anything greater than 700 Watts will use 2 or more Batteries depending on necessities. * 1000 Watts UPS will manage 5 Fans and 8 energy savers. RS 14000 * 1500 Watts UPS will manage 7 Fans and 10 energy savers. RS 18000 * 2000 Watts UPS will manage 10 Fans and 16 energy savers. RS 24000 Advantages and Disadvantages of My All Essay, Ups: * The electricity supply drives uninterrupted, it do not require much power.

Its backup will depend on mechanical sociology, the battery, as many amperes a battery that much backup will provide. The disadvantages it takes many and long charging time, and in case of long power outages, so it stops working. Regae Music? Excessive load reduces the duration of the backup entry. Reflected in the 60% to mechanical sociology definition, 90%. Overview of Electric Generator This device can supply electricity to your home during power outages are casually referred to as a home generator.

Switching to an electric generator is Giving in Life Essay, a machine that converts mechanical energy to sociology, electrical energy. On Le De Beaumon? Mechanical energy can be used from different sources. Mechanical steam engine, the power turbine, internal combustion engine or turbine to drive the generator can generate power. Other sources of power, perhaps the wheel or hand crank. Definition? Electric generator to regae music, convert mechanical energy into electrical energy to work. In general, currently used generators use gasoline, diesel, water, natural gas, wind, and a wide range of other fuels. Compliance with the basic law of physics, it is not really creative to generate energy, simply transfer mechanical energy from one type of electric.

The first generator began building in 1830, physicist and chemist Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic generator as the principle behind it. This is the principle of Faradays law. When the magnetic field perpendicular to the electric conductor, conductor end will create a potential difference. This is the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk to detect. Solidarity Sociology? This type of generator uses a copper disk. The disc rotates between horseshoe magnet site. Faraday disk produced a small amount of current and direct current (DC) voltage. However, this oscillator suffered some drawbacks. Design is not effective, because of the different magnetic regions.

Regions that are not affected by irony in the of an, the magnetic field generator produce a desperate counter current flow normal flow. The flow of power from the relay output lines of this battle will be reduced. Causes, as well as complete loss of heating copper disc. Later this disadvantage of the use of magnets arranged around the perimeter of a systematic reduction in disc. Solidarity Sociology? Thus, the effect of maintaining a stable current flow direction has not been a problem. Not until 1866, Werner Siemens to enhance the creative process is not a way to more sustainable use of magnets. Dynamo was the first turbine power generating industry. This generator uses the principle of electromagnetic activity, DC mechanical switch. Dynamo by Essay on Le Prince by Jean-Marie, the collector. Hipolito Pixi was built in 1832 in the first dynamo ever.

This generator consists of stationary machines. This machine rotating magnetic field coil. A small machines, or more permanent magnet position to a constant magnetic field generator can provide. Larger machines, the field magnet coils. Generator uses electromagnetic induction processing power. This machine urge electrical load to sociology definition, the external circuit.

It does not, however, generate electricity or number. These aspects are now in on Fear in To Lee their wire windings. Generator to pump water to the flow of water is similar to, but not to make your own water. Home owners buy a portable generator in mechanical solidarity sociology definition case of power failure. These devices are often powered by human power, and batteries to store electricity. Electromagnetic generators were discovered before, people use the irony in the story, electrostatic generator. Solidarity Definition? This type of generator is very high voltage and race board low-current production. In other words, effective, less power to generate electricity produces large-scale corporations have ever used. Mechanical Sociology? Generator, today, when broken down into basic components, all the engine alternator, fuel system, and cooling / exhaust system.

You can find different types of generators. It sounds like the car, is not it? The main drivers of an electric generator, alternator and electric motor to drive the car, charge the battery into mechanical energy is converted to work as a power-lights, radio, air-conditioning, seat warmers, and almost everything else. Alternator is the Giving My All Essay, main component of any generator. Solidarity Sociology? A generator, simply, the engine is mechanical energy.

Do not take anything from the engine, still doing its job very well. Regae Music? The main generator is a component of the magnetic field setting, using different methods will work. Magnetic field, a voltage difference, and definition this, in turn, produce alternating current, or AC produced. Generator is used in a wide range of irony in the story, situations. Factory used to provide extra juice for your plants, and many homes and businesses use them to make a backup in emergency situations.

Hydroelectric dams and mills are a type of generator, nature, water and wind into electric energy without using fossil fuels for turning forces. Different types of generators have been around for hundreds of years. Mechanical Solidarity Sociology Definition? Electro-static and exhaust-gas generators were invented at in the hour, the beginning of 1600-1700, and the foundations of the sociology definition, electrical experiments. Generator will be, without a doubt, part of the industry for Essay A Mockingbird, by Harper many years to come will be a great. Someone to figure out how to take advantage of the lightning. Basically generators are of two types, a standby generator provides backup power in the home and official place, and is installed outside the home or office building. And the second is portable generator is used in places where electricity is solidarity definition, not available. These generators are sufficient to run domestic devices like refrigerators, televisions and irony story of an hour furnace.

Types of solidarity sociology, Generators: Residential Standby Generators: These types generators are typically run by gas or diesel and is used to supply power to homes to power critical items such as fans, lights and refrigerators in case of a load shedding in their area. * Commercial Standby Generators: These types generators are identical to residential generators, but are used on race relations, a much bigger scale. Residential generators run at 6,000 watts whereas commercial generators run at solidarity sociology definition, 30,000 watts. Commercial generators are used to power standby systems in Essay on Fear commercial institutions. * Portable Generators: These generators are usually the smallest types of generators (up to 30,000 watts) and are perfect for outdoor uses such as to solidarity sociology, power an Giving My All in Life, entertaining vehicle. * Solar Generators: These generators are also known as solar panels and are most commonly found on houses roofs. Light on solar panels turn into energy to operate high watt equipment i. e. heaters, air conditioners When you need to decide what to mechanical solidarity sociology definition, produce, how much square footage the power you need to take into account how much power you need, and how you want to transport the generator on Giving in Life, location. Prices of Generators: Mostly generators are used to overcome the mechanical sociology, power disaster in Pakistan. Different generators for sale are available in market of Pakistan in My All in Life Essay a large amounts and it is much easy to get. * Gas Generators in mechanical solidarity definition Pakistan: Gas generators are generally used at home as they are cheap in price as compared to others and easy to operate. The prices of gas generators in Pakistan are: * 3 KVA Gas generator in Karachi for Rs. 28, 900 * 5 KVA Honda Gas Generator, Karachi, Rs. 115, 000 * 2 KVA Gas Generator with Cylinder, Karachi, at Rs.

22, 000 * 2 KVA Gas Generator in Lahore for Rs. 2,000 * 37. 5 KVA Gas generator in Rawalpindi for Rs. 430,000 * Petrol Generator in Pakistan: Petrol generators are used in shops and in industrial areas. They usually operate longer than Gas generators. The prices for Petrol generators in golden gate bridging Pakistan are: * 3 KVA Petrol gas generator in Karachi, Rs. 25, 000 * 5 KVA Denyo Petrol generator in mechanical solidarity sociology Karachi, Rs. 75, 000 * Petrol Power Generator 5. 5 KVA with 45A Exide Battery in golden bridging Lahore,Rs. 30, 000 * 3. 0 KVA Inhell petrol Generator in Islamabad, Rs. 25,000 * Petrol Generator Astra 5. 5 KVA in mechanical sociology Islamabad, for Rs. 2, 500 * 3. 5 KVA Astra petrol gas generator in Islamabad, Rs.

26, 500 * Diesel Generators in Pakistan: Diesel Generators are the expensive forms of Essay Prince, generators and are not ideal due to increase in fuel prices. Solidarity? Usually they are used in factories and big commercial and industrial areas, facilitating large machinery to operate. * Wartsila, 1000 KVA, Heavy Fuel Diesel, Rs 60, 00,000/- * Mitsubishi, 650 KVA, Diesel, Rs 22,50,000/- * Cummins, 350 KVA, Diesel, Rs 15,50,000/- * Denyo, 75 KVA, Diesel, Rs 8, 50, 000/- Advantages and Disadvantages of Generator: It can run many electronic devices and Giving My All it can supply electricity for the long duration of load shedding. * The disadvantages are air and mechanical sociology noise pollution, usage of fuel and cost it too much. Reasons of Load shedding in Pakistan Modern times, electricity has become very necessary for life to survive in golden gate this world. Mechanical Solidarity? No sector becomes alive. Now, the electricity plays a very vital role in economic growth, and the progress of any country. Anything that has to do directly attached with electricity. In all market places, hospitals, offices, cinema, college, universities, factories, mills and industry depends on. an agriculture without irrigation, industrial Wheel stand still. Prince De Beaumon By Jean-Marie? The house was dark. Detrimental to sociology definition, energy shortages that affect industrial and agricultural production.

Insignificant limit. Energy is now Pakistan, the debate. House wives, traders, businessmen, students, ministers all the victims from lack of energy. Lahore city experienced 12 hours extreme load shedding in this peak hot weather. Let discus the main causes of load shedding First of all, water level of lakes and dams Mangala, Tarbela Warsak, Rasule, Malakund, etc. Essay Prince De Beaumon? , as much too small, many are suffering as a result of energy generation. Then the construction of large dams, which, for mechanical sociology example, the design of Kala Bagh Dam has fallen victim to political conflicts, if narrow, demand and supply of electricity, will reduce Gap, but, at the same time, as we respond to the needs of our industry. Thermal power is produced by Oil, gas, coal and electricity produced by this is the major part of the electricity. It is very expensive, energy, and the public is not exposed to on Fear and Courage in To by Harper Lee, the worst. Therefore, the government has to finance any deficit. 18 RS is solidarity sociology, a unit production costs, but it supplied at irony in the of an hour, per unit Rs 12. So govt due to insufficiency of mechanical sociology definition, capital fails to build up a new plant.

These are very expensive to build and govt is incapable to construct it on high scale. Developed countries are part of the basic shapes used in the production of nuclear resources, but Pakistan is not using these resources, our need. Moreover, pressure and race relations board power of the world to satisfy us, among other things, the use of the Don. Second, it requires a lot of attention. Perhaps, the mechanical solidarity definition, following measures will be taken in Pakistan. Setting up of new factories and mechanization of agriculture demand of power is increasing, but the supply of electricity is falling short of demand at an increasing rate every year. Every year thousands of villages are electrified and new colonies in Essay de Beaumon by Jean-Marie urban areas are supplied with electricity. This also a causes an increase in the demand for electricity. Standard of mechanical sociology definition, living has become high. People use luxuries goods like AC, fridge water cooler, and fans.

These goods works with the help of by Jean-Marie, electricity which become the cause of increase of mechanical solidarity definition, consumption. Regae Music? every work is done by light. millions of electronic goods come in market and sale out. People are these goods blindly without any cautions. in mechanical definition one house there will be found many ac and fans. Markets, Offices, Collages, Universities remains open till late at night. t is on Fear A Mockingbird, by Harper, main cause of short fall. No benefit is taken from sun light in a day. Most of electricity is used illegally without paying any charges by poor people as well as owners of industries and factories.

Income is decreased than expenses so that it cannot be generate abandon. Cause of Energy Crisis in Pakistan * Old Aged Equipment: An important reason endorsed to this energy deficiency is the old aged producing equipment which could not generate the electricity as per the design necessity. Continuous updating and maintenance of equipment is the responsibility of the maintenance of a high level. We sincerely believe that, you should seriously consider, upgrade and maintenance of existing equipment must be in good working condition. Mechanical Definition? * Wastage of Energy: Serious thought is race board, given to the best level of energy use. It is necessary to develop a new culture of energy saving. Several times the level of illiteracy on government, blamed for mechanical the failure of savings.

This is not true. Maximum power of the elite class of knowledge and all the resources consumed by communication. But they do not have the luxury to ignore the problem. The government should seriously embark on Essay on Le Prince, energy-saving program. High Cost of Fuel: Crude oil price increase from $ 40 140 $ / barrel. This means that the unit price seems excessive thermal energy. Mechanical Sociology? WAPDA when buying electricity on higher price are not ready to sold at regae music, a loss. So, do not move to a common complain of mechanical solidarity sociology, load shedding. * Theft of Electricity: A simple solution is to increase the power price.

Again, the theft of electricity consumers, adding misery to the ordinary citizen to pay the bills by honestly. Energy-loss problem has been discussed for gate more than a decade, and despite all efforts, no solution has been found. * Monopoly in the Business: WAPDA is the sociology definition, generation and dispatch unit in Pakistan. Although NEPRA is a government authority to settle the tariff matters but it remains the Essay on Le de Beaumon, subject of WAPDA has come to power, it has little effect. This is recommended that private sector should be allowed to set up power plant and settle the electricity to customers. Mechanical Sociology? Once the rates are fixed on reasonable basis and golden gate bridging the service and uninterrupted power supply will be covered then customers will be benefited. * Exploring Coal: Pakistan is blessed with a bulky number of coal resources and there is sociology, no serious work required to board, explore the coal, to generate electricity. Coal has been accused of less quality. However, tailor-made ?? solutions are available for mechanical solidarity any type of coal burned. The government wants the private sector to play its role. In our opinion the government should take initiative and set up the power plants on the site of golden gate bridging, coal mines. * Renewable Energy: Government efforts to definition, produce renewable energy sources.

PPIB has issued a letter of intent, many private sector guarantors. If severe, the total deficit in the water and the wind-energy sector can be met. It is recommended that users of small loans to the electricity use of gate bridging, a family of small hydro and solar-cell installation. To provide a mechanism for the recovery of the mechanical solidarity sociology, loan, the monthly bills will be each month. * Role of Government: Government is in the story, searching for mechanical solidarity sociology the private sector to invest in the energy sector and they elected him as a mediator and arbitrator for investment. We suggest the creation of by Jean-Marie, traditional and new technologies has to be a great investment in the units of solidarity sociology, government. Once the massive public sector plans, the private sector will be soon. * Energy Planning: Despite the high cost of regae music, emergency assistance, is only thermal power plants, and solidarity sociology definition the 24-month period of time can be commissioned. Pakistan to develop comprehensive and realistic planning capacity of a catalytic element in economic growth, and poverty and prosperity in and Courage Kill Lee Pakistan to help. * Distribution System: WAPDA distribution system is mechanical solidarity sociology, inadequate briefing highlights the main reason for irony story of an hour the loss of balance, and a broken system.

It is true, the distribution system causes a lot of mechanical solidarity definition, unwanted and broken off, but, now, we truly believe that the shortage of energy is the main cause of our problem, complain WAPDA distribution network in in the story twenty years, but failed to bring any improvement. Groups Affected By Load Shedding: * Social-priority customers: Such as health care institutions, security providing forces, national communications services and energetic manufacturing plants * Non-priority Customers: Such as ordinary local homes, shops and homes may have to be exposed to power failures during a time of load-shedding that factory has sufferers from shutting down its machinery and solidarity sociology definition wasting its workers. * According to estimates, Lahore has 10,000 factories, out of which 30-40 percent factories shut down as a result of load shedding. These companies use electricity and Sui gas in large quantities. In these factories, plastic molding, rubber products, leather garments, cotton, iron goods, and many other things manufactured. * According to sources of the Ministry of Labor, there were about 800,000 workers to their work. 400,000 800,000 workers while they receive less pay. Race Relations Board? Due to the failure of the owners to end the extra power facilities, and mechanical solidarity definition increases our difficulties. * Banquet halls will no longer be capable to host all-night wedding and other parties. * Brightly-lit billboards and Neon signs are to be banned. Load Shedding gives Birth to new Cottage Industry in Country: The endless load shedding was given birth to Essay on Fear and Courage in To Kill by Harper Lee, a new small industry which is engaged in the production of products to deal with load shedding. Load shedding, however, the big negative impact on the major industrial sector but it has helped small businesses grow small producers to produce products to shield against load shedding such as emergency lights, candles, generators, UPS, and solidarity sociology definition like many of the other has become beautiful. Ignored, and although the company does not die, artificial sources of energy is the power of the current age of Essay de Beaumon, darkness.

This crisis began long before and sociology definition gave birth to electrical machinery price-hike. De Beaumon By Jean-Marie? Since then the price has come down and the manufacturers do not earn abnormal profits in energy. Mechanical Sociology Definition? Industry has arrived, and it was the creation of jobs (something like a family business), and the workshop or factory and labor has been extended too many homes enjoy. According to Essay on Fear and Courage in To, an estimate, there are 10,000 factories in Lahore, among which approximately 30-40 percent factories have been closed because of load shedding. These factories were utilizing electricity and mechanical sociology Sui gas in a huge amount. In these factories, plastic molding, rubber articles, leather garments, cotton, iron-made goods, and many other things were being produced. According to the labor department sources, approximately 800,000 laborers have been dispelled from their jobs.

While, 400,000 to 800,000 laborers were receiving less wage. Many manufacturers make Ultra Power Supply (UPS) 1000w 500 and Rs 6,000-12,000 from selling at different prices. Gate? At least two tube lights, two fans, a television, a computer and can be run, as they say, but the sociology definition, price they harge, not 48 or more, the cost of the battery, ie, among the available in the market at Rs 2400, 4500 to Rs. In addition, the age of the and Courage in To Kill A Mockingbird,, batteries is about one year, and the battery is damaged, repair or replacement costs must be supported by solidarity definition, its users. Generator current price increases recorded in 2007, Rs 2000 and Rs 5000 different brands, depending on size and quality. Generators have been used in China more generally on the other side, such as imports, a very high value. Gate Bridging? The ability to mechanical definition, market it under their own power generators with different types, some diesel and some petrol and gas operations. It is advisable to irony in the of an hour, have caught members of the replica market; we have to mention its high price, even though they were not a major concern for quality.

Most of the shopkeepers sell artificial lighting devices, they say, because they are forced ordinary people to solidarity sociology, bring these products to market. Giving In Life Essay? However, the risk of these products, it is not a quality, it is a serious risk of explosion. In summer, coolers and fans demand will increase, especially in schools, universities, homes, offices, etc. , and in the case of continuous load shedding, artificial demand for energy resources is likely to rise. Negative impact of load shedding: Impact of mechanical solidarity definition, Load Shedding on Students: Load shedding effects everyone but students are suffering from race relations, load shedding and their study activities is badly punished because of unscheduled and long load shedding. Because in the exams day do not enough for students to study, but should be prepared for sociology their exams in the morning and at irony in the of an, night, but they cannot, therefore, Load shedding is disturbing very badly Students Study. Its affecting students especially whose exams are in progress because of unscheduled Load shedding. Proper planning against load shedding has not been done in examination halls and students are meeting with this hide and seek of electricity.

Load shedding causing worst impact on students. Solidarity Definition? Schedule of their study is interrupted. Of An? Due to frustration of load shedding they cannot study properly. These days, summer is on its peak, but without electricity is mechanical solidarity sociology, irritating. When students do not have adequate sleep, they cannot learn well, and this will affect their learning. This is because students are able to study at relations, night. Students who suffer most as a hard training especially during the study.

The worst situation is mechanical solidarity, those at the thousands of the government schools and private academies, which lack the Essay de Beaumon by Jean-Marie, power generators facilities as it is mechanical solidarity definition, only organized by some very posh private schools. Impact of Load shedding on Health: Remember the good old days; many people would enjoy a good nights sleep. Interestingly, people from other countries, the future, and a better life, we find it easier to go back to the soft smile is better remembered today. In fact, pessimism and cynicism in a way that is irony of an, both natural responses. We often hear the saying Ill sleep in solidarity sociology definition his diary. All I hear is on Fear A Mockingbird,, how to keep that night, or how many times it has happened to turn on and turn off the electricity. People now look forward to the beginning of the night against their body and a new energy to rest and work the next day. Nights are not welcome. Good sleep is essential for the production day. Irritability, aggression, amnesia, insomnia and drowsiness rough night from the poor, who spend as much. To work together with the indifference and anxiety.

Their capacity to mechanical solidarity, work and earn a lot of suffering. Load shedding is considered too heavy for the underprivileged. Detailed and in-depth psychological analysis is required, how serious psychological disorders are very painful load shedding, to race relations board, determine the mechanical solidarity sociology, result of long hours. Mentally unhealthy workforce contributes nothing to the development of the irony of an hour, country. Impact of Load shedding on Industrial Units: Approximately 1,579 industrial units in the country as a result of an extensive, power failure, and other problems in the last five years, closed, sources told Daily Times.

Among these plants, in Punjab, 115, 700 Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 688, 29 Balochistan and solidarity Processing Zone Authority (EPZA) was combined with 47 different industrial stopped. Sources said these Industries have closed or are not optimal capacity shortage of energy (electricity and gas, frequent interruptions), capital and technology, and poor performance due to the high cost of production. Other causes of conflict and the owners of the regae music, property-specific financial limitations. Wide range of measures taken by the Government of the countrys industrial sector, a number of recoveries. In KP and Fata, State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) has approved the removal of all small and mechanical definition medium enterprises (SMEs) revive government loans to bridging, help improve the energy supply, and electricity and gas to increase production to meet growing energy demand. Nuclear energy production is being improved by development of indigenization of the nuclear power technology. Solidarity? The government is on Fear in To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, boosting caged power generation through substitute and renewable foundations of energy like wind power, coal, projects, bio gas projects, solar energy small hydro and coal gasification in short-range. To raise credit conveniences, the solidarity sociology definition, SBP has providing many schemes for easing access to investment to SMEs by story, supplying guarantee and building their size to manage their funds. To ease change of hands and have easy winding up processes as a massive amount of dynamic capacity lies inactive the Securities and Exchange Commission of solidarity definition, Pakistan (SECP) was asked to make changes to insolvency laws. The SECP and Funding Division are working on the Corporate Restoration Act to make the processes instant and golden also cover the chance of providing technical support to recover sick industry.

Overview to modern technology: The Ministry of Industry has set up Common Facility Centers through Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority (SMEDA) and mechanical sociology trial projects for My All drill including tools, mould and dye centers and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) centers and computer-aided designing. Business development centers to grow and polish innovative skills. To challenge inadequacies: The National Productivity Organization is piloting energy audits of steel and textile sector and mechanical solidarity definition helping in major reserves through minor modifications. Pakistan Council for gate Renewable Energy Technologies also conveys out energy audits for mechanical solidarity sociology a very nominal fee. Impact of Load Shedding on Economy: Electricity shortage in the country is creating destruction for industries in Pakistan. Long hours of load shedding throughout the country limiting the industries to work efficiently and smoothly and to manufacture the goods for race relations fulfilling local needs as well as foreign orders creates problems such as industry dropping its orders and customers and at last it results in closing of industry. Pakistan is in the hold of mechanical solidarity sociology, a serious energy crisis that is disturbing all sectors of the economy and the various sectors of the Essay on Le Prince, society. As the circumstances stands to-day, there are barely any instant solutions to resolve the issue. Load shedding may affect the economy of the country.

Has a global impact on peoples lives. Industrialization is slow down by load shedding. Commercial operation will affect the majority of the mechanical sociology definition, student research because curfew in effect. Shortage of story hour, furnace oil and crude oil prices continued to rise. The use of oil to generate electricity in the oven is the only constant. Load shedding is increasing mainly because of the supply and demand gap during peak hours of using. The circumstances can be managed to a level by the cooperation of the customers to crush the load curve. The consumption which can be moved from the peak hours to sociology definition, other time slots can comfort the situation.

And initiating increase in inflation because tariff is also increasing of commodity per Essay on Fear and Courage Kill by Harper, unit 30% to 60% Objectives: The objective of the research is to collect socio-economic data from the targeted population. Mechanical Solidarity Definition? The main objectives of irony in the story of an, this research are to: * Study the overview of load shedding, UPS and mechanical solidarity sociology generator. Relations Board? * Examine the reasons of load shedding in Pakistan. * Study the impact of load shedding on different fields of life. Study the theory of demand, supply, price, indifference curve. * Examine the demand, supply and tariffs of electricity in Pakistan. * Whether there is any load shedding in your area? And the frequency of the load shedding * Disturbance faced by solidarity sociology definition, Public due to load shedding. * Examine the steps taken by people against load shedding. Giving? * Examine substitutes for load shedding affecting consumer. Solidarity Sociology Definition? * Did they satisfy on governments role regarding the load shedding problem? * Examine the steps must be taken to overcome energy crisis. * Study the impact of load shedding on living standards. Chapter 2 Theory Supply: Different quantities of a product which manufacturers offer for sale in the market at dissimilar level of prices. OR A essential economic concept that defines the total quantity of a specific good or service that is race relations board, available to buyers. Supply can narrate to the quantity available at a specific value or the quantity available across a variety of prices if showed on a graph. This tells closely to the demand for a good or service at a specific value; all other being equal, the supply provided by mechanical solidarity sociology, manufacturers will increase if the price increases because all companies look to make the most of profits. Determinants affecting supply.

Some of the common factors that affecting supply are: * Goods Own Price: If there is any change in the price of a good it affects the Prince de Beaumon, supply of that product. * Input Cost: If the price of inputs like land, labor, raw materials and mechanical solidarity sociology definition power increases the in the story of an, seller will not supply the goods at existing price. * Government Policies: As the solidarity definition, change in government policies and regulations such as wage rate, taxes, gas and electricity rates, it affects the supply of a commodity. * Expectations: If the supplier expects that there will be an increase in the demand of a good, the relations, firm increases the mechanical, production so it affects the supply. * Number of on Fear Kill A Mockingbird, Lee, Suppliers: If more suppliers enter the industry the market, it will decrease the prices and affect supply. * Conditions of Production: If there is any change in conditions of production like weather, law and order situation or any technological change it affects the supply of a commodity. Law of supply: If other things do not change, then the amount supplied of a product declines with every decline in its price and solidarity sociology definition rises with every rise in of an its price. Assumptions: The assumptions of law of supply are * There must be no change in cost of raw materials. * There must be no change in rate of taxes. * The transportation cost must remain constant. The wage rate must remain constant. * There must be no change in method of productions. * There weather being constant. * The law and order situation should not be change. Demand: The mathematical function showing the solidarity definition, amount demanded in terms of its various factors, including income and value; thus its show the algebraic representation of the Essay on Le Prince de Beaumon, demand curve. Solidarity Sociology? OR Different quantities of product which a buyer is willing to My All Essay, buying at several level of price.

Qd = f (P) In ordinary language, the sociology, want of relations, a product is measured as demand but in economics only that want of a product is measured as demand which is supported by buying power. Thus we can say that, Demand = Desire of a Commodity + Purchasing Power of Consumer Determinants affecting Demand Some of the common factors those affecting demands are: * Change in Price: If the change of price of mechanical solidarity sociology definition, a commodity changes it changes the demand of a commodity. * Change in Income: The change of income of the buyer also affects the demand of a product. * Change in race relations board Fashion: The demand changes as there is a change in fashion occurs. Mechanical Definition? * Change in Taste: The demand changes as the taste of a consumer changes with time to time. Relations Board? * Change in Population: The demand of a commodity change with the changes in the size of population. Sociology? * Change in Weather: The demand of a commodity affects with the change in weather. Law of Demand: It shows the adverse relationship between amount demanded and price. On Fear And Courage By Harper? If other things do not change then the quantity demanded of a commodity decreases with every increase in sociology definition its price and it increases with every decrease in its price. Demand curve: These are the in the of an hour, following reasons of negative slope of solidarity definition, demand curve * Price effect: It occurs when the regae music, new consumers enter in market. * Income effect: It occurs when people start buying more units. Solidarity? Substitution effect: It occurs when people decrease buying of alternatives and buying this commodity more. Assumptions: The assumptions of law of demand are * There is Giving My All in Life Essay, no change in mechanical solidarity sociology definition the taste of the consumer. * The income being constant. Giving Essay? * There is no change in the customs. * There must not be any alternates to the commodities. * There must no change in values of the mechanical solidarity sociology, other products. Race? * There must not be likely change in the prices of the goods being used. Mechanical Solidarity Definition? * The behavior of the buyer must be constant. Limitations: The limitations of law of demand are * It is not apply on the usage of on Le de Beaumon, live saving drugs. Mechanical Solidarity Definition? It is in the, not apply on solidarity definition, the use of high-status products. * It is not apply on very high priced goods. * It is not apply in case of critical shortage of product or in unbalanced situation of law and order.

Price: The quantity of money that has to be paid to obtain a given commodity. Insofar as the race, amount people are prepared to pay for a product represents its value, price is also a measure of value. The current value at which an good or service can be bought or sold. Economic theory opposes that the market price touches at a point where the forces of supply and demand encounter. Shocks to any the supply side and/or demand side can cause the market price for a good or service to be re-evaluated. Example: In the comprehensive sense, an items market price lies at the point of crossing between the existing supply of the good or service and market demand for it. Any change in the supply or demand affects an definition, products market price.

If demand remains constant, a decrease in supply results in an increase in its market price and vice versa. Similarly, if supply remains constant, a increase in the demand for irony in the of an an product results in a increase in mechanical sociology definition its market price and vice versa. Price Theory: An economic theory that opposes that the price for any particular good or service is the relationship between the forces of Giving My All, supply and demand. Mechanical Sociology Definition? The theory of price says that the point at which the profit gained from those who demand the entity meets the sellers marginal costs is the most ideal market price for Kill Lee the good or service. Elasticity: A measure of a variables feeling to a conversion in another variable. In economics, elasticity discusses the mechanical solidarity, degree to in the story, which individuals (customers or producers) change their demand/volume supplied in reply to price or income fluctuations. OR Elasticity is a measure of mechanical, sensitivity. The responsiveness of performance measured by variable Z to a conversion in environment variable Y is the conversion in Z observed in relations reaction to a change in mechanical solidarity Y. Specially, this estimate is common: Elasticity of Demand: The rate at which amount demanded of Essay on Fear Kill Lee, a product changes due to mechanical sociology, change in its value, is called Elasticity of Demand.

Types of Elasticity of Demand * Price Elasticity of Essay de Beaumon, Demand (Edp): The degree of sensitivity of amount demanded of a product due to mechanical solidarity sociology definition, change in its worth is called Price Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two ways to measure Price Elasticity of Demand Percentage Method: Edp = % change in quantity demanded % change in Essay in To A Mockingbird, by Harper price * Formula Method: Edp = ? q/? p * p/q * Income Elasticity of Demand (Edy): The unit of change in demand of a commodity due to change in income of a buyer is called Income Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two ways to measure Income Elasticity of mechanical solidarity, Demand. * Percentage Method: Edy = % change in irony in the hour Demand % change in income * Formula Method: Edy = ? q/? y * y/q * Cross Elasticity of Demand: The unit of change in demand of a commodity (a) due to change in the value of a commodity (b) is called Cross Elasticity of mechanical solidarity sociology definition, Demand. Measurement: There are two methods to measure Cross Elasticity of Demand. * Percentage method: Edc = % change in demand of regae music, (a) % change in price (b) * Formula method: Edc = ? qa/? pb * pb/qa Elasticity of Supply: The rate of responsiveness of amount supplied of a commodity due to a change in its value is called Elasticity of Supply. Measurement: The methods of measurement of elasticity of supply are * Measurement of solidarity definition, elasticity of supply between two distinct points: Following is the method of hour, measurement of elasticity of supply between two distinct points. * Formula method: Es = q2 q1 ? 2 q1 ? p2 + p1 ? p2 p1 * Measurement of elasticity of solidarity sociology definition, supply between two closer points: The two methods of measurement of elasticity of supply between two closer points are * Formula method: Es = ? q/? p * p/q * Percentage method: Es = % change in quantity supplied % change in irony in the story of an hour price * Measurement of mechanical solidarity, elasticity of supply by geometrical method: The two methods of measurement of elasticity of supply by golden gate bridging, geometrical method * Straight Line: If supply curve is a straight line then elasticity of supply at solidarity sociology definition, a single point is measured with the help of this method. * Curve:

If supply line is curve similar than elasticity of supply at a single point is measured by taking tangent on that single point. Indifference Curve According to Hics-Allen indifference curve refers all those combinations of commodities that give equal fulfillment to the buyer so he will be indifferent between them and it will not problem to him which one he acquires. OR A curve used in economics to show all possible relative quantities of Essay on Fear Kill by Harper Lee, commodities or services equally wanted by or of equal use to a customer OR A diagram showing equal levels of convenience (satisfaction) for mechanical solidarity sociology definition a buyer faced with various combinations of commodities. OR A curve used in economics which shows how buyers would react to different combinations of goods. Hour? On the sociology definition, graph, a quantity of one commodity appears on the x axis and a quantity of race board, another commodity appears on the y axis. Definition? Buyers would be equally fulfilled at any point along a given arc, as each point brings the same level of utility to that buyer. The slope of the arc is stated to as the marginal rate of Essay on Fear in To A Mockingbird,, substitution.

History of Indifference Curve: Indifference curve theory was developed in mechanical sociology first part of 20th century by by Irish-born British economist Francis Ysidro Edgeworth. Indifference theory can be got from ordinal theory, assumes that people can enjoy the priority of any consumption bundle. Properties of Indifference Curve: The main characteristics or properties of Indifference curve are: * Indifference Curves are Negatively Sloped: The indifference curves must slope down from race relations, left to right. This means that an indifference curve is negatively sloped. It slopes downward because as the definition, buyer increases the consumption of X Product, he has to give up certain units of Y product in order to relations, keep the same level of fulfillment. Higher Indifference Curve Represents Higher Level: A higher indifference curve that lies above and to the right of another indifference curve shows a higher level of fulfillment and combination on a lower indifference curve yields a lower fulfillment. * Indifference Curve are Convex to the Origin: It is an important characteristic of indifference curves. They are convex to the origin. This is comparable to saying that as the user substitutes product X for product Y, the marginal rate of substitution reduces of X for Y along an indifference curve. * Indifference Curve Cannot Intersect Each Other:

According to the definition of indifference curve and the assumptions, the mechanical sociology definition, indifference curves cannot intersect each other. It is because at the point of tangency, the higher curve will give as much as of the golden bridging, two products as is given by the lower indifference curve. This is irrational and impossible. * Indifference Curves do not Touch the mechanical solidarity definition, Horizontal or Vertical Axis: One of simple assumptions of indifference curves is that the gate bridging, buyer purchases combinations of different products. He is not supposed to mechanical solidarity sociology, buying only one product. In that case indifference curve will touch one axis. This disturbs the race board, plain assumption of indifference curves. Solidarity Definition? Substitution Effect: An effect produced by a increase in value that encourages a buyer (whose income has remained constant) to buy more of a comparatively lower-priced commodity and less of a higher-priced commodity. Substitution effect is relations board, always negative for the supplier: buyers always shift from spending on higher-priced commodities to lower-priced ones as they try to sustain their living standard in face of solidarity, increasing prices. Substitution effect is not limited only to customer goods, but shows in other areas as well such as demand for labor and capital.

In economics, the on Fear by Harper Lee, influence of a change in the value of a commodity, which inspires buyers to mechanical solidarity definition, substitute one commodity for another. If a commoditys price decreases, buyers will tend to buy it in liking to other commodities; if its price increases, buyers will buy other commodities instead. Story Of An? The idea that as values increase (or incomes decline) buyers will replace more costly items with less costly substitutes. On the other hand, as the wealth of persons rises, the opposite tends to be true, as lower-priced or low-grade commodities are avoided for more costly, higher-quality goods and mechanical solidarity services this is known as the income effect. The substitution effect is the effect perceived with fluctuations in relative value of Essay by Harper Lee, commodities. This effect fundamentally upsets the movement along the curve. Supply Chain of Power Sector | | Power Sector Supply Chain| | | | Generation| Transmission| Distribution| Consumption| | Furnace Oil| Independent Power| | FESCO| | Thermal| | | | | | | Gas| Plants, Generations| | GEPCO| Domestic| | Coal| Companies, and| | HESCO| | | | KESC| | | | | | | National| IESCO| Industrial| | | | | | | Hydel| Water| Dams| Transmission and| LESCO| | | Solar| Independent Power| Distribution Company| MEPCO| Commercial| Renewable| Wind| | | PESCO| | | Plants| | | | | Hyde IPPs| | | QESCO| | | | | | | Others| | | | | TESCO| | | | | KESC| KESC| | Table 1 Generation Capacity (MWH)| 2012| | Installed| % of solidarity sociology definition, total| Thermal| GENCOs| 4,885| 20. 7%| | KESC| 2,050| 8. My All In Life Essay? 7%| | IPPs| 8,587| 36.

3%| | RPPs| 453| 1. Mechanical? 9%| | Others (CPPs/SPPs)| 324| 1. 4%| Hydel| WAPDA| 6,444| 27. 3%| | IPPs| 111| 0. 5%| Nuclear| Two Nuclear Plants| 787| 3. 3%| Import| Mainly from Iran| -| 0. 0%| | Total| 23,641| 100%| Table 2 Electricity Generation Capacity of Pakistan Electricity Consumption in Essay Prince de Beaumon by Jean-Marie Pakistan Figure 1 Figure 2 Current and Expected Energy Mix of electricity in mechanical solidarity Pakistan: Figure 3 Figure 4 : According to data released by the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (Nepra) in its 2012 State of the Industry report, private sector firms have already begun work on dozens of projects that would substantially increase the countrys electricity generation capacity. Regae Music? After five years of mechanical sociology, unbearably long daily power outages, Pakistans private sector has had enough: over the next five years, they plan on investing over $14. 3 billion in race relations board increasing the nations power production capacity by nearly 46%, and they are doing so by investing in the cheapest possible sources of electricity. 2,400MW will be Pakistans power generation capacity by 2018, if the next government will to do absolutely nothing to prevent or slow down the progress currently being made on projects that are already approved and progressing. : (The Express Tribune, 2013) Expected Demand and Supply Gap, Power Generation Projects Power Generation Projects in Pipeline| | Number| Capacity| Expected Cost| Per MW| Public Sector| | | US $| US $| Hydel| 12| 2,358| 96,282| 40. Sociology Definition? 8| Private Sector| | | | | Oil Based| 8| 997| 1,151| 1. Golden? 2| Pipeline Quality Gas| 1| 140| 140| 1. Solidarity Sociology Definition? 0| Dedicated Gas fields| 3| 621| 780| 1. | Hydel| 16| 5,271| 10,096| 1. 9| Coal| 7| 1,725| 2,356| 1. 4| Naphta| 2| 404| 404| 1. 0| Total| 37| 9,158| 111,209| 12. 1| Table 3 Deficit in golden gate bridging Demand and Supply (MWH)| Fiscal Year 13| Fiscal Year 14| Fiscal Year 15| Planned Generation Capability| 21,746| 24,212| 25,081| Projected Demand Growth Rate| 8%| 7%| 7%| Projected Demand Growth Rate| 25,284| 27,092| 29,032| Total| (3,538)| (2,880)| (3,951)| Table 4 | | | Short term| | Medium term| | | | Long term| | | Years| 2009| 2010| 2011| 2012| 2013| 2014| 2015| 2016| 2017| 2018| 2019| 2020| A| Existing| | | | | | | | | | | | | Generation| | | | | | | | | | | | | | Hydel| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| | Gen. Solidarity Sociology? Cos| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| | IPPs| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| | Rental| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| | SPPs| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| | Total A| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| B| Committed| | | | | | | | | | | | | Under| | | | | | | | | | | | | | process| 2466| 5501| 7806| 7806| 7556| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| | generation| | | | | | | | | | | | | C| Total A+B| 18386| 21421| 23726| 23726| 23476| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| D| 0. 8? C| 14709| 17137| 18981| 18981| 18781| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| E| Demand| 22500| 24474| 26520| 28683| 30944| 33394| 36217| 40648| 43864| 46689| 50152| 54319| | summer| | | | | | | | | | | | | | peak| | | | | | | | | | | | | F| deficit of| | | | | | | | | | | | | generation| 7791| 7237| 7539| 10702| 12273| 14853| 17676| 22107| 25323| 28148| 31611| 35738| Forecast Supply and demand position from 2009-2020 in MW Table 5 Tariffs: Table 6 2011| Units Purchased| Units Sold| District Losses| Amount Lost| Billed| Realized| Recovery Ratio| PESCO| 13396| 8,712| -35%| (37,133)| 69,065| 541,146| 78.

4%| IESCO| 8502| 7674| -10%| (7,231)| 67,015| 62,580| 93. 4%| GEPCO| 7314| 6439| -12%| (7,625)| 56,111| 55,459| 98. 8%| LESCO| 16995| 14741| -13%| (21,178)| 138,501| 135,872| 98. 1%| FESCO| 9685| 8596| -11%| (9,411)| 74,289| 74,111| 99. On Fear In To A Mockingbird,? 8%| MEPCO| 12471| 10189| -18%| (18,956)| 84,637| 82,922| 98. %| HESCO| 8784| 5814| 34%| (27,229)| 53,302| 31,501| 59. 1%| QESCO| 5084| 4048| -20%| (7,998)| 31,250| 12,810| 41. Mechanical Definition? 0%| KESC| 15433| 10072| -35%| (56,961)| 107,016| 91,559| 85. 6%| | 97,664| 76,285| -22%| (188,211)| 681,186| 600,960| 88. 2%| | 2006-07| 2007-08| 2008-09| 2009-10| 2010-11| Tariff Determined by NEPRA (Rs/Kwh)| 4. 73| 5. 77| 8. 63| 8. 63| 8. Regae Music? 95| Tariff Notified by GOP (Rs/Kwh)| 4. 43| 4. 74| 5. 52| 5. 57| 7. 33| Subsidy (Rs/Kwh)| 0. 30| 1. 02| 3. Mechanical Sociology? 11| 3. 06| 1. 62| Table 7 Literature Review Does Liberalization cause more electricity blackouts? Evidence from a global study of newspaper reports (William Yu amp; Michael G. Pollitt, January 2009) Electricity blackouts are a source of political and regulatory concern.

They bring both economic and social losses to business and society. Beyond the My All in Life Essay, direct causes due to mechanical solidarity sociology definition, technical and human errors, the recent occurrence of the significant blackouts in Western countries, such as those in North America (August 14th, 2003) or Italy (Sept 28th, 2003), are thought to be the result of regae music, liberalization in the electricity sector. It is commonly believed that the frequency and scale of blackouts will intensify in line with the increased competition, scale of sociology, operation and Essay on Fear Kill Lee cross-regional trade of mechanical sociology definition, electricity. Small and short blackouts also affect some developing countries with a lesser degree of deregulation. The causes of power outages vary among different countries due to race board, the inherent differences in infrastructure, environment and technological sophistication. According to analysis of 15 years (1984 1998) of NERC data on North American blackouts, large blackouts are much more likely to happen than previously expected, given a probability distribution function of blackout sizes with a power tail (Carreras, Newman et al. 2002). Mechanical Solidarity Sociology? The frequency distribution of the golden gate, blackout sizes does not decrease exponentially with the sociology definition, size of the blackout. The power tail suggests that a complex system is operating close to a critical point, which increases the risk of blackouts.

It should be noted that the size of a given blackout is irrelevant to the particular event, which causes that blackout (Carreras, Lynch et al. 2004). Quality of service experiences change in the wake of electricity liberalization. Electricity liberalization continues to be one of the Kill by Harper Lee, longest running and mechanical challenging international micro-economic experiments. However, the Essay, effect of mechanical sociology, liberalization on on Fear and Courage Kill by Harper Lee, the quality performance remains controversial. Thomas and Hall (2003) reveal that a greater risk of blackouts is faced in the current context of liberalization and privatization. They argue that the reduction in maintenance, in order to maintain the profitability of generators, will increase the risk of blackouts. However, further academic research shows that all recent blackouts in Western countries are transmission-related, and that there is no problem with generation adequacy (Bialek 2003). Mechanical? Bialek (2004) contends that there seems to be little formal evidence of a connection between electricity reform and blackouts based on the US-Canada and Italian blackouts of regae music, summer 2003. Although some operating rules have been violated in solidarity definition these cases, the main underlying reason for the blackouts is the inadequacy of rules to accommodate the changes, which is a direct consequence of significant increases in cross-border trades and race tighter reserve margins. In Europe, in the wake of liberalization, it has become evident that the market is characterized both by solidarity sociology definition, underinvestment in Essay and Courage Kill cross-border transmission capacity and by mechanical sociology, a reluctance to carry out regae music costly upgrades of power technologies, which would otherwise improve the quality of service (EurActiv 2008).

The aim of this paper is to examine the relations between the degrees of liberalization and reported blackouts on a regional comparative basis. We evaluate whether or not there is an increase in the frequency of small and medium blackout incidents in developed and mechanical sociology developing countries all with different degrees of liberalization over a specific time period (1998 2007). We investigate the causes of unplanned blackouts in 69 countries / locations among European, Latin American and Asian regions reported in the media during these years. These incidents could be individual and in the of an isolated events derived from one consistent news database Factiva. Headlines regarding blackouts are something politicians inevitably wish to avoid. In contrast, newspapers are highly intent on reporting or even over-reporting them. A survey regarding the mechanical solidarity sociology definition, public perception of electricity blackouts was conducted 18 months after the London blackout in race relations September 2003. The results revealed that the events were no longer foremost in peoples minds. However, the respondents mostly held the utilities, and to a lesser extent, politicians responsible (Brayley, Redfern et al. 005).

Factiva is a database, which contains blackout news articles. Although the Factiva database is not exhaustive, the solidarity sociology definition, blackout news record of the last 10 years might provide a lens that offers insight into whether or not there is an actual increase in Essay blackout incidents with the advent of liberalization, or if this perceived increase in blackouts is simply the result of sociology definition, proportionally increased media focus on blackouts. We also look at large blackouts separately because of high socio-economic costs and the availability of investigation reports. Using the content analysis technique, this paper identifies the common threads emerging from a number of and Courage Lee, large failures which recently happened in the U. S. , Europe, Latin America and sociology Asia. This paper is the Essay Kill A Mockingbird, Lee, first study of its kind, at mechanical solidarity sociology, least in the context of electricity deregulation, where the reporting of story, blackout incidents in regions of mechanical definition, Europe, Latin America and Asia over time is used to evaluate the causes of power outages. Section 2 provides an overview of deregulation in developed and Essay developing regions. Section 3 reviews the small and large blackouts in Latin America, Europe and Asia.

Section 4 describes the solidarity sociology definition, data used in the study. Section 5 is the methodology. Section 6 summarizes the results. On Le Prince? Section 7 is the conclusion. (William Yu amp; Michael G. Pollitt, January 2009) Conclusion: Electricity reform in definition many countries still transition. Irony In The Story Of An? Some countries continue to move forward, despite the obstacles they face. Mechanical? Other countries have postponed their plans due to Essay, various internal and mechanical solidarity external factors. Necessarily, policy adjustment, operational paradigms and institutional reforms are needed, and not to hour, mention good quality regulation. This includes clearly defined objectives, responsibilities and incentives for supply security, regulatory and administrative processes to minimize risk and ensure policy consistency. In order to justify and match the different interests of market players at a reasonable regulatory framework is solidarity sociology, one approach.

To promote the reliability of network monitoring the effectiveness of the organizations financial goals without compromising the Giving My All Essay, standard, is another way to avoid power failures. Pakistans Power Crisis: How Did We Get Here? (Kamal A. Munir amp; Salman Khalid, September 2012) In Pakistan, 2012 is mechanical solidarity, proving to be the Year of My All in Life, Energy Summits. Typically, it all starts with a large mob emerging onto the streets of Lahore, Faisalabad, or another major city of the country, demanding an end to the rampant load-shedding that has been plunging entire cities into darkness for mechanical over 12 hours a day and rural areas for 1820 hours a day, with the electricity shortfall reaching 7,000 MW in May 2011 (Malik, 2012). This is followed by loud promises by the government to immediately resolve the issue. Promptly, an energy summit is convened in which the same issues are rehashed. It produces no tangible results apart from (occasionally) a curious drop in load-shedding for a week or two due to board, the release of some payments to the independent power producers (IPPs). Almost invariably, however, the mechanical solidarity sociology definition, problem is treated as one of gate bridging, governanceissues of corruption in distribution companies (DISCOs), their failure to collect bill payments, the governments inability to pass on the full costs of energy production, or its failure to meet its obligations to investors who are left with no choice but to stop producing electricity, hog the headlines. Circular debt is seen simply as a tangible manifestation of this governance problem. Mechanical Sociology? Little attention is focused on the rather large elephant in the room: The policy choices that have led to this situation. (Kamal A. Munir amp; Salman Khalid, September 2012) Conclusion: To the right incentives is essential for optimal energy mix. It is perfect situation is to move to water and local coal resources, and continue the development of renewable wind and solar energy sources.

In the short term, and and Courage in To Kill A Mockingbird, Lee imported coal or gas can be seen from the solution. Though, only mechanical definition partial responses to the changing energy mix. The procedure under which private or public suppliers of energy is similarly important. Of Pakistan are poor, prices and inflation and taxes in each of the in the hour, new bailout circular debt, as the government prints money with an unbearable burden fortunately become a problem. The problem, however, does not mean that it is impossible. Mechanical Sociology? All this requires putting the public interest first, something unusual ways failed to last. Crisis of Electrical Energy in Pakistan and in the of an hour Future guideline for Policy makers (Sifat Shah amp; M.

K. L. Bhatti) Throughout the world electricity is the mechanical solidarity sociology, most widely used and desirable form of energy. It is a basic requirement for on Fear and Courage in To Kill by Harper Lee economic development and for an adequate standard of living. As a countrys population grows and its economy expands its demand for electrical energy multiplies. If this demand is not met adequately a shortage in solidarity sociology definition supply occurs. This shortage can assume crisis proportions. Pakistan has been facing an unprecedented energy crisis since the last several years. The problem becomes severe during the summers. Large numbers of users have to be disconnected from the energy supply system to prevent overloading the generating stations (load shedding). On occasions the urban dwellers had to suffer load shedding of 8-10 hours every day. During the same time rural consumers suffered it for up to 20 hours at a stretch.

Almost two years ago the Chairman Water and Power Authority (WAPDA) admitted that his organization could not meet the on Le de Beaumon by Jean-Marie, current demand for electricity. It is surprising such a senior person took so long to discover this problem. The government talked about mechanical definition, Pakistans supposedly booming economy but failed to understand the need for meeting the energy needs of the boom. General Musharraf (R) (ex-President) after becoming Chief Executive used to talk about building dams especially Kalabagh Dam. Very few power plants have since been set up.

The present energy crisis is totally due to lack of forecasting and planning. Any power system has 3 major parts: 1. Generation system 2. Transmission system 3. Distribution system Generally speaking the major technical causes of the shortfall in the availability of electrical energy in Pakistan are: Insufficient installed generating capacity. * Transmission system unable to irony in the hour, transmit the mechanical solidarity, greater load now imposed upon it. * Grid Stations and related equipment unable to carry the load imposed. * Distribution System was built to carry a smaller power and hence unable to relations board, cater to existing demands [Gelling at el 1988]. Mechanical Solidarity Sociology? The major management-related causes of the crisis are: * Management Information System (MIS) not fully utilized. * Failure to forecast and plan for the future. Golden Gate Bridging? * Failure to set up new generating stations in time. * No new Transmission/Distribution networks amp; grid stations setup. Unexpectedly rapid growth of load. (Sifat Shah amp; M. K. L. Bhatti) Conclusion: The politicians and establishment of Pakistan discuss about building dams and setting up nuclear power plants but they do not know the benefits of substitute energy sources such as solar energy, Wave energy, windmill Tidal energy and Geothermal energy etc. They are economical and fast method to generate electricity. Pakistan is mechanical solidarity, a very blessed country; solar energy is available in most parts of the country throughout the year. Likewise wind energy is freely vacant in winter in the interior Baluchistan and coastal areas. These energy sources if tapped can be of great help in reducing the current demand supply gap. The possibility of using coal and hydro-electric run of river plants must also be considered seriously for the long term. Regae Music? An Empirical Analysis of Electricity Demand in Pakistan (Shabib Haider Syed amp; Noel Alter) Electricity is mechanical solidarity, considered the backbone for an economys prosperity and progress thus it plays a crucial role in socio-economic development. With the passage of time as rapid development and technological innovation has taken place the utilization of Essay Prince de Beaumon by Jean-Marie, energy resources has also mounted.

Therefore, demand for energy has increased instantaneously with time while resources have been squeezed. Thus, require keen and helpful research to deal with the mechanical solidarity sociology, ascending energy demand. This specific literature investigates electricity demand, an important source of energy both worldwide and in Pakistan. In Pakistan, electricity is among the most used energy resources. Giving My All In Life Essay? Electricity is used for various purposes at residential, industrial, commercial, and agricultural sectors. Mechanical? Moreover, electricity in these sectors has become a necessity. In view of Khan and Qayyum (2008) in Pakistan 60 to 70 percent of the population has access to electricity consumption. They are connected to race, the nations electricity grid; it indicates that as more and more electrification will occur demand will increase, requiring proper planning in the field of electricity demand management. It is also a fact that price distortion in different sectors and more use of electrical appliances boosts the consumption level of electricity.

Currently Pakistan is mechanical sociology definition, going through the worst energy and electricity crisis of its history. Electricity shortfall has increased about 5000 Mw, load shedding has increased from regae music, 8 to 14 hours daily, industrial growth has declined, and ultimately the whole economy has suffered. Among other causal sources of the electricity crisis, escalating electricity demand is an important constituent. Thus in this research study, electricity demand estimates and determinants are scrutinized for better policy management. The impact of real income, electricity prices, stock of electric appliances, and sociology definition number of customers is golden, studied on electricity consumption. Current electricity crises are also discussed in this study; its causes, influences and mechanical sociology impacts. The empirical analysis of electricity demand is carried out from 1970 to 2010. The main purpose of this research study is to estimate electricity demand function of Pakistan at aggregate and disaggregate levels. The impact of electricity demand determinants is estimated for short and long run.

Current energy crisis is also discussed in this study. The discussion provides helpful policy outcomes for healthier electricity demand management to the government. (Shabib Haider Syed amp; Noel Alter) Conclusion: The results of this study show that the in Life Essay, response of electricity demand in each sector is different, so is the mechanical solidarity sociology, demand management policy, as well as demand management and regae music pricing policy for each sector of the industry to formulate an effective response to the base. In addition, the peak of the solidarity, price policy of Pakistan, where the peak power consumption of the high prices charged for the time they need to be practiced in order to maintain power praise. In recent years, steps have been undertaken to obtain quick delivery of electrical appliances a low-cost and, thus, energy consumption has increased considerably. Order to maintain a strong impact on the energy consumption of household appliances, such policies should be studied. Giving? Policy measures, in addition, the government also needs to be improved, and energy generation and infrastructure to the new system. The private sector in the electricity sector to break the existing natural monopolies and increase competition should be encouraged. New cleaner and solidarity definition cheaper electricity alternatives must be considered. Finally, the powers of the My All Essay, conservation objectives of the strategy are effective and should be applied in all sectors of production.

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Methodology: Process used to collect information and data for business decision-making. The methodology contains published research, surveys interviews and other research techniques, and mechanical sociology can be both current and historical information. Research Type: This research was exploratory research because it was done by Essay Prince by Jean-Marie, either secondary data i. Mechanical Sociology? e. reviewing literature and articles or primary data such as filling up questionnaire, conducting interviews with people about the topic. Data Collection: The data collected for conducting this research was quantitative. Regae Music? Because the objective of this research was to mechanical solidarity sociology definition, find out the impact of load shedding on living standards of Lahore. So this research demands quantitative data.

Primary Data: The primary data for board this research discover the main causes and views of public on load shedding in mechanical solidarity definition Lahore were conducting a survey. For this purpose a questionnaire was made having questions asked about the problem and then filled up by people of different ages, gender and occupation resident of different areas from Lahore. Secondary Data: We collected our secondary data from National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA), News agencies articles and from internet. But, most of the data were collected from primary sources. Population of Research: The nature of the research demanded that the bridging, target population must have the knowledge and interest because the objective of this research is to investigate the impact of load shedding and use of UPS and generators on mechanical definition, living standards of story, Lahore. Mechanical Solidarity Sociology? So the target population of this research is the residents of urban areas of Lahore. Sample of Study: The questionnaires were filled up by 100 participants including every age and Essay every profession living in Lahore.

Sampling technique was used to select participants randomly because practically it was impossible to collect information from all areas of Lahore. But while using sampling technique it was kept in mind that participants must have knowledge about the topic. Survey Instrument: Primary data was collected by solidarity sociology definition, using questionnaire. The questionnaire designed for conducting survey was consisting of regae music, around 23 questions to definition, collect primary data from public. Questionnaire was based on 5 sections: * Information of Demography * Measuring effect of Essay on Le Prince by Jean-Marie, Load shedding * Steps taken against mechanical sociology definition, Load shedding * Responsibility determination for load shedding * Steps taken to Giving My All in Life, overcome Electricity crisis Data Processing: For this research, interviews conducted in planned way and interviewee allowed defining his point of view. For every interview conducted notes are made to record it. After interviews recorded in notes form, questionnaire made that circulated among the participants and the data collected through questionnaire was used to analyze the problem. The analysis and conclusion mainly focuses on impact of load shedding and use of UPS and generators on living standard of Lahore. Data Processing Technique: Microsoft Excel 2010 was used to input data and makes charts are graphs of the questions asked form participants. Microsoft Word 2010 was used to interpret and explain graphs.

Limitations: There are many factors in this research that put up limitations on mechanical sociology definition, result of this research. Some of them are: * The major limitation of this research is that sample size was too small and was not able to in the of an, cover all the solidarity sociology definition, areas of the city. Some of the participants of the survey had not proper knowledge about the topic. Hour? * The majority of participants in this research were students who had no real income level. * Another limitation which put limitation on this research was money that limits researcher to go deeply in the issue. Mechanical Sociology Definition? * The time for Essay on Le Prince by Jean-Marie the research was also a limitation as the finding of mechanical sociology, impact on whole city demands some more time. * The limitation of resources like journals, authentic reports and Essay de Beaumon by Jean-Marie other similar sources also has impact on the research work. Errors: There are some errors due to which data cannot be measured as exact and accurate. * There can be some errors while making questionnaires. * It cannot be sure that the information provided by participants in the survey was true. * Data processing technique may show any error while analyzing. Data Analysis and mechanical Interpretation Question No. 1. Gender of participant Gender| Frequency| Male| 64| Female| 36| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about total no. of Gender whose participant in questionnaire of this research. The total questionnaires filled by the participant are 100 by both male and female. In this research questionnaire male participant are more as compared to in the, female participant. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 1. Solidarity Sociology Definition? Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their gender.

The frequency of the participant is 100 out of on Fear and Courage A Mockingbird, Lee, which 64% are male including young and old, and solidarity other 36% are female. The reason of male dominance is that mostly questionnaires are filled outside domestic areas where male presence is more as compared to of an hour, female. Question No. 2. Age group of mechanical sociology definition, participant Table No. 2. Age| Frequency| 18-23| 41| 23-28| 23| 28-35| 21| 5 or above| 15| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about different age group whose participant in questionnaire of this research. There are four age categories in in the hour this questionnaire. Most of the participant of this research falling in the category of 18 to 23 ages. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. Mechanical? 2. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their age. The frequency of questionnaire is 100 out of on Le by Jean-Marie, which 41% fall in category of 18-23, 23% fall in 23-28 age category, then 21% fill up by 28-35 age group and 15% participant are 35 or above of age. Youth is the strong and major part of the nation so they are majority in this research.

Question No. 3. Mechanical Solidarity Sociology Definition? Occupation of the participant Table No. 3. Occupation| Frequency| Business| 26| Student| 43| Household| 17| Other| 14| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about occupation whose participant in questionnaire of relations board, this research. There are four occupation categories in solidarity sociology this questionnaire. Most of the golden bridging, participants in this research are students. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

3. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about mechanical solidarity sociology definition, their occupation. The frequency of regae music, participants in this research is 100 out of majority are students 43%, business holder are 26%, 17% are house holder and 14% participants falling in others category such as jobs, providing services. Reason of students dominance in this research is that mostly questionnaire are filled in universities. Question No. 4. Resident of participant Table No. 4. Definition? Resident| Frequency| Cantt Areas| 18| Canal Areas| 37| Walled City Areas| 21| Others| 24| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about resident whose participant in questionnaire of golden bridging, this research. There are four resident categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participants in this research belong to canal areas. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. Mechanical Sociology? 4. My All In Life Essay? Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the mechanical, participant about their resident area. Essay On Le Prince De Beaumon By Jean-Marie? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly participants are from canal areas 37%, 18% are belongs to cantt areas, 21% participants are falling in mechanical solidarity definition the category of regae music, walled city areas and remaining 24% are resident of other areas of Lahore.

Reason of canal area majority participants is that canal of Lahore covers quite huge areas than other division. Question No. 5. Income Level of the participant Table No. 5. Income Level| Frequency| Below 5000| 34| 5000-15000| 23| 15000-25000| 17| 25000 or above| 26| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is solidarity sociology, about income level whose participant in questionnaire of Essay on Le Prince de Beaumon by Jean-Marie, this research. There are four income level categories in this questionnaire. Most of the solidarity sociology definition, participants in this research falling in the category of income level below. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

5. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their income level. The frequency of participants in hour this research is 100 out of which majority of the participants 34% having below 5000 monthly income, then 26% having 25000 or above, 5000-15000 category holder are 23%, and 17% are 15000-25000 monthly income participants. Reason of majority below 5000 monthly income participants is that mostly participants in this research are students so they dont have any source of income they rely on pocket money. Question No. 6. Are you suffering from load shedding in your daily life of routine? Table No. 6. Experiencing Load Shedding| Frequency| Yes| 94| No| 6| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the load shedding in which asked by mechanical sociology, the participants that whether they suffer load shedding in their daily routine or not. Giving My All Essay? Majority of the solidarity sociology, participants say Yes Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 6. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant whether they suffering from load shedding in their daily routine of life or not?

The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 94% which is and Courage in To A Mockingbird,, very large number of participants say Yes they are suffering load shedding in mechanical definition their routine life while only 6% participants say No. Reason of such a large number of participants in regae music Yes is that today load shedding become a curse in this country no one is saved from it Question No. Mechanical Solidarity? 7. And Courage In To A Mockingbird, By Harper Lee? How many hours you normally experiencing load shedding in 24 hours of a day? Table No. 7. Hours of mechanical solidarity sociology definition, Load Shedding| Frequency| Below 2 hours| 4| 2-4 hours| 16| 4-8 hours| 33| Above 8 hours| 47| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the duration of load shedding participants of this research normally experience in a day.

There are four categories in this questionnaire. Race Relations? Mostly participants are experiencing above 8 hours load shedding in a day. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 7. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant about the duration of load shedding they face in 24 hours of a day. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly participants 47% are suffering above 8 hours load shedding, 33% are suffering 4-8 hours load shedding, 2-4 hours category holders are 16% and 4% suffering below 2 hours load shedding in a day. Mechanical Sociology Definition? Reason of 47% participants suffering above 8 hours load shedding is that in these whole country especially Lahore facing worst electricity crisis. The current load shedding duration exceeds 12 hours a day. Question No.

8. Is load shedding disturbing your life? Table No. 8. Disturbance by Load Shedding| Frequency| Yes| 78| No| 22| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether their life is disturbed by load shedding or not. Majority of the participants say Yes Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 8. Regae Music? Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant whether load shedding disturbed their life or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 78% which majority of participants say Yes load shedding disturbed their life while other 22% participants say No load shedding didnt disturbed their life much. Sociology Definition? Reason of majority of participants in Yes is that load shedding disturbed every ones life in every field. People become fed up with these long power failures. Question No. 9. How many hours of load shedding do you think will not disturb your life much in a day?

Table No. 9. Bearable Load shedding| Frequency| Below 2 hours| 78| 2-4 hours| 22| 4-8 hours| 13| Above 8 hours| 2| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the bearable hours of load shedding participants of this research can bear in a day. There are four categories in this questionnaire. Mostly participants think below 2 hours load shedding in a day dont disturb their life much. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 9. Explanation: It is gate, a measuring effect question asked from the participant about the bearable hours of load shedding they can tolerate in 24 hours of a day.

The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 78% which is huge majority of participants can tolerate below 2 hours load shedding, 22% can tolerate 2-4 hours load shedding, 4-8 hours category holders are 13% and only 2% say they can tolerate above 8 hours load shedding in sociology definition a day. Reason of majority in below 2 hours category is that in today electricity becomes basic need of every persons life. And wapdas electricity has no substitute. Question No. 10. In which timing Load shedding affects you more? Table No. Story Of An? 10. Impact with respect of Time| Frequency| Day| 37| Night| 41| Both| 22| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about load shedding in which asked by solidarity sociology definition, the participants that in which timing they suffer more from load shedding.

Most of the participants affecting by relations board, load shedding in night timing. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 10. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant in which timing they have more effect of load shedding? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly 41% participants have impact of load shedding in night timing, 37% affecting in solidarity sociology day timing and remaining 22% are affecting in both night and day timing. Reason of majority participants in race relations favor of night category is that good sleep is essential for the productive day. To spend all night with anxiety their capacity to work down and earn a lot of suffering for them. Question No. 11. Mechanical Solidarity? In which season Load shedding will have stronger impact on you? Table No.

11. Impact with respect of Season| Frequency| Summer| 67| Winter| 12| Both| 21| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about load shedding in which asked by the participants that in which season they suffer more from board, load shedding. Most of the participants affecting by load shedding in summer season. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. Mechanical Sociology? 11.

Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant in which season they have more effect of load shedding? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly 67% participants have impact of load shedding in summer season, 12% affecting in winter season and remaining 21% are affecting in both summer and winter season. Reason of majority summer season affection is that in summer it is very hot here in Lahore. Temperature exceeds from 50 C and with this extreme load shedding it feels like a hell to survive. Question No. 12. Which of your activities are being affected by load shedding from following list?

Table No. 12. Activities Affected| Frequency| Business/Study| 48| Household| 12| Entertainment| 14| Rest| 17| Other| 9| Interpretation: This question is about the activities of participants affecting from load shedding. Kill Lee? There are five categories in this questionnaire. Mechanical Sociology? Majority of participants have impact on business/studies activities from load shedding.

Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 12. Explanation: It is on Fear in To A Mockingbird, Lee, a measuring effect question asked from the mechanical sociology, participant about by Jean-Marie, impact of load shedding on mechanical solidarity definition, their activities to perform. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 48% of participants business/studies activities affected from load shedding, rest routine affected participants are 17%, 14% feels their entertainment activities affecting, 12% participants household activities affected and regae music 9% participants fall in mechanical solidarity definition others category. Essay De Beaumon? Reason of majority of business/study activities affecting in this research is that most of the participants in this research are either students or business holders. Question No. 13. Have you selected for any alternative (generators, UPS, emergency lights) to handle with load shedding?

Table No. 13. Alternative Adopted| Frequency| Yes| 73| No| 27| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the alternate of load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether they choose any alternative in load shedding or not. Majority of the participants say Yes. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 13. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of solidarity sociology, load shedding question asked from the participant whether they have any alternate for load shedding or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of on Le by Jean-Marie, which major part of participants 73% have alternate for load shedding and other 27% dont have alternate for load shedding. Reason of majority participants having alternate for load shedding is that its been 6 years the country facing electricity crisis and mechanical solidarity sociology its growing day by day instead of decreasing. So, people go for alternate of load shedding to fulfill their needs during load shedding. Question No.

14. What is your alternative for load shedding? Table No. 14. Load Shedding Alternative| Frequency| UPS| 57| Generator| 24| Emergency Lights/Hand Fans| 19| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the alternate of load shedding in Essay on Fear and Courage Kill which asked by the participants. They are three categories to choose from. Most of the participants using UPS as alternative for load shedding. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

14. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of mechanical solidarity sociology definition, load shedding question asked from the participant which alternate they adopted for load shedding. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which majority 57% are using UPS, generators users are 24% and some participants 19% use emergency lights/hand fans as load shedding alternate. Reason of majority users of golden gate, UPS is that UPS is convenient, cheap and give continues back up during load shedding. Definition? Question No.

15. Is your alternative for load shedding being able to fulfill your electricity needs in load shedding? Table No. 15. Needs Fulfill| Frequency| Yes| 63| No| 37| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the fulfillment of needs during load shedding in which asked by Essay on Fear and Courage in To by Harper Lee, the participants that whether their needs are fulfilled or not.

Majority of the participants say Yes. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. Solidarity Sociology? 15. Giving My All? Explanation: It is an action taken in response of load shedding question asked from the participant whether their needs are fulfilled by your alternate or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which majority 63% participants needs in load shedding are fulfilled by their alternates. 37% participants say their needs are not fulfilled by mechanical solidarity sociology definition, their alternates.

Reason of majority participants in favor of Yes is that with this extreme load.